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S A T I R E S 



PERSIUS AND JUVENAL: 



ENGLISH NOTES, (J- 

PARTLY COMPILED, AND PARTLY ORIttlNAL. ^^ 



THIRD EDITION fVlTH ADDITIOKS. 



BY 



CHARLES WILLIAM STOCKER, D.D. 

FOEMBRLY FELLOW OF ST. J0HN'S COLLEGE, AND LATE PROFESSOR OF 
MORAL PHILOSOPHY IN THE UNITERSITY OF OXFORD. 



LONDON : 

LONGMAN, BROWN, AND CO ; WHITTAKER AND CO ; HAMILTON AND CO ; T. CADELL ; 
SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO ; HOULSTON AND STONEMAN ; E. P. WILLIAMS , 
C. DOLMAN; AND SOUTER AND LAW. — OXFORD : J. H. PARKER. 

1845. 



BAXTEli, PRINTER, OXFOttD. 



TO 

EDWARD CARDWELL, 

D.D. 

PRINCIPAI- OF ST. ALBAN HALI,, 
AND CAMDEN PRCFESSOR OP ANCIENT HISTORV 

THE 

FOLLOWING VVORK 

is 

DEDICATED 

AS A MARK OF HIGH ESTEEM 

BY 

HIS OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL FRIEND, 
C. W. S. 



Oxford^ January 1, 1835, 



rilEFACE. 



The Editions from which the notcs have becu principally* 
selected are those following : 

1. The Variorum Edition of 1684. 

2. The Delphin Edition. 

3. Madan's Translation. 

4. Kcenig's Persius, Gotting. 1803. 

5. RuPERTi^s Juvenal, second edition, Lips. 1819. 

G. Gifford's Translations — of Persius, Lond. 1821. — of 
Juvenal, Lond. 1806. 

7. Duebner's Persius, Lips. 1833\ 

8. Orellius's Ecloga) Poetarum Latinorum% second edi- 
lion, Turic. 1833. 

And, besides thesc printcd editions, 

9. A translationof Persius, with noies, hy Samvel Dennis, 
D.D. some time President o/ St. John's CoUcge'\ 

The text of Persius is taken from Orelli ; that of Juvenal 
mostly from Ruperti : in some places, vvhere it differs from 
the text of his second edition, it will be found to accord 
with his maturer opinion, elsewhere cxprcssed". In ihe 
punctuation the Editor has been guided by his own judge- 
ment. 



* For other authorities see the Index at the end of the Preface. 

•^ One of the best editions, containing the whole of Casauhon'8 notes. 
•^ Containing the whole of Persius, and selections from Juvenal. 
•■ This Manuscript was kindly communicated to the Editor by his friend 
Dr. Wynter, the present President of the CoUege. 

• The reprint of E,uperti's .Tuvenal (with Kcenig's Persius) Oxon. 1836, doea 
not contain that editor's last corrections. 



viii PREFACE. 

In extracting from the raass of Annotations whatever ap- 
pcaved ncccssary or useful, the Eclitor kept bcfore his eyes 
llearne's motto " suum cuique:" and when, as would often 
be the case, his own opinions or ilhistrations were antici- 
pated, he chose to relinquisli them in silence rather than 
risk the imputation of plagiarism. Hence the earher com- 
mentators will fill a more conspicuous place here than in the 
generality of modern editions : since, from Calderinus and 
Britannicus downwards, the annotators have been free in 
borrowiug from their predecessors and sparing in acknow- 
ledgements. All observations to the prejudice of his fellow- 
labourers in the same field, it has been his wish to avoid : 
for the aid of each among them, however slight, he has felt 
grateful ; and their occasional errors, from which none can 
be exempt, have (as far as rested with himself) been wilHngly 
consigned to oblivion. The initials denote the authorities 
from whom the substance of the notes is taken ; (though in 
the Variorum edition the actual annotator could not always 
be ascertained :) for such alone as are unappropriated, is the 
present Editor responsible. In verifying the references of his 
jjredecessors, or in suppl^ing them when altogetlier omitted, 
much pains have been bestowed. 

The following brief memoir of our two Satirists is taken 
principally froirr GifFord. According to other authorities, 
Juvenal wrote many of his Satires after the age of eighty', 
at which advanced time of life he was banished, and that by 
Tra-ian, whora he had complimented in the opening of the 
very Satire which foiined the alleged grievance. The short 
time which the Editor had for the completion of the work. 



' Yet '< Newton was, in tis eighty-fifth year, improving his Chronologj'-, a 
few days before his death ; and Waller appears not, in my opinion, to have lost, 
at eighty-two, any part of his poetical power." Young, too, published his *' Re- 
signation" on the other side of fourseore: yet Ihere is no " proof of decaying 
faculties. There is Young iu every stanza, such aa he oftea was in his highest 
vigour." John9on's Lives of the Poets. 



FREFACE. ix 

amidst otber profrssional cn^agements, afrorded little oppor- 
tunity of consulting his fricnds, whcrc he required advice : 
auy suggestions, tlierefore, which niay supjily the defects 
of this edition and increase its utility if reprinted, by ex- 
plaining what is difBcult and elucidating what is obscure, 
as well as by rectifying its errors, will bc received with 
gratitude ^. 



AuLUS Persius Flaccus wasbom in 32 A. D. at Volaterra, 
a town of Etruria. When six years old, he lost his father ; 
and, being of a delicate constitution, was educated entirely 
at home, till the age of twelve. For the benefit of masters, 
the family then removedto Rorae : where Persius was placed 
under tlie most celebrated instructors, Remmius Palajmon 
the grammarian, and Virginius Flavus the rhetorician, with 
whom he raade great proficiency. His mother, Fulvia 
Sisennia, had raanied again, and her house was the resort 
of many literary characters, mostly of the Stoic sect. On 
assuming the manly gown in his seventeenth year, he appears 
to have somewhat abused the first raoments of liberty^ ; but 
soon, recovering from his delusion, he had recourse to 
Annaeus Corautus, an eminent Stoic and one of the professors 
who frequented his mother's house. In him he found a 
judicious guide and faithful friend for the reraainder of 
his life ; which was preraaturely closed before the age of 
thirty. After leaving the bulk of his fortune, which was 
ample, to his mother and sister; he bequeathed his Hbrary 
(consisting of 700 books), a considerable quantity of plate, 
and a handsome legacy in raoney, to this leamed and ex- 



8 The Editor has, since, to acknowledge the favour of a letter from his 
friend and former master, the Reverend Thomas Kidd, M.A. (of Trinity 
CoUege, Cambridge;) the valuable contents of which will not be neglected. 

h Sat. v, 30—40. 

b 



X PKEFACK. 

cellent man', who generously relinqnished the latter to the 
relatives of the deceased poet. 

Decimus Junius Juvexalis was born in the reign of 
Cahgnla, about the year of our Lord 38, at AquinumJ a town 
of the Volsci ; which in the thirteenth centnry, gave a nanie 
10 another ilhistrious native, Thomas Aquin as, distinguished 
among the schoohnen by the title of " the Angehc Doctor." 
Of Juvenar.s hfe but httle can be collected ; and, of this 
little, niuch is built u])on uncertainties. From pride or 
modesty, he has left but few notices of himself. As to his 
circumstanccs indeed, he gives us to undcrstand that he had 
a compctence : the httle patrimony, which his father (or 
foster-father) left him, he never diminished, and, probably, 
never increased : it seems to have equalled all his wants. 
The earliest account extant of him (which is commonly, and 
by Sahiiasiiis amongst others, attributed to Suetonius) has 
few marks of bcing written by a contemporary, and is very 
concise and meagre. He is said to have been either the 
son, or the foster-son, of a wealthy freedman; who gave him 
a liberal education. Till the age of forty, (about 78 A.D.) 
he continued to prosecute the study of eloquence, by de- 
claiming according to the practice of those days: yet more 
for amusement, than from any intention to prepare himself 
either for the schools or for the courts of law. 

That system of favouritism, which under Claudius had 
nearly ruined the empire, Domitian, in the early part of his 
reign, showed symptoms of reviving by his unbounded par- 
liality towards a young j)antomimic dancer of the name of 
Paris. Against this minion Juveual seems to have directed 
ahnost the hrst "^ shafts of that Satire, which was destined, in 
after years, to make the most powerful vices tremble. He 

' Prologue, note on 8. 

i [Satire iii, 319.] 

^ \Ve must exoept, perhaps, Satires ii and viii ; see the Ar^uments. 



PREFACE. xi 

composed a iew line.s, on the inflnence of Paris, wilh con- 
siderable snccess, which cncouraged him to cultivate this 
kind of jioelry : lic had, howcvcr, the prndencc not to 
connnit hiniself to an auditory, in a reign which swarmed 
with inlbrmers, and only circulated his compositions pri- 
vately among his friends. By degrees he grew bolder; 
and, having made many large additions to his first sketch, 
if not recast it, produced what is now called Satire vii ', 
which he recited to a numerous assemblage, about 83 A. D. 
The consequences were such as he might have anticipated. 
Paris is said to have been informed of his own introduction 
into the piece, and to have taken such umbrage, as to lay 
a formal complaint of it before the emperor ". If, owing to 
this representation, Juvenal was banished from Rome, under 
the pretence of an appointment to a niilitavy command in 
Upper Egypt, his exile wonld be of no long duration ; as 
the favourite was, almost immediately after, disgraced and 
pnt to death. That our author was in Egypt is certain"; but 
he might have gone thither froni motives of personal safety : 
for in 94 A.D. Domitian banished the philosophei's from 
Rome, and soon after frora Italy, with raany circurastances 
of cruelty. Now, though Juvenal, strictly speaking, did not 
corae under the description of a philosopher, yet, Hke the 
hare in the fable, he raight not unreasonably entertain some 
apprehensions for his safety, and, with many other persons 
eminent for learning and virtue, niight deem it prudent to 
withdraw from the city. We may therefore refer his journey 
into Egypt to this period : but it does not appear that he 
was ever long absent from Rorae, where there is stroug 
inlernal evidence to show that all his Satires were written. 

Whether his Egyptian voyage was matter of necessity or 
prudence, we find henceforth in our author the most intense 

1 See the Argument, and note on 1. 
•" See notes on vii, 92 ; and viii, 244. 
" Satire xv, 45. 



xii PREFACE. 

hatred of tyranny ; and his indignation is chiefly directed 
against the emperor hiniself, whose hypocrisy, cruelty, and 
licentiousness, now become the object of his keenest repro- 
bation. He did not, indeed, recite any more in public ; but 
he continucd to write during the remainder of Domitian's 
reign, to whicli period we may assign several of his Satires °. 
In 96 A.D. the world was happily reheved from the despotism 
of this tyrant : Nerva, vvho succeeded him, recalled the 
exiles. From this time, therefore, there can be little doubt 
of JuvenaVs residing at Rome and pursuing his studies 
without further molestation. His first Satire after Domitian's 
death would seem to be S. iv^; and novv he began to 
revisc for publication his previous writings, prefixing to them 
S. i '', by way of introduction. To this period we may also 
refer S. x'; and S. xi, which probably closed his poetical 
carcer' : unless we suppose S. xvi, to be genuine and left in 
an unfinished state at the author's death', which took place 
at an advanced age, when he was upwards of fourscore. 

This diversity of studies in the two authors before us has 
given a widely different chai'acter to their writings. In one 
we have the impassioned declaimer, in the other the uncom- 
promising moralist. Persius, though he borrowed much of 
the language of Horace, has little of his manner. The im- 
raediate object of his imitation appears to be Lucilius. If 
he lashes vice with less severity than his great prototype, we 
must bear in mind that he liv^ed in perilous times ; that he 
vvas of a rank sufficiently distinguished to make such 
freedom dangerous, and of an age when life had yet lost 



" Viz. iii, (see note on 153 ;) v, (see note on 36 ;) vi, (compare the. Argnment 
and note on 205;) and perhaps, xiii, (see note on 17;) and xi, (see note oa 
205.) 

r See the Argument. 

'i See the Argiiment. 

■■ See notes on 25 ; and 78. 

' See the Argument. 

' See the Argument, 



PREFACE. xiii 

littlc of its iiovelty : to wiite, thcrefore, cven as he has 
writtcii, provcs hiin to be a person of no ordinary courage 
and virtue. 

His writings ave dramatic, after the manner of the Socratic 
dialogues: and an obscurity ariscs, sometimes, from the 
sudden change of characters ", but more fre^iuently, from a 
redundant use of tropes, (ajiproaching in ahnost every in- 
stance to catachresis,) from an anxiety to compress his 
matter, and from a rapid and unexpected transition from one 
ovcr-strained figure to anolhcr. 

Stoicism, which had infected poetry even in Cicero's days, 
had subsequently spread with amazing rapidity. Its general 
prevalence might be owing to the increase of profligacy, for 
which it furnished a couvenient cloak. Not that such a 
remark applies to Persius, though brought up in this school: 
for he practised most scrupulously the virtue wliich he recom- 
mends, and, at an age when few have acquired a decided 
character, left behind hira an established reputation for 
genius, learning, and worth. To forra a correct estimate of 
his merits, it is requisite to have gained some acquaintance 
with the leading tenets of the sect which he embraced with 
such ardour. The most prominent of these were — the equality 
of all vices " : ihe division of all mankind into two distinct 
classes, thc wise and the foolish, without any intermediate 
gradations ^' : the indissoluble concatenation of the virtues : 
and the indefectibihty of wisdom ; vvith its concomitant 
attributes of imperturbabihty and unmingled happiness, of 
genuine hberty ', real independence, and even absolute 
supremacy ". While, however, he was making great profi- 
ciency in the principles and paradoxes of the porch, Persius 

" See the opening of Sat. i. 
» Sat V, 119 fif. 
y Sat. V, 121 flf. 
» Sat. V, 73 ff. 

• " Paganism and Christianity coinpared :" in Lectures to the King's 
Scholars at Westminster by John Ireland, D.D. 8vo. 1814. 



xiv PREFACE. 

made but little advancenient in that knowledge which is so 
essential for a Satirist, the knowledge of the world. At the 
political and nioral dcgradation of his counlry he would seem 
to have felt no indignation; at least, he expresses none. He 
dreanis of no frcedom but that enjoyed by the followers of 
Zeno ; and the tjrants with whom lie dehghts to grapple are 
always those of the mind. 

Juvenal, hke Persius, professes to follow LuciUus''; but 
what was in one a simple attempt, is in the other a real 
imitation of his manner. Less of a courtier than Horace, 
aud more a man of the world than his iraraediate precursor, 
he laboured with a magnificence of language pecuharly his 
own, to pourtray in the strongest colours the loveliness of 
virtue and the deformity of vice. What Horace had done 
for decorum and taste, that Juvenal did for morals and 
hberty. Disdaining artifice of every kind, he boldly raised 
his voice against the usurpation of povver. With the sword 
of satire which he fabricated for himself, he rushes from the 
palace to the tavern, from the gates of Rome to the boun- 
daries of the empire, and strikes without distinction who- 
ever deviates from the course of nature or the paths of 
honour". 

A stem aud intrepid censor, an ardent and impetuous 
poet, at times he rises with his theme to the noblest heights 
of tragedy : though in the mere mechanical part of poetry, 
in the construction of his sentences and verses, he is gene- 
rally careless. Hence the fi-equent occurrence of the hiatus^, 
the constant omission of conjunctions^ and, in some places, 



b Juv. i, 19 f; Peis. i, 114 f. 

"= Dussaulx. 

<l Note on i, 151. 

<= Sat. vi, 65, note; iii, 216; v, 143; vi, 430; 551 ; 648; viii, 27; 36; 49; 
66; ix,98; x, 101 ; xii, 46 ; xiii, 133 ; xiv, 102;103; xv, 135; HEL G, 
and D, on Livj' x, 35 ; xxvii, 16; OU, on Luc. i, 155; DU, and OU, on 
Suet. ii, 5. R. Some of these Jacobs lias endeavoured to get rid of, bj- 
inserting ci after valvce, iv, 63 : honorcm, vii, 88 ; divitice, x, 24 ; and 



PKEFACi:. XV 

tlie inscrlion of unnic;ining woicls as inore props to thc 
nietre'. His nieniory and iancy, being thronged by a crowd 
of illustrations aud examples, start off from one to anothcr, 
scldom apparently vvith any other guide than the caprice of 
the monient ; and often return as rapidly to resumc the 
thread which had been di-opped : and hence we find that 
the systematic discussion of the subject in hand is ofteu in- 
verted, and often intcrrupted by abrupt transitions^ : much 
of this, howevcr, may be accounted for by considering a 
large poilion of his present matter as added to thc original 
sketches, upon subsequent revisions. If Juvenal seldom 
praises, it must be rcmembered that praise from him might 
not be unattended with danger. If his language be occa- 
sionally repugnant to all modern notions of delicacy*', we 
must bear in mind, not only the tasle of those times', but 
that Ronie was then degraded into a sink of depravity. It 
is into this worse ihan Augaean den, that our bard turns the 
torrent of his resistless eloquence. We can scarcely be 
surprised, therefore, however we may regret, that the stream 
is here and there sulhed with a taint of the foul polhitious 
which it sweeps away. 

It was not left optional with the present Editor to insert or 
reject such passages as might appear to him objectionable : 
therefore, by way of rendering them as harmless as possible, 

in vi, 207, by introducing si before est. Misc. Phil. Matthiae, Alt. 1803, t. i, 
p. 80-92. 
f Sat. vi, 54. 

s Especially in Sat. vi ; and Sat. x. 

•• [" Les coiileurs qH'i/ prete au vice sonf guelr/ite/ois irop/ortes poiir que la 
pudeur ne s'en alarme pas ;" Joamal Encyclopedique, t. i, p. 46. 1769, 
" I caii't help thinking Juvenal was wrong, 

Although no doubt his real intent was good, 
For speaking out so plainly in his song;" 

Lord Byron.] 
' Pers. iv, 35, note. 



xvi PKEFACE. 

he has, wherever he could, given such a paraphrase as niight 
convey the sense divested of the grossuess^ 



To enahle those who have the former editions to see at a 
glance ihe matter now introduced for the first time, these 
additions ai"e distinguished by [ ] in the present edition. 

Draycot Rectory, May 1, 1845. 



j [" Since the business must be undertaken, why wa* not the thought 
blanched, the expression made remote, and the ill features cast into shadows? — 
I hope modesty is much better than resemblance ;" Jeremy Collier's Short 
View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage : p. 71- third 
edition.l 



INDEX OF AUTH0RIT1ES\ 



When the initials are encloseJ ii) a parenthesis, the reference is to the note 
of that CommeDtator on the passage or passages immediately prcceding. 



A. Antbon, Charles BOI. 

Ed.orLejnp.Class.Dict.l827 
ACH. Achaintre, Nicholas Lewis,J BOU. 

1810 
AD. Adam, Alexander, LL.D. BR. 

Roman Aiitiquities,&c. 1790 
[^DD. Addison, Joseph 1700 BRE. 

Dial. on Medals; Italy.] 
\^AN. Anonymous.] 
ANON.The Author of " High Birth." BRL 

(see p. 199.) 1821 

ARC. Arccrius, John 1598 [BRK. 

AS. Ascensius,t (Josse Badius of 

Assche) 1498 BRO. 

AT. Ak?iat, Andrew* 

Proetermiss. 1540 [BRT. 

[AW. Arrowsmith, A. 

Geography] BU. 

AX. Alexandro ab Alexandro,* 

Geniales Dies, 1510 

BA. Barth, Caspar 

Observations ; Statius ; Cal- BUR. 
pumius;Claudian,tlrc.l650 
BAH. Bahrdt, Charles Frederic BWS. 

German Version 1781 

BAX. Baxter, William BY. 

Horace; Anacreon, 1701 
BC. Brunck,Richard FrancisPhilip C. 

Analecta ; Sophocles, 1785 
BDH. Badham, Charles, M.D. CAL. 

Transl. of Juvenal, 1814 
BE. Beroaldo, Phihp' 

Annotations, &c. 1514 CD. 

[BF. Bloomfield, Stephen T. D.D. 

Thucydides, 1830] CK. 

BH. Bouhier de Savigny, John 

Eemarks on Cic. T. Q. 1 737 CLA. 
BKH. Brockhuisen, John 

Propertius; Tibullus, 1707 CM. 
BL. Blomfield,Charles Ja\ncs,D.D. 

(Bishop of Loiidon) CNT. 

.^schylus, 1812 

BNS. Barnes, Joshua, D.D. CO. 

Anacreon;Euripides,&cl720 
E(E. Bottiger, Charles Augustus [CR. 

Sabina, 1803 



Boissonade, John Francis 

NicetasEugenianus,&c.l819 
Bourdin, Giles 

Gr. Schol. on Aristoph. 1546 
Brisson, Barnabas* 

P"orinularies, 1505 

Bredenkamp, Herman 1791 

Magazin tiiroftentlicheSchu- 
len und Schullehrer. 
Britannicus («. Angelus), John* 

Commentaries, 1486 

Barker, Edmund Henry 

Classical Recreatious, 1812] 
Brodeau, John* 

Miscellanies, 1550 

Barthelemy, John James 

Jcuik; Anacharsis, 1757] 
Burman, Peter 

Petronius; Ovid ; Quintilian; 

V. Flaccus ; Phsedrus ; Latin 

Anthology; Virgil, 1709 
Burges, George 

^schylus, 1831 

Brevvster, Th. 

'JVansl. of Persius, 1751 

Bentley, Richard, D.D. 

Horace; <fcc. 1727 

Crevier, John Baptist Lewis 

Livy, 1735 

Calderinus, Domitius* (Domi- 
nic de Caldariis) 

Commentary, 1475 

Cerda, Jobn Lewis de la 

Virgil, 1608 

Clarke, Samuel, D.D. 

Homer, 1720 1720 

Claverius, Stephen 

Commentary, 1607 

Camerarius, Joachim* 

[Notes oa Cicero, &c. 1564] 
Canter, William* 

Animadversions, &c. 1564 
Corte, Theophilus 

Sallust; Pliny, 1724 

Cramer, John Antony, D.D. 

Catena, 1838] 



■ These are now altered so as to correspond with tbose in Herodotus and Livy. 
• These authors occur in the Variorum List ; which also includes 



DL. 



BD. 



Boethins(duBoodt),Anselm,1636 
Bond, John, 1614 

Bude, Wiliiara, 1520 

BON. Bongars, James, 1587 

CA. Castalio, Joseph, 1608 

CiJjR. Carrio, Lewis, 1604 

CiJU.Crucius, James, 1600 

X Editors of Persius and Juvenal. 
I Editors of Persius only. 
4. Editors of Juvenal only. 



PU. 



Delrio, Martin Anthouy, 
Leopardus, Paul, 
Manilius 
Marcellinus 
Mercerus, Nicholas, 
Puteanus, Erycius, 
Realinus, Bernard, 



1580 
1668 



536 



1620 
1600 



XVlll 



INDEX OF AUTHORITIES. 



CS. 



CUN. 

[CV. 

cw. 

D. 

[DB. 

DBN. 
DDD. 

DEN. 

DID. 
DMD- 

DN. 

DO. 

DO. 

DCE. 

DP. 



Casaubon, Isaac*J 

Spartian ; Theophrastus ; 
Athcnajus, &c. 1605 

Cunteus, l'eter, LL.D. 

On the Heb. Kepub. &c. 1615 
Cluver. Philip 

Itali-i, &c. 1624] 

Cardwell, Edward, D.D. 

Lectureson Anc.Coius, 1832 
Drakenborch, Arnold 

Silius; Livy, 1720 

Dobree, Peter Paul 

Adversaria, 1831] 

Duebner, Frederict 1833 

Doddridge, Philip, D.D. 

Family Expositor, 1739 

Dennis, Sauiuel, D.D. 

Ms Transl. o/ Persiiis, 1775 
Didot, Firmin, 1810 

Drummond, Sir William 

Transl. of Persius, 1797 

Donatus, Marcellus 

Notts on Livy, 1604 

Dorleans, Lewis* 

Comment. on Tacitus, 1662 
D'Orville, James Philip 

Chariton, &c. 1750 

Dciring, Frederic "William 



G. 
GR. 

GES. 



GIE. 

GIF. 
GK. 



GT. 

GUR. 
GV. 

GY. 

H. 
HA. 



Catullus, &c. 
Dempster, Thomas, 



1790 
1620 
1697 



DX. 



DZ. 
E. 



ED. 

EG. 

ER. 
F. 



FC. 
FD. 
FE. 
FV. 



FM. 



FEE. Frere,rt.hon. Joha Hookham, 
Observations, 1817 

Gronov. John Frederic 
Gronov, James 

Livy; Seneca; Plautu8,1645 
Gesner, Jo. IVIatthias, 

Claudian; Columella; Quin- 
tiiian, &c. 1759 

Gierig, Theophilus Erdm. 

Pliny; Ovid Met. 1784 

Gififord, William Transl. 1802 
Gataker,Ttio.Antoninus,*1652 
GRA. Le Grange, Isaac,'J 1614 
GRO. Groot, Hugh de 

M. Capella, 1599 

Gruter, John 

Inscriptions, &c. 1611 

Gurlitt,Jh.Gf.Animadv.l801 
"•'Gra-vius, John George 

Cicero, &c. 1684 

Giraldi, Lilio Gregory* 

Dialogues, 1553 

Hearne, Thomas 1708] 

Hales, William, D.D. 

Chronoiogy, 1809] 

[IfyiiJ.HarraerjThos.Observ. 1816] 
HB. Heubach, Charles Chr. 

Roman Polity, 1788 

HD. Hardouin, John 

Pliny; Cicero Tusc. Q. 1685 

HE. Hermann, Godfrey, 1802 

HEE. Heeren, A rnold Herman Lewis 

Tdeen iiber die Politik, 1793 

HEI. Heinecke, Jh.Rudolph. Aug. 

Animadversions, 1804 

HF. Hopfner, Jh. Geo. Chr. 

Sophocles, 1822 

[HGH. Hughes, 

HNN. Henniuius,Hen.Christn.J 1685 
HNR. Heinrich, Charles Frederic, 

Comments, 1806 

[HOD. Hodgson, Francis 

Transl. of Juvenal, 1807] 
HOL. Holyday, Barten 

Translation, 1620 

HR. Herault, Didier 

Adversaria, &c. 1599 

HRL. Harles, Theophilus Chrph. 

C. Nepos ; Ovid. Trist. 1800 
HS. Heinsius, Nicholas 

Ovid; Propertius; Claudian; 

Silius; V.Flaccus, &c. 1668 

HUS. Huschke, Emanuel Theophilus 

Anal. Critic. 1800 

[HUT. Hutchinson, Thomas, D.D. 

Xenophon, 1735] 

HV. Havercamp, Sigbert 

Tertullian, &c. 1718 

HY. Heyne, Christian Theophilus 
Virg. Tibullus; Apollod.1767 



DRY. Dryden, John, Transl >>. 
DU, Duker, Charles Andrew 

Florus; Livy, 1731 

Dussaulx, John 

Traduction Franyaise, 1770 

The same, with notes, 1796 
Dousa, Janus,* Coaiment. 1600 
Ernesti, John Augustus 

Clavis Ciceroniana; Tacitus; 
Suetonius; Cicero, 1736 
The Editor 

Herodotus; Livy, 1838 

Egnatius, John Baptist* 

Annotations, 1514 

Erasmus, Desid. Adages,*1526 
Facciolati, James, Lex. 1756 
[FAR. Faber, Basil 

Thesaurus, 1717] 

FAY. Famabv, Thomas,*+ 1612 

FBC. Fabricius, Jo. Albert, Dio.l700 
Fabricius, Francis 

Orosius, &c. 1582 

Fabra, Anna 

Florus; Dictys, 1674 

Ferrari, Octavius,* 

On Ancient Dress,&c. 1642 
Flavius, Ptolemy* 

Conjectanea, 1600 

Froidmont,Libertus,S.T.P. 

Notes on Seneca, 1640 

^ Satires i, iii, vi, x, xvi, and all of Persius, by Dryden himself; ii, xv, by 
N. Tate ; iv. by Richard Duke ; v, by William Bowles; vii, by Charles Dryden ; 
viii, by George Stepney; ix, by Stephen Hervey; xi, by William Congreve; 
xii, by Thomas Power ; xiii, by Thomas Creeeh; xiv, by'john Dryden, junior. 

• Annexed to some of the anonymous Variorum notes in the former part of 
Juvenal. 



INDKX Ol' AlTnORITlES. 



IJZ. Haugwitz, Otto Graf von 

liirni. Vcrs.of Juvi'n:il, 1818 
IR. In-land, Jolin, D.D. (Dian of 
Westniinster) 

Lecturts; «frc. 1801 

J. Junius, Adrian,* Scholia, 1566 

JC. Jacobs, Froderic 

Emenilations ; Analecta ; Gr. 
Anthology, 1803 

JB. Jablonski, Paul Ernest 

E!ivptianPantheon,<tc. 1760 
[JX. Jaliu,'j. Christ. Horace, 1824] 
JjV. Jani,Chr.David, Horace,1778 
[JO. Johnson, Samuel 

Dictionarv, 1755J 

JT. Jortin,John'D.D.Tracts,1790 
■ K. Kidd, Thomas 
KG. KiJnig, George Lewist 

Claudiau, 1803 

KI. Kirchmann, John 

On Roman Funerals, 1605 
KCE. KoppeD, Jh. Hnr. Just. 

Homer, 1787 

KT. Kennett, Basil 

Roman Antiquities, 1704 
KU. Kuster, Ludolf, Suidas, 1705 
KZ. Klotz, Chr. Ad. Tyrtseus, 1767 
X. Lipsius, Justus,* 

On the Military Affairs of 

Rome ; Tacitus ; Seneca, 
1607 
LB. Lindenbruch, Frederic, 

Notes ; Ammian, 1590 

LL. LoBgolius, Paul Daniel 

Pliny Epistles, 1734 

LM. Lambin, Denis, 

Commentaries on Horace; 

&c. 1560 

LO. Loi-nsis, James Nicholas,* 

Epiphillida, 1590 

LR. Larcher, Peter Henry, 

Herodotus, <fec. 1802 

LUB. Lubin, Eiihard,*t 1602 

LZ. Lenz, Annal. Liter. 

Goth. 1802 

M. Muretus, Mark Anth. Francis,* 

Various Readings, &c. 1669 
MAD. Madan, Martin, 

Translation, 1 789 

MAG. Maggi, Jerome,* 

Miscellanies, 1564 

MAN. Manutius,Aldus,*(theyounger) 

Quaest. 1564 

MEN. Menage, Giles, D. Laert. 1664 
Ml. Mitscherlich, (Jhristoph. Wm. 

Horace, 1800 

MIT. Mitchell, Thomas, M.A. 

Aristophanes, 1820 

MK. Muncker, Thomas, 

Hyginus; Fulgentius, 1674 
JtfiV(?. Mancinellus, Anthony,* 

Commentaries, 1492 

MNS. Manso, John Caspar Frederic, 
Observations, 1812 

MRC. Marcilius, Theodore, 

Commentaries on ]?ers. 1601 



MS. Mcursius, John,* 

Lycophron; Exerc. ('rit. 1597 
MSH. Marshall, rhom:is,{ 1723 

MST. Meister, John Chrst. Frd. 

Comincntary on Pers. 
[MY. Martyn, John, Virgil, 
[NI. Niebuhr, B. G. 

History of Rome, 
OA. Olearius, Godfrey, 

Philostratus, 
OB. Oberlin, Jeremiah James, 

Tacitus ; Vib. Sequens, 1800 
OE. Orelli, John Caspar,t 1833 

01. Ouzel, James, M. Feiix, 1652 
OU. Oudendorp, Francis van, 

Lucan ; Suetonius, &,c 
OW. Owen, Edward, 

Transl. of Juvenal, 
PA. Passerat, John, 

Propertius, 
PAN. Panvinius, Humphrey, 

Antiquities, &c. 1580 

PC. Potter, John, D.D. (Abp of 



1801 
1750] 

1826] 

1709 



1726 
1785 
1755 



Canterbury) 
Lycophron ; 



Greek 



Antiq. 
1702 



PE. Petit, Samuel, 

Commentaries, &c. 1630 

PH. Pithou, Peter,'t 1585 

PI. Pius, John Baptist," 

Annotations, 1520 

PK. Patrick, Simon, D.D. (Bishop 

of Ely) Paraph. and 1579 

Comment. on Old Test. 1695 
PLA. Plathner, Gunther Henry, 

Lectures, 1637 

PLT. Politian, Angelo,» 

Annotations, 
PLU. Plum, FrederiCjt 
[POi. Poole, Matthew, 

Annotations, 
PR. Pierius, Joh.* 
PRA. Despres, Lewis,J 

Delphin Edition, 1684 

PJ?H. Parrhasius, Janus,* (Joannes 

Paulus Parisius) Epist. 1520 
PSW. Passow, Francis,t 
PUL. Polmann, Theod.*t 

Annotations; 
PW. Pauw, Cornelius de 
PZ. Perizonius, James, 

iElian, &c. 
Q. Quatremere de Quincy, 

Chrys. 

Le Jupiter Olympien, 
jR. Ruperti, George Alexander^^. 

Silius Italicus, 1801 

iJ^P.Rader, Matth. Martial, 1607 
i?^0. Raoul, L. V. 

Fr. Transl. of Persius, 1811 
REU.Ueuvens, Caspar Jac. Chr. 

Coilectanea Lit. Lugd. 1815 
RF. Ruhkopf, Frd. Em. Seneca, 1800 
RG. Rutgers, John, 

Variae Lectiones, 1618 

RIG. Rigault, Nicholas,'t J6J3 



1499 
1827 

1683] 
1540 



1808 



1566 



1701 
Ant. 

1815 



XX 



INDEX OF AUTHORITIES. 



SCA. 



SC. 



RK. Ruhnken, David, 

V. Paterculus; Sueton. 17G8 
RM. Rambach, Jo. Jacob, 

On Potter's Gr. Arch. 1/75 
JJilfJB.Reimar, Herman Samuel, 

Dio Cassius, 1750 

iiJO^.Robertson, Charles 5th. 1709] 
?0Z). Rhodiginus, Lewis Ccclius,' 

Lectiones Antiquae, 151C 

[/iPi/.Rappel, George, 

Annotationes 1747] 

RRS. Ramiresius de Prado, Laurence, 

Martial, 1G07 

RSC. Dillon, Wentworth, 

(Earl of Roscommon) 1660 
RU. Rubens, Albert, 

Antiquities, 1665 

S. Sigonius, Charlcs, 

On theRora. CivilLaw, 1590 
SAB. Sabinus, Francis Floridus,* 

Lectiones SubcisivEe, 1G02 
Scaliger, Joseph Justus,* 

Explanat. ; Ausonius; Cato; 

Propertius ; Virgil ; Catullus ; 

Manilius, &c. 1607 

Scioppius, Caspar, 1596 

Old Scholiast»! 
SCO. Scoppa, Lucius John," 

Collectanea, 1517 

SD. Schneider, John Theophilus, 

Script. Rei RusticEe, 1775 
Serv. Servius Maurus, Virgil, 420 
SG. Schegk, James, Pr£em.* 1590 
SGN, Schiittgen, Christian, 

Columella, 1745. 1790 

SH. Schiifer, Godfrey Heury, 

Sophocles, tfec. 1810 

SMD. Schmid, Erasmus, Pindar, 1616 
SM. Saumaise, Claude,* 

Plin. Exerc. on Solinus ; Spar- 
tian ; Vopiscus, &c. 1689 
SN. Spanheim, Ezekiel, 

On Coins ; Callimachus ; Ju- 
lian, &c. 1670 

SPA. Spalding, George Lewis, 

Quintilian, 1800 

SPY. Stapylton, Sir Robert, 

Translation of Juvenal, 1647 
SS. Schleusner, Joh. Frederic 

Lexicon, 1791 

STI. Stieber, George Frd. Steph. 

Conjectanea, 1786 

STN. Stephens, Robert, f 1544 

SUI. Stelluti, Francis, 

Italian Vers. of Persius, 1630 
SUZ. Schurzfleisch, Conr. Sam. 

Aniraadversions, 1771 



SVL. Schrevelius, Cornelius *,• 

Variorum Edition, 1648 

SW. SchweightEuser, John 

Appian ; Herodotus ; Athe- 
nieus, 1785 

Schwarz, Christian Theopbilus, 
" " 1735 



SZ. 

T. 

TB. 



1555 



1605 



1578 

1594 

1754 

1587 
1486 
1638 
1636 



Pliny Panegyric; 
Turnebe, Adrian,* 

Adversaria, 
Taubman, Frederic, 

Plautus, 
riiT.Thysius, Anthony,» 

Antiquities and Miscell. IC'53 
TO. Torrentius, Laevinus, 

Horaee; Suetonius, 
TQ,. Tiraquellus, Andrew, 

Annotatious on AN. 
TY. Taylor, John, LL.D. 

Civil Law, 
U. Ursinus, Fulvius, 

Livy ; Varro, 
V. Valla, George,*! 
VA. Valois, Adrian, Notes, 
VAL. Valois, Henry, Ammian 
VAO. \ alois, Charles, (son of Adr.) 

Notes, 1699 

VK. Valckenkr, Lewis Caspar, 

Euripides. &c. 1768 

VO. Vos, Gerard John,' 
VOS. Vos, Gerard, 
VP. Volpi, John Anthony, 

Commentary; Propertius; Ca- 
tullus, &c. 1740 

VS. Vos, Isaac, 

Virgil; Paterculus; Catul- 
lus, &c. 1630 &c. 

[VY. Valpy, Francis E. J. 

Etymological Dictionary,1828] 
WB. Weber, Ernest William, and 

William Ed.I 1825 

WC. Weichert, Jonathan Augustus, 

Val. Flacciis, 1818 

WE. Wesseling, Peter, 

DiodorusSiculus; Herodotus, 
&o. i;4G 

WF. Wemsdorff, John, Christian, 

Lesser Latin Poets, &c. 1 780 
WIE. Wieland, Cph. Mt. 

Horace ; Germ. Vers. of Aris- 
tophanes, 1794 

WK. Wakefield, GiJbert, 

Lucretius, &c. 1813 

WO. Wolf, Fr. Aug. Plato, 1812 
[Y. Yorke, Philip, (Viscount Roy- 

ston) 

Lycophron,] 1807 

ZZ. Tzetzes, Isaac, Lycophron, 1546 



"* [At Venice there is a very old ms of glosses on Juvenal written continuously 
without the words which are explained, or any mention of the name of the 
author. Nl. H. R. v. ii, n. 916.] 

** Annexed to some of the anonymous Variorum notes in the latter part of Juvenal. 
Erratum. — Before page 298, /or FAR, read FA Y. 



THE SIX SATIRES 



AULUS PERSIUS FLACCUS. 



PROLOGUE TO THE SATIRES. 



ARGUMENT, 

In this little poem, though irrelevant to the main objects of the work to 
which it serves as an introduction, there is much pleasantry and spirit. 
Persius however had little notion of what we call keeping*: and the 
village bard, 6 ; diffident of his own talents, and driven by necessity 
alone to the exercise of them, 8 ft'; is no sooner fairly embarked, than 
he launches out into a critical examination of the literary pretension.a of 
his contemporaries, S. i ; and assumes a decisive tone upon all the subtle 
disquisitions of the schools ; S. iii, and v. GIF. 

The practice of prefixing to a poem, or collection of poems, shorter pieces 
in a different metre became more common afterwards, with Claudian in 
particular. KG. In our own times we have very felicitous instances of 
it in Sir VValter Scotfs Lay of the Last Minstrel. 

• Among the liberties, which the Old Comedy allowed it.seif, one was the little 
regard it paid to consistency of character. WC. 



FROLOGUE TO THE SATIRES 



Nkc fonte labra prolui caballino 
Nec in bicipiti somniasse Parnasso 
Memini, ut repente sic pocta prodireni. 
Ileliconiclasque pallidamquc Pircncn 
5 Illi:> rcmitto, quorum imagines larabunt 



1. ' Thehackney spring:' asarcastic 
version of /r«raxo«v«, CS. T. tlioughnot 
necessarily so ; s. Juv. x, 6; Aus. Ep. 
iv, 8 ; (it is inost probable that in this 
elegant little piece of irony, a constant 
allusion is maintained to the trite follies 
ofour poet'simniediate contemporaries. 
GIF.) humor Bcllcrophontei eqiii; 
Prop. iii, 2, 2. KG. Kespectin^ this 
spring, s. Ov. F. iii, 450 tf; U. v, 256- 
268 ; Stat. Th. vi, 338 ; Arat. Ph. 205 
£f; Piin. iv, 7. It was in Mount Heli- 
con, 4; and sacred to Apollo and the 
Muses. LUB. Those who drank of it 
were fabled to become poets forthwith. 
PRA. s. Virg. JE. vii, 641 ; x, 163. 
MAD. The first trace of this notion 
appears to be in Mosch. Id. iii, 77 f- 
Propertius has refined upon the idea, 
ii, 8, 11) ff; s. Hor. Ep. i, 3, 10; Stat. 
S. i,2, 6; ii, 7, 12; v, 5, 2; i, 4, 25; 
BC, An. t. ii, p. 344 ; t. i, p. 218. KG. 

Proliiere labra is ' to dip the lips,' 
PRA. as cattle do when they drink ; s. 
Prop. iii, 2, 52 ; Stat. S. v, 3, 122 ; It 
is sometimes said of those who drink 
deep: Virg. M. i, 738; Cop. 29; Hor. 
Sat. i, 5, 16. This the poetasters of our 
author's day pretended to have done at 
the inspiring fount. Mart. viii, 70, 
3; Stat. S. ii, 7, 12. Hence the Muses 
are calied madidce potcda ab Hippo- 
crene ; Sidon. ix, 285; KG. s. Ov. 
Am. i, 15, 35 f. 

Sidonius has imitated this passage : 
7ion hic ego commentitiam Terpsichoren 
more studii veteris adscivi : necjuxta 
scaturiginem fontis Aganippici per ros- 
cidas ripas et pumices muscidos stylum 
traxi: &rc. Ep. viii, ult. (9 ff.) PRA. 

2. Parnassus\\n.di two peaks, Tithorea 
and Hyampeinn ; (or Naiqjlia and Hi/- 
^.. 1 ampea; s. Her. viii, 32, note 19;) FAR. 
s. vi, 10 f, note; PRA. Ov. M. i, 
316 ff; Luc. v, 71 ff; Sen CEd. 227. 
KG. 

Those wlio slept in a consecrated spot 
were supposed to receive aid from the 
jiresiding divinity : Virg. JiL. vii, 86 ff; 



Ov. Her. 15, 157 ff; Arist. Pl. 411 ; 
679 ff. KG. 

3. As if hecould have forgotteu such 
an event ! KG. 

"A^»ai ^/XoiTfl^of «^rjlranXjjXu^i». Epict. 
22. KG. To come forth as Phoebusfrom 
the ocean ; CS. ora chick from theshell ; 
or a pitcher from the potter's hands : cur- 
rente rota iircciis e ,r / 1 ; Hor. A. P. 22. 

4. The Muses are called ' nymphs of 
Helicon,' from a mountain of Boeoti.i on 
the confines of Phocis. LCB. CS. 

Pirene was a fountain in Acrocoriu- 
thus, the citadel of Corinib, and was 
likewise sacred to tlie Tiluses. LUB. CS. 
Diod. iv, 74 ; Paus. Cor. ii, 3 ; Strab. p. 
582 ; Pind. 01. xiii, 84 ff: Ov. Pont. i, 
3, 75; Stat. S. i, 4, 15 ; Autoy uia^ Ilii- 
gW- Eur. M. 69 ; s. Tr. 207. It was 
here tliat Pegasus was caughtby Kelle- 
rophon, and hence thathe is calied nii- 
^n\ia,7a; TuXes Eur. El.475; vatumcon- 
scius amnis., Gorgoneo perctissus equo ; 
Stat. 'ih. iv, 60 ff. KG. 

Theepithet'pale'refersmostprobably 
to the wan hue, by which the votaries 
ofthe Muses were distinguished. LUB. 
CS. V, 62 ; PRA. i, 124. MAD. 

5. ' To Hesiod, Ennius, and the an- 
cient poets.' LUB. The following imi- 
tation, wbich is taken from HalFs open- 
ingpoem,hasgreat beauty: " Trumpets, 
and reeds, and socks, and buskins fine, 
I them bequeath ; whose statues, wan- 
dring twine Of ivy, mixt with bayes, 
circlen around, Their living temples 
likewise laurel-bound." GIF. 

Undertheemperors, the bustsof emi- 
nentpoetsor literary nien, crowned with 
bay orivy, were usedto ornamentpublic 
or private libraries. Hor. S. i, 4, 21 ff ; 
Seu. de Tr. An. 9 ; Plin xxxv, 2 ; Suet. 
iii, 70; Juv. vii, 29; Plin. Ep. iv, 18; 
X, 25. KG. Sometimes their chaplets 
were of oak, or of parsley. LUB. 

The ivy twines like a serpent, and 
seems to iick with a forky tongue the 
objects round wbich it clings. LUB. 
Virg. ^n. ii, 684. KG. 



OF PERSIUS. 



Hederie seiiuaccs : ipse seinipaganus 
Ad sacra vatum carmen affero nostrum. 
Quis ex])cdivit psittaco suuni XAIPE, 
Picasque docuit nostra vcrba conari ? 
10 Magister artis ingenique largitor 
Vcntor, negatas artifex scqui voccs. 
Quod si dolosi spes rclulscrit numi, 



6. Me doctonnn liedrrae preemia 
frontiutH dis miscent siiperis; Hor. 

Od. i, I, 29 r. LUB. Properly ' the 
ivy' was sacre<l to Bacchus, in whose 
train the Muses are often found ; 
Aristoph. N. 603 ; R. 1242 ; Prop. iv, 
r, 7o flf; Orph. Arg. 7 ff. KG. Her. 
viii, 32, 19. 

Ivy clings and climbs, and may be 
eaid ' to follow' the form of that about 
which it spreads. Plin. Pan. 4 ; V. Flac. 
i, 124 ; s. Petron. 83. KG. 

' Half a clown.' MAD. Paganus and 
Miles are opposed to each other. CS. 
Juv. xiv, 154; xvi, 33; PRA. Plin. 
Ep. X, 18 ; Veg. ii, 23. KG. 

7. ' I add my uninitiated verse to 
the inspired productioris of the bards.' 
sacri vat es et diviim cura vocamur ; 
Ov. Am. iii, 9, 17. The works of 
eminent poets were deposited in the 
library consecrated to the Palatine 
Apollo: Hor. Ep. i, 3. 17. LUB. 
Suet. ii, 29 ; PRA. Dio liii, pr. Ov. 
Tr. iii, 1, 59 (f; nor. S. i, 10,38; Ep. 
ii, 2, 92; (BY.) Calp. .Sic. 15" ff. L3L 
But without reference to this fact, 
poetry mav be called sacred : Prop. iii, 
1, 1; Ov.'Pont. ii, 10, 17 ff; iii, 4, 65 
ff; iv, 8, 81 ff. KG. 

8. This is by way of anticipation to 
<^ the objection ; ' How can one write 

without divine inspiration ?' He is here 
attacking others, as it were, in his own 
person ; for Persius himself wa.s a Ro- 
man knight, and died young and rich, 
leaving his preceptor a very handsome 
fortune. LUB. 

' Who is it that has removed all 
impediments in tbe parrot's speech.''' 
LUB. ' Who has made it so ready 
with its salutation?' MAD. humanee 
solers imifafor, psitface, liiiguce ; Stat. 
S. ii, 4, 16 ff; Apul. ii ; Plin. x, 42 ff ; 
LUB. Mart. xiv, 7.S ; 76; MAD. Pe- 
tron. 28 ; Ov. Am. ii, 6, 37 fl'. KG. 

9. ' To attempt' applies to efforts 
which are at present un.«ucccssful. has 



primum audiet puer, harum verha effin- 
gere imifando conabifur; Quint. i , 1 . KG. 

10. ' Hunger does wonders; and 
mercenary motives are (|uite as in- 
spiring, as drinking the waters at Heli- 
con, or bivouacquiug for the night on 
Parnassus.' KG. " Necessity is the 
mother of invention." Paujtertas im- 
pulit audad', uf versus facerem ; Hor. 
Ep. ii, 2, 52 f. FAR. Agreeably to 
the proverbs : multa docet fames : and 

toXXZt Xifiit yiyyirai^iiaVKaXos' PRA, 

Juv. iii, 78. KG. Jonson alludes to 
this and a subsequent passage, in The 
Poetaster: " They would think it' 
strange, now, A man should take but 
coIt's-foot for one day, And, between 
whiles, spit out a better poem Than 
e'er the master of art, or giver of wit, 

Their belly, made Yet, this is pos- 

sible!" [Ap. Dial 188 ff.] BWS. 
Compare Arist. Pl. 467.. 594. [Her. 
vii, 102, 79.] 

Uuder the name of ' Genius' nr.ay be 
included the intellectual virtues in ge- 
neral. Cic. de Fin. v. CS. It applies 
to poetical talent in particular: Ov. A. 
A. iii, 57. R. 

11. ' Cunning to follow.' LUB. A 
Grecism : ' an expert artist in teaching 
them to express.' KG. 

' Denied by nature.' SVL. 

12. ' Money' is called ' deceitful,' 
from the many wiles and frauds which 
it leads men to practise : quid non mor- 
talia pectora cogis, auri sacra fames ! 
Virg. JE. iii, 56 f; LUB. or from its 
decoying men into undertakings for 
which they are disqualified. KG. 

' Shall have shone forth suddenly and 
unexpectedly.' Previously, however 
they might have w i s h e d for money, 
they could not have hoped for it. C'S. 
The metaphor is taken either from the 
gleaming of gold and silver; Virg. JE. 
vi, 204; V. Paterc. ii. 103; or from the 
appearance of a propitious star; Hor. 
Od. i, 12, 27 ff. KG. 



PROLOGUE, &c. 

Corvos poetas et poetrias picas 
Cantare credas Pegaseium nectar. 



13. ' Ravena turning poets, and mag- 
pies becoming poetesses.' LUB. 

14. ' Pegaseian,'seenoteon 1. ' Such 
as would be composed by one who had 
dnmk of Hippocrene;' PRA. or ' As 
gweet as the vaunted streams of that 
fountain.' R. 

' Nectar;' s. BA., on Calp. Sie. 
iv, 151. Poets called their own lays 
'nectar:' Pind. 01. vii, 12 ff ; Theocr. 
Id. vii, 82. s. Hom. II. a 249; Hiui 



ou.figes'EX4Ka)tiieS aeiini' Nest. Lar, Ep. 
i ; BC, An. t. ii, p. 844 ; Ov. Pont. iii, 
4, 55. Martian perhaps was imitating 
this passage, where he says, posf hos 
honoratior fontigenarmn virginvm cho- 
riis Pegasene vocis nectare dif- 
fluebat ; ix ; VO. «sxTa^ea/ Aj/SaSi; III- 
yaffiios K^ri*m' Honest. £p. 3, in BC\ 
Au. t. ii, p. 289. KG. On the mixture 
of metaphors see note on pallentes ; v, 
15; Livy xxvii, 20, 7. 



S A TI RE I. 



ARGUMENT. 

The Poet conimences, as if he intended a tritical moral essay; 1 : and, 
when discouraged by a frieud from his design of assuming the censor, 
2 ff"; he proceeds, in bold defiauce of public opiniou, to a spirited ex- 
posure of the wretched taste of the times ; 4 ff. 

He repeatedly disclaims all iutention of writing for popularity or effect, 
4 ff; 26 f; 44 ff; and expresses supreme contempt of that mania for 
public recitation, which had already excited the ridicule of Horace, and 
which, not long after this, provoked the spleen of Juvenal; 14 f. An 
amusing picture is drawn of one of those hoary versifiers, who pander 
to the passions of their auditory by grossly luscious strains; 13 ff". 
After which we are introduced to a younger set, whose sickly appetite 
cloys itself with the mawkish swcets of softly sentimental lays; 30 ff. 

The cause of this depravation of taste is ingeniously traced to the pedantic 
uature of the schools, 69.. 82; fostered by the interested and ignorant 
admiration of sycophants and dependents; 48.. 56; 63.. 68; men, who 
are the very first to ridicule their dupe behind his back ; 56. .62. 

The Satirist then makes a digression to the bar, of which the language was 
grossly vitiated by a meretricious glare of elocution, and an aftected 
display of rhetorical subtleties ; 83.. 91: retuming to the poets, he 
parodies and ridiculesthe favourites of fashion; 9 2.. 106; this excites the 
alarm of his friend, and draws fortli some cautious advice, 107.. 110; 
which, as generally happens, only serves to render the writer more 
daring, and to give a spirited conclusion to the Satire ; 111. .134. 

To the contemporaries of Persius, tliis must have been a very amusing 
performance ; but to us, who are ignorant of the true nature of his 
parodies, aud who cannot, in a single instance, appropriate them with 
certainty, it has lost much of its pleasantry. Enough, however, remains 
to give a most favourable impression of the youthful critic's humour aud 
good sense. GIF. KG. 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



O CUKAS hominuni ! o quantuni esl in lebus inane ! 
" Quis leget hajc ?" Min tu istud ais ? Nemo Ilercule. 

" Neuio ?" 
Vel duo, vel nemo. " Turpe et raiserabile." Quaie ? 
Ne mihi Polydamas et Troiades Labeonem 
Praelulerint? Xugae ! Non, si quid turbida Roma 
Elevet, accedas examenque improbum in illa 
Casliges trutina, uec te quaesiveris extra. 



1. Ecflesiastes i, 2. .14. MAD. 
"Oaot ro *ive» I Sch. 

2. This verse is from Lucilius. Sch. 
The words of some critical friend, who, 
awarethat Persiushas serious intentions 
of publishing a satire, throws cold water 
upun his design. KG. 

Among the Komans it was usual for 
raen to swear by Hercules and women 
by Castor; Gell. xf, 6; s. Juv. ii, 98. 
PEJ. 

3. ' But two or three, if any.' ' It 
will be a disgrace, and a thousand 
pities!' CS. 

' "Why 80 P I do not write ad cap- 
tandion vu/gus :' KG. ' therefore your 
pity is quite thrown away.' 

4. ' Sliall I fear' KG. ' sinking below 
Labeoin theestimationof theprinceand 
the people : as Hector feared lest Poly- 
damas and the Trojans shouldthink dis- 
paragingly of him?' IlcuXuidfias ftci 
tr^uTc; iXiyy;,i'in'» aia^WE/' . . a.iiicfji,ai "l^a 
cc( xa.] TauaSat iXKiin^JTiTrXcvs' Hom. 
11. X 100, 105. This appears to have 
become in a manner proverbial; s. 
Cic. to Att. ii, 5 ; vii, 1. PRA. Poly- 
damas was the son of Antenor. Under 
this name Nero is perhaps designated : 
L UB- as he affected to be greatly in- 
terested in all that concerned Troy. 
PRA. Bythewords ' Trojan d ames' 
the satirist lashes, at once, the vanity 
of his countrymen in tracing their 
origin to the Trojans, and their de- 
generate efleminacy. FAR. CS. Juv. 
i, 100. KG. 

Accius Laheo was a poet who wasted 
his time in franslating the Iliad and 
Odyssey into Latin, word for word. The 
following may serve as a sample of his 
version : rrvdum mandt/res Priamum 
Priatniqtfe pisinnos. Sch. s. 50. KG. 

5. Tvrhida ' too busy to attend to 
such matters:' Virg. JE.xTial; Lueian 



Nigr. KG. ' The muddy citizens,' 
MAD. an equivoque. 

6. ' Make iight of.' FAR. 

' You should not join them in so 
doing ' FAR. 

Lanor ' the scale,' libra ' the beam,' 
examen 'tlietongue,'^>-w//«a' thecavity 
in whieh it plays.' HOL. This is one of 
thosetechnicalillustrationSjinwhichthe 
Stoics so much delighted : and means 
either (1; to correct the errors of an 
apothecary 's or goldsmith 's balauce by a 
common pair of scales, such as are used 
in weighingbulkycommodities. Cicero, 
in speakingofsubjects suited to popular 
and philosophical discussion, uses a 
similar metaphor: heec nostra oratio 
VI )i Hitudin i est a ccom m odnii da , ad ohlec- 
tandos anintos., ad impellendos, ad ea 
probatida^qua; nonaurificisstatera., 
srd quadam populari trutina exa- 
m in antu r : Or. ii. GIF. or, (2) Sup- 
posing a balanee to be perfect in all other 
respects, its toiigue, if it be not at right 
angles to the beam, will not tally (wjben 
the scales are in equilibrium) with the 
cheeks of the oblong aperture through 
which it oscillates. In such a case, re- 
store the tongue to its perpendicular , and 
all will be right. But when (in addition 
to this fault in the tongue) tbe balance 
itself is inaccurate, it is cf no use what- 
evertoset the tonguestraight, thescales 
will still be false. Examen is used for 
the tongue of the apothecary's balance 
for sfatera) in v, 100 f. s. note. 

7. ' Judge for yourself :' PRA. ■yiah 
fftavrir atqve aliis de te, quam tu tibi, 
rredere noli ; Hor. L UB. Those who are 
ambitious of praise or popularity are 
but too apt to regulate their actions by 
the caprices of those whom they study 
to please, rather than by the criterion 
of right and wrong. CS. s. Juv. xi, 
27, note; ^sch. P. V. 317. (BUR.) 



SAT. I. 



OF PERSIUS. 



Nam Ronije quis uon ? Ah, si fas dicere ! scd las 
Tunc quura ad canitiera et nostrum istud vivcre triste 

10 Adsj)exi ac nucibus facimus qua-cinnquc rclictis, 

Quum sapimus patruos : tunc, tunc ignoscite. " Nolo.' 
Quid faciam .? Sed sura petulanti splene cachinno. 

Sci"ibimus inchisi, numeros ille, hic pede Hber, 
Grande aliquid, quod pulnio anima) pra-largus anhelet. 

15 Scilicet haec populo pexusque togaque recenti 



8. ' Who judges fairly and without 
prejudice ?' ob hanc rem, yuotixuiit (fnos 
genus hoc minime juvat, utpote plures 
culpari dignos ; Hor S. i, 4, 23 ff ; 
KG. But s. 121. 

9. Here Persius endeavours to mis- 
lead enquirers as to the real author of 
the Satire, by assuming the character 
of a man advanced in years. GIF. KG. 

" That the writings of Persius were po- 
pular and soon considered as standard 
works is evident from the fact of Quinti- 
lian quoting this passage as an example 
of partium mutatio : ut in satira " no- 
strum istiul vivere triste,"cum injinitivo 
verbo sit usus pro appellalione, w o- 
stram enim vita m vult inteUigi. 
GIF. vi, 38; [Cic. F. i, 1.] 

10. ' Nuts;' 8. Cat. xiv, 183 ff; 
Phsedr. iii, 14; Mart.v, 86, 1; Petr. 
81 ; KG. Juv. V, 144, note. 

11. Patruus censor ; Cic. Cal. Sch. 
ne sis pafruus mihi ; Hor. S. ii, 3, 
88; FAR. ib. ii, 97; Od. iii, 12, 3. 
BAX.patruus was a term, which eon- 
veyed an idea of harshness, probably 
from ' the patemal imcle' being the 
natural guardian of orphans ; who would 
experience less tendemess from him, 
than from a father. MAD. The uncle 
by the m o t h e r's side, having nothing 
to do with the management of the chil- 
dren, would treat them with more in- 
dulgence, or, at any rate, would not be 
called upon to exercise any severity 
towards them ; hence avunculus (the 
diminutive of avus, i. e. avus natu 
minor) would be a term of endearment. 

1 2. Phy siologists attributed'laughter' 
to ' the spleen,' Arist. Th. 3 ; anger to 
the gall, Juv. v, 169; love [or anger, 
Juv. i, 45 ;] to the liver, Theoc. xi, 6 ; 
xiii, 71 ; Claud. viii, 241 tf; wisdom to 
the heart, pride to the lungs, lust to 
the loins : 20. Seh. KG. " .'^pleen, too 
petulant to be controlld." GIF. ' It 
18 my nature.' CS. 



Cnchinno {cachinnonis) ' a great 
laugher:' Sch. i. e. ' satirical.' GIF. 

13. Scr ib i m u s indocti doctique 
poemata passim; Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 117. 
MAD. 

' Shut up' in our studies : carmitia 
secessum scribentis et otia qticerunt ; 
Ov. Tr. i, 1, 14; LTJB. Cic. de Or. 
iii, 5 ; Plin. Ep. v, 5. KG. 

14. Petronius censured, in those who 
affected to be eloquent,»'e>'w»i /««<o)-e;« 
et senientiarum vnnissiniuni sfrepitum ; 
1 ; L UB. siihlimes versits rucfatur ; 
Hor. A. P. 457 ; Arist. R. 8(30 ff ; pyj/iara 
daicft.iitl yXdriroc xaTaXiTrcXoyritnt ixXiu 
/iitut triXuf ^o>av ib. 851 tf; sunf qui 
crebro anhelitu et introrsum etiam clare 
sonante imitentur jumeiita onere efjugo 
laborantia; qtiodnffectant quoque, tam- 
quam in ven tion is copia u riicnn t ii r m njor- 
que vis eloqitcnfice ingruaf, qtiani quee 

faucihus emitti possit ; Quint. Inst. xi, 
3 ; KG. CS. s. Juv. vii, 111, note. 

15. ' To the people' equally deficient 
in taste and in common sensc. LUB. 
For an account of these rehearsals, s. 
Juv.i, 1 ; iii,9; vii,38ff; Mart. iii,44; 
iv, 6; X, 70; Hor. S. i, 3, 88 ff; iv, 
74 ff; also Ov. Tr. iii, 14, 39; P. 
i, 5, 57; iv, 2, 33; Plin. Ep. i, 13; 
ii, 14; 19; vii, 17; viii, 12 ; 21; ix, 
27 ; Cic. Att. xii, 4 ; xv, 3. PRA. 
KG. 

The declaimer seems by his dress to 
anticipateatriumph. Bothonpublicand 
on private solemnities it was customary 
to put on a gown fresh from thefuller's 
hands : s. Mart. ii, 58; CS. scilicet 
exspecta.s solitum tihi moris honorem, 
pendeaf ex humeris vestis ut alba meis ; 
Ov. Tr. iii, 13, 13 f. MAD. Ihemost 
solemnfestival a Roman knew, was that 
of his birth: on the anniversaryof that 
day they dressed themselves in all the 
rnagnificence which their circumstances 
allowed, and after the customary sacri- 
fices, sat at home, in state, to receive 



10 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Et natalitia tandem cuni sardonyche albus 
Sede lcgeus celsa, liquido quum plasmate guttuv 
Mobile colluerit, patranti fractus occllo. 
Hic neque more probo vidcas nec voce serena 
20 Ingentes trepidare Titos, quura carmina lumbum 
Intrant et tremulo scalpunlur ubi intima versu. 
Tun, vetule, auriculis alienis colligis escas ? 
Auriculis, quibus et dicas cute perditus, ohe ! 



theirfriends,none ofwhom came with- 
out a preseut in their hands. (Juv. xi, 
84; MAD. ix, 53, note.) The indig- 
nation of Persius is exeited by this 
egregious coxcoinb's putting on all the 
splendour of a high festival on the 
simple occasion of reciting a paltry 
poem. GIF. Thus Lucian describes a 
dandy rl>etorician, tricked out for the 
approljation of his auditors, as ranra^pov 
rivet. Ktt) irayKai.ov aw^a dia<ri(raXivi/,i- 
»0» <To (iahiirfji,a, \'!ttx.iKXa(Tfjt.nov Tov uv-^iva, 
yvvaix.tTov re (ikif/./ii.a //.iXi^^ov ro (f&ivnfia, 
/ivpuv a^JToirnovTa' x. t. X. ±ih. pr. t. iii, 
p. 11. KG. Compare Hotspur's de- 
scription of the foppish lordling ; K. 
H. IV, pt. i, A.i, sc. 3. 

16.Thisvaluableringwasoneofthese 
birth-day presents, and always wom on 
the return of that day. Sch. Juv. vii. 
142 f; MAD. Plaut.'Curc. v, 2, 56. 
On the abuse of this custom of wearing 
rings : s. Isid. xix, 32 ; Juv. i, 27 ff; 
vi,"381, note; Petr. 55; Mart. v, 11, 
1 ; ii, 29 ; v,9. The foUowing is among 
the directions given to an orator ; mamis 
non impleafur annuUs.,preEcipuc ntedius 
articulos non transeuntibus ; Quint. 
Inst. xi, 3. KG. [DDD, on St James 
ii, 2.] 

Albus from his dress. Sch. s. Mart.i, 
56, 14; iv, 41 ; vi, 41 ; x, 62, 6; Sen. 
Ep. 114 ; Gell. xi, 9. PRA. KG. 

17. ' After he has rinsed his throat 
with a gargle.' According to Synesius 
a footman stood by the reciter with some 
emoUients in a cup or phial, to which 
his master applied, every now and then, 
to clear his voice. nec in tragoedorum 
niodum guttur et fauces dulci medica- 
mine ciilliniendce., ut in ecclesia thea- 
trales moduli audiantur et cantica; S. 
Hier. ad Eph. v. CS. 

18. ' Effeminately, CS. and with las- 
civious eyehalf-closed ;' therefore called 
ocetlus. Sch. LUB. s. Juv. ii, 94, last 
note. 



19. Ner/ue probo ' wanton.' LUB. 
Seu. Ep. 52; Plin. Ep. ii, 14, 12. KG. 

Nec serena ' not calm, but agitated 
with passion.' MAD. 

20. Trepidare ' to be in ecstasies.' 
sa/iet, tundet pede terram ; Hor. A. 
P. 430. PRA. 

Hence it appears that the auditory 
consisted of the chief nobility. Titos ^ 
may be put for Titienses, as Rhamnes 
for Rhamnenses ; Hor. A. P. 342; Ov. 
F. iii, 132; HS. Rhenos for Rhencn- 
ses ; vi, 47. ED. They were named 
after Ti_tus Tatius, the king of the 
Sabinei" and coTleague of Eomulus. 
PRA. [Liv. i, 13, 8. gaudent jireeno- 
mine moUesauriculce^lior. S. ii, 5, 32 f.] 

Lu7nbum. h 3s iiripv; 'hf^T» vy^ws \ti»i- 
mrar Luc. As. Aur. 6. t. ii ; prinvipio 
tremuUs gannitibus aera pulsat, verba- 
que lascivos meretricum imitantiacwtus 
vibrat, et obscoenee numeros prnriginis 
implet; Aus. Ep. cviii, 4 ff; .wcvovauXt- 
Xnh Trii tv e^^riirii iiahfiv Ta ■tci^fiara 
fraeaxaXiiv Ka) tu ^iloi xa) toj voot , ftaX- 
Xo\> Ti oXov afTi^ Ti(ri fin^iviois, iXxirv to 
irufta ToTs fiiXtiri xa) ivrtittiy, rovTuv Si 
Xtyofjiivuv Kai aiofiivaiv, hffu^iav aytiv firi 
iuvufiivois' riut. Symp. xi, 15 ; s. Juv. 
vi, 314. KG. 

21. Trcmulo. s. Hor. Od. iv, 13, 6; 
Petr. 70; Mart. i, 36. KG. 

" As the luscious line Thrills through? 
the marrow." GIF. scalpuntur ' are 
tickled;' quid aurcs mcas scalpis? 
f/uid oblectas ? Sen. Ep. 75. KG. 

22. Vetulus is always used in a bad j 
sense. LUB. Plaut. Epid. ii, 2,~iY 
Arist. N. 789. KG. 

Escas. xai tffTiuffiv tv f^dXa rks axois' 
2E\. V. H. \n,\.KG. ' Dostthou,thou 
hoary pander, cater for the itching ears 
of others ?' 

23. " AIP orecchie di tai,chhiopofe 
loro, Bcnchv sfrentato, gridar — bastaP' 
SUI. imporfunus amaf laudari ? donec 
OHE ! jam ad evelum manibus sublatis 



SAT. I. 



OF PKKSirs 



11 



'• Quo ditlicisse, nisi lioc fennentuin ct (juic seincl inlus 
25 Inuata est, rupto jecore exicrit caprificus ?" 

Eu pallor seniuuique ! o mores ! Usque adeonc 

Scire tuuni nihil est, nisi te scire lioc sciat alter ? 

" At pulchruni cst digito monstrari, et dicier, Hic p:st ! 

Teu cirralorum cenlum dictata luisse 
30 Pro nihilo pendas ?" Ecce inter pocula quarunt 

Romulidie saturi, quid dia poemata narrent. 

Hic alicpiis, cui circum humeros hjacinthina laena est, 

Rancidulum quiddam balba de nare locutus, 



dixerit, urgite ; et crescentem tttmidis 
infia sermonibus utrem ; Hor. S. ii, 5, 
96 flf; PRA. oheljam satis est ; id. S. 
V, 12 f. MAD. 

* Even tliy cheek and brow, bronzed 
as they are, tingle with shame.' GIF. 
or ' Bloated, like one swoUen with the 
dropsy.' Lucilius calls 'vanity,' a'jiiam 
in animo iiiterrirtem ; xxviii, p. 407; s. 
Sid. Ap. ix, 9; CS. Arist. Eth. iv, 9; 
ai i\ ^eifffiuTi^ai xa) Ta^t.KfiecKirts atai- 
r^vtTei /iiiXXet ri aiff^i^unnXai id. ith. 
ii, 15. 

24. The apologist first tries the meta- 
phor of ' leaven,' (Juv. iii, 188 ;) but, 
finding this an awkward one, as it might 
be readily compared to the vanity which 
waa working and swelling within him,he 
abruptly leaves it for the stiil more un- 
lucky one of ' the wild fig-tree;' (Juv. 
X, 145, note ;) for after this had burst to 
light, the question oi qno (Juv. viii, 9, 
note;) didicisse ' What are the fruits P' 
would stiU recur. LUB. CS. PRA. 

25. By jumbling these incongruous 
metaphors, the Satirist may also intend 
to parody and ridicule the style of these 
conceited poetasters. L UB. 

26 • ' Worthy fruits indeed of such in- 
tense8tudies,(Juv.vii,97, note; MAD.) 
and such a^Jvanced years.' CS. s. Hor. 
Ep. i, 18, 47 ; Ep. ii, 2, 82 ff; KG. 
124 ; iii, 85 ; v, 62. 

O tempora! o mores! Cic. Cat. i, 1. 
MAD. 

27. This is taken from Lucilius : Sch. 
id me nolo scire mihi ciijus siim consciii' 
solus ; ne damnum faciam scire est ne- 
scire, nisi id me scire alius scierit. 
MRC. Spectator, No. 379. 

28. Monstror digito preetereuntiiim 
Romana fidicen lyrce ; Hor. Od.iv, 3, 



22 f. Cicero finds fault with Demos- 
thenes for being pleased at hearing a poor 
woman whisper to her ueighbour, $Zr$s 
iKtTin I T. Q. V, 36; Sch.Luc. Som. t. 
i, c. 2; s. Ov. Am. iii, 1, 17 ff. KG. 
Pliny thinks there was no great harm 
in this; Ep. ix, 23, 5. GES. Certainly 
the censure comes with an ill grace 
from Cicero. s. Juv. i, 161. [digitus is 
derived from "iuKtvu, s. VP, E. D. 124, 
1 ; STE, Th.X. G. 3181, c and d.] 

29. ' To be introduced as a class book 
into first-rate schools ; where you are 
read by the youth of quality,' " Brave 
lads with curled locks of gold." HOL. s. 
Juv. vii, 226 ; Mart. i, 35 ; cirrata 
caterva magistri ; ix, 30, 7. KG. 

30. This custom is evident from Athe- 
n£eus. Juv. vi, 434 ff". It might serve . 
well for entertainment's sake, but wasof 
little use as far as intellectual improve- 
ment was concemed : discite, non inter 
lances mensasque nitentes, cum stupet 
insanis aciesfulgoriltus, et cum acclinis 

falsis animus meliora recusat; verum 
hic impransi mecum disquirite : Hor. 
S. ii, 2, 4 ff; PRA. Plin. Ep. i, 15, 2 ; 
ix, 36, 4. KG. 

31. Quid dia (Sulpicia 48) poemata 
narrent? (Plaut. Pers. iv, 3,29;) 
may be considered as the question of 
one of these noblemen, therefore Persius 
is not ehargeable with the inaccuracy in 
the use of this verb. KG. 

Romulidce sarcastically, as Quirites, 
Juv. iii, 60; especially as Komulus was 
very abstemious; Gell. xi, 14. PRA. 

32. Tijrioque ardcl)at murice lcena 
demissa ex humeris ; Virg. ^'E. iv, 262 f; 
CS. s. Juv. vii, 136; iii,283,notes..K'6*. 

33. ' Snuffling through his nose some 
«tale ditty.' GIF. 



12 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Pliyllidas, Hypsipylas, vatum et plorabile si quid, 

35 Eliquat ac tenero supplantat verba palato. 
Assensere viri : nunc non cinis ille poetge 
Felix ? non levior cippus nunc imprimit ossa .'' 
Laudant convivao : nunc non e Manibus illis, y/ ^ 

Nunc non e tumulo fortunataque favilla ■'■:■■ (:^a.f^6^^jt^ 

40 Nascentur viola ? " Rides" ait " et nimis uncis 
Naribus indulges. An erit, qui velle recuset 
Os populi raeruisse ? et cedro digna locutus, 
Linquere nec scombros metuentia carmina nec thus ?" 
Quisquis es, o, modo quem ex adverso dicere feci, 

45 Non ego, quum scribo, si forte quid aptius exit — 



34. P/ii/li/s hung herself in a fit of 
impatience at the l(mj<-protracted ah- 
sence of her husband, Demophoon; T. 
. GIF. Ov. Her. 2. PRA. 

Hi/psipi/le, after running through 

more love adventures than any lady of 

\ romance, narrowly escaped the same or 

I aworsecatastrophe. Herfaithlesslover 

was Jason ; T. GIF. Ov. Her.6. PRA. 

35."' Filters,'I,f7B. 'melts,' CS. 'dis- 

tils.' PRA. " His dainty palate tripping 

forth his words." HOL. " His retining 

throat Fritters, and melts, and minces 

every note." BWS. "Slowly distils 

And trips up every word, with lisping 
tongue." GIF. s. "Ov. A. A. ii, 283 ff; 
iii, 293 ff; Mart, x, 65, 10 fl. KG. 

36. ' The heroes hum assent.' GIF. 
s. Mart. i, 4 ; FAR. Ov. M. ix, 259; 
xiv, 592; Virg. JE. ii, 130. KG. 

C/)iis,Sfc. s. Juv. vii, 207 f; Ov. 
Tr. iii, 3, 76 ; Am. iii, 9, 67 ; A. A. 
iii, 470 ; Prop. i, 17, 24. KG. 

37. Cippus ' the marble slab,' ' the 
grave-stone.' CS. 

38. Laudant denotes more than as- 
: seusere : and conviva implies that ' they 
' paid for their entertainment by their 
. applause.' Mart. vi, 48. KG. 

Manibus; v, 152. PRA. ' The re- 
mains.' septilcra dirvta; n/tdati Manes; 
Liv. MAD. Plin. Ep. vii, 27, 1 1 ; Prop. 
ii, 10, 31; iv, 6,3; s. Virg. ^.ii,587 ; 
iii, 39 ff; Eur. Hec. 31 ff.^XG. 

39. This lineis spurious : STI. KG. 
i or rather it made a part of the Satire 

beforeitreceivedtheauthor'slastpolish. 
PS W. PL U. There is no reason to 
question its genuineness, WB, It is a 



climax in ridicule of the poetaisters. 
CS. DBN. s. note 1 on 31. 

40. ' You are too fond of sneering.' 
pleriq/ie solent nnso s/ispendere adunco 
ignotos ; Hor. S. i, 6, 5 f ; MAD. Mart. 
i, 4, 5 f; Sidon. ix, 341 fif. KG. 

42. Volito viv/(' per ora viriim; 
Enn. CS. Her. iii, 167, note 17. "What 
men talk much of, it is natural to 
suppose that they think much of; 
hence the Greek phrases 'ixti* or iTvat 1» 
X y a, and the like. 

V itruvius (with whom Pliny agrees, 
xiii, 5 ;) tells us that books, rubbed with 
the oil or the juice of the cedar, were 
thereby preserved frommothsanddecay, 
ii, 9 ; Hor. A. P. 331 f. PRA. KG.-i 
Tlie ancients also kept their books in ' 
what we call pigeon-holes, as well as in 
chests ; Juv. iii, 206. For the more ! 
valuable part of the coUection, these .' 
articles were made of cedar, or cypress, 
on account of the antiseptic quality of 
the wood. GIF. 

43. ' And that are under no danger of 
lyingin chandlers'shops to wrap spices 
and red herrings in.' DFN. ne, una cum 
scriptore meo ,ccpsa porrect//s aperta, 
deferar in vic/(ni vendentem t/ius et 
odores et piper et (/uid(i/(id c/iartis ami- 
citur ineptis; Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 267 ff; 
MAD. Cat. xcv, 8 ; Mart. iii, 2, 3 ff ; 
iv, 87, 8. KG. 

Scombros ; Ath. vii ; Plin. ix, 15 ; 
PRA. id. xxxi, 43. KG. 

44. ' To speak seriously then :' in 
reference to 40. LUB. 

46, Exit : a metaphor from pottery ; 
Hor. A. P. 21 f; KG. pr. 3, note. 



SAT. I. 



OI PERSIUS. 



13 



Quando hiec rara avis est — si quid tamen aptius exit, 
Laudari uictuaui ; ucque euiui uiilii coruca fibra est. 
Sed recti finemque extremumque esse recuso 
EuGE tuum et belle ; nam belle hoc excute tolum, 

50 Quid non intus habet? non hic est lUas Acci 
Ebria veratro .'' non si qua elegidia crudi 
Uictarunt procercs .'' nou quidquid denique lectis 
Scribitur in citreis ? Calidum scis ponere sumen ; 
Scis comitem horridulum trita donare lacerua, 

55 Et " Verum" iuquis " amo: verum mihi dicilo de me !"- 
Qui pote ? vis dicam ? Nugaris, quum tibi, calve, 



46. Alludinffto the Pha?nix: FAR. 
Plin. X, 2; Ov. M. xv, 37; PRA. 
Luc. vi, 6S0 ; (DCE.) KG. Juv. vi, 165 ; 
MAD. Her. ii, 73; Tac. An.ii, 28; S. 
Clein. Rom. i Cor. xxv; [Vir. E. vi, 9 
f ; Hor. O. iv, 3, 24.] 

See 125. */ qnid est iii me ingenii,j'u- 
dices ; qnod sentio q/tam sit exiguum ; 
Cic. for Arch. 1. ileurtia' Arist, Eth. 
iv, 7, end. 

47. ' Nor (though I am a Stoic, CS.) 
are my heart-strings so callous.' 

48. ' I cannot allow praise to be the 
end and aim of all one's works and ac- 
tions:" LUB. S ii ahri ^iuXefnSa, <ra 
tiXXit, St S/a TaZre- Arist. Eth. i, 2, beg. 

49. s. 56, note ; CS. Petr. 40 ; KG. 
Juv. vii, 44, note. MAD. 

' Sift thorougblv.' MAD. 

50. ' And what trash and flummery 
do you not find it to consist of ?' LUB. 

Acci ; 4. Sch. 

51. ' Besotted with hellebore.' ebrius 
senno ; Sen. Ep. 19. ' Labeo's " eye in 
a fine phrensy rolling" (.Shaksp. \1. N. 
D. v, 1, 12;) is not lit by the fire of 
genius, but kindled by the stimulants 
of art. Unfortunately, too, the dose 
ha-s been strong and the versifier's 
head very weak. He has not tasted 
the inspiring streams of Hippocrene, 
or reached the heights of Helicon ; 
but, on his way to the spring, has 
chewed so freely of the hellebore, which 
grows on that mountain in profusion, 
that his brain is quite muddled.' s. 
Plin. XXV, 5 ; Gell. xvii, 15. PRA. 
KG. CS. 

'Sonnets,'X)£.N'.*namby-pambylays.' 

52. ' Have dictated to their amanu- 
ensis.' KG. 



Juv. vii, 105, note 2; LUB. GelL 
xix, 10; Plin. Ep.iv, 14; PRA. Prop. 
iii, 4, 14. (BU.) KG. 

53. • You are noted for giving excel- 
lent hot suppers.' CS. Juv. xi, 81, 
MAD. and 138 ; Petr. 36 ; s. Hor. A. 
P. 422 tf; .Mart. ii, 27; iii,50; Petr. 
10,137 ; Luc. Merc. Cond. t. i, p. 694 ; 
Juv. xiii, 32, note; KG. Rambler No. 
16. 

54. ' Shivering with the cold.' L UB. 
Lacerna; Juv. ix, 28, note; Prop. 

iv, 3, 18. (BU.) KG. 

o5. Ego verum amo : verum volo 
mihi dici : mendacem odi ; Plaut. Most. 
i, 3, 24 ; PRA. Mart. viii, 76. KG. 

56. Hoc facies, sive id non pote, 
sive pote ; Cat. Ixxvi, 16; */ vero est 
tinctum qui recte ponere possit,... 
mirabor si sciet inter noscere men- 
dacem verumque beatus amicum. tu, 
seu donuris seu quid donare voles cui, 
nolito ad versus tibi factos ducere ple- 
num Itetitiee; clamabit enim pulchre ! ^ 
bene! recte ! 4c- Hor. A. P. 422. .. '. 
433. PRA. dicam, si potero. male 
verum e.raminat omnis corruptus ju- 
dex; id. S. ii, 2, 8 f. LUB. 

" Thou triflest, bald-pate ass I" 
HOL. ' Your attempting to write 
poetry is an utter waste of time and 
every thing else.' CS. " Dotard ! this 
thriftless trade no more pursue : Your 
lines are bald and dropsical like you." 
GIF. nugaris seems a mild term for 
Persius to employ as con^eying his 
opinion ; it may therefore mean ' You 
are not serious in what you say.' 
KG. 

Calve! The proverb says " There is 
no fool like an old fool." 



IJ 



THE SATiRES 



SAT. 1. 



Pinguis aqualiculus propenso scsquipedc exstct. 
O Jane, a tcrgo qucm nulla ciconia pinsit, 
Nec manus, auriculas imitari mobilis albas, 

60 Ncc linguic, quantum sitiat canis Appula, tantum ! 
Vos, o ])atricius sanguis, quos vivere ias est 
Occi])ili cit!C0, posticjB occurrite sanna). — 

"Quis populi scrmoest?" Quisenim.? nisicarmina molli 
Nunc demum numero fluere, ut per leve severos 

6*5 Effundat junctura ungues; scit tendere versum 



57. ' A paunch like a hog-trough 
struts with a projection of eighteen 
inches.' HOL. ^ra^ua •yaffTh^ Xivri») 
oh TiKTti viov Sch. PRA. s. Sen. Ep. 
90. KG. 

6S. Janus, fortunately for him, had 
a double face, and these eyes in his 
poll prevented him from being laughed 
at behind his back. L UB. The Romans 
were great adepts in the various arts 
of contempt ; and their descendants, 
the modern Italians, have inherited no 
small portion of their ingenuity. They 
will frequently follow an unfortunate 
wight occipiti cceco^ \in maximo metu 
n«d>/m et ccectim corpus ad hostes ver- 
tere, Sal. J. 115;] and ridicule him 
with the most expressive and ludicrous 
signs. ' The ass's ears' and ' the stork's 
bill' are stiil the popular modes of scoff- 
ing : these, the suppltness of their 
fingers enables them to imitate with 
great success ; b\it the manner of it 
must be seen to be fully understood, 
The following is an evident imitation 
of this passage: ne credas laudatoribus 
fuis: imo irrisoribus aurein nelibenter 
accommodes ; qui quum te adulationibus 
snis Jbveri/tt, si subilo respeoperis, aut 
ciconiarum depreliendes post te colla 
curvari ; aut manu auriculus agitari 
asini, aut cestuantis canis protendi 
lingnam; S. Hier. to Rust. and id. pr. 
in Sophon. Macr. S. i, 9 ; PRA. GIF. 
Sch. s. Ov. F. i, 65 f ; KG. ib. vi, 123 ; 
Spectator, No. 354; Isaiah Iviii, 9. 

59. The inside of an ass's ears are 
' white.' LUB. 

60. See Isaiah Ivii, 4. 

_ Apulia was a parched and sultry 
district: siticulosa Ajiulia; Hor. Ep. 
3, 16; CS. Juv. iv, 27, note. 

61. Vos, o Pompilius sanguis ; Hor. 
A. P. 291 f. PRA. 

' Whose destiny it is.' KG. 



62. ' Let me recommend to your lord- 
ships, who are not blessed with eyes in 
the poU, to find a method of pieventiug 
those scoffs and sneers that are made 
behind your back,' DEN. ' by dropping 
all pretensions to shine as authors.' 
PRA. 

63. Continued from 55. PRA. 
' Why, what should it he P' 

64. A metaphor from statuaries who 
run their nail over the marble to ascer- . 
tain whethcr there is any tiaw or un- !, 
evenness. carmen reprehendite, quod 
non multa dies et multa litura coercuit, 
atque prcesectum decies non castigavit 
ad ungueiii; Hor. A. P. 292 ff; S. 
ii, 7, 87; S. i, 5, 32. tota denique ora- 
tio [tota verborum structura v. 1.] 
liquida prorsus et ductitis, veluti qmim 
crystaUinas crustas aut onychintinxis 
non impacto digitus ungue perlabitur ; 
quippe si nihil eum rimosis obicibus 
e.creptum teitax fractura remoretur ; 
Sid. Ap. ix, 7. ' The joining is so 
exact as to allow the critical nail to 
glide uninterruptedly along the po- 
lished surface.' LUB. MAD. KG. 
The Romans were exceedingly parti- 
cular in having their furniture, whether 
of wood or marble, so constructed as to 
leave the joints imperceptible, not only 
to the eye, but to the scrutiny of the 
nail ; if in passing it over the line of 
juncture, the slightest jar were per- 
ceived, the fastidious taste at once 
condemned the article as unfashionable. 
In a much earlier and less luxurious 
age, we find Lucilius illustrating the 
artifice of compositiou by a comparison 
from the arrangement of a tessellated *) 
pavement : tam lapidi xi^u; composta ^ 
ut fesscrulce omnes, eitdo pavimento V 
atque cnihlemafa vermiculafo ; [fr. inc. ■-»■' 
120 f;] FEE. s. Aus. Id. xvi, 3 ff; 
[Vir. G. ii, 277 .J 



SAT. I. 



OK PEUSIUS. 



ir> 



Non sncu.s, ac si oculo rubricam (liri<,'at uiio. 
Sive opus in niores, in luxuui, in praudia r('jj;uni 
Dicere, rcs grandes no.stro dat Mnsa poo(a'. 
Ecce niodo heroas sensus afibrre vidcnui.s 

70 Nngari solitos Graece nec ponere lucum 

Artifices ncc rns satumm laudare, ubi corbes 
Et focus et porci ct fumosa Palilia focno : 
Undc Reraus sulcoque terens dentalia, (iuinti, 
Quuni trepida ante bovcs dictaluram induit uxov 

75 El tua aratra domum licior tulit. — Euge, pocta I 
Est nunc, Brissei quera venosus liber Acci, 

G(). The metaphor is taken from car- been a sort of ' Rhapsody on the 
penters, or masons, who shiit one eye, Golden Age' or ' The Delights of tbe 1 
when they waut to (Iraw a straight line: Country.' GIF. " His lay Recounts ' 
; T. which they do by means of a cord, its chimnies, panniers, hogs, and hay." i 
rubbed over with ruddle. The cord is BWS. 

stretched along the wood or stone, and 72. Palilia tam privata quam publica 
then jerked by being puUed up at the sunt apud rusticos : ut co/igestis cum 
centre and suddenly let go. Itii xa) fwno sfipulis, ignem magnum trans- 
mv; TtKTota; tdXXcikis ica^aKuai ftci ^onu sf/ianf, /lis Patiliiiis se expiari cre- 
iuTiou Tu» ip^aXfiu» ciftiitor Tai; roui 'te/ites ; Var. L. L. V, 3. Sch. This 
xatotas avtuSiwTa! ra ^uXa' Lnc. festival was in honour of ^aJes and 5 
lcarom. t. ii, p. 7^9- KG. was celebrated on the 21st of April, / 

Riibriia ; Flin. xxxv, 6. Pi2^. the anniversary of the foundation of i 

67. ' The immoratity and luxuty of Rome. Ov. F. iV, 629 ff; PRA. Prop. 
the age;' i. e. ' to write satires.' ' The iv, 1, 19 ; Plut. Rom. 12. KG. It was 
baniiuets of kings ;' (s. Juv. vii, 73 ; vi, also called Parilia ; Ath. viii, 16 ; as it 
644, notes,) i. e. ' to write tragedies.' was supposeiT to promote fecundity in 
CS. Ot iji may mean ' upon,' and all their flocks. LUB. s. CW, L. ix, p. 
three substantives relate to regum : 224 ff. 

73. ' Whence Remus' rose. LUB. 
Ov. F. iv; PRA. Juv. x, 73, note. KG. 
Siilco terens. Virg. G. i, 46. KG. 
Dentalia; Virg. G. i, 172. 
T. Q. Cincinnatus was cailed from 



' the nianners, luxury, and feasts of 
courts.' KG. 

69. ' Heroic sentiments.' Horace 
checks such conceited presumption by 
saying, sumite materiam vestris, r/iii 



scribitis, cequam viribus ; et versatc the plough to be dictator, in the Sam- 
diu (fuid fcrre recitsent, quid valcant nite war. Liv. iii, 26. LUB. 



hitmeri; A. P. 38 ff. LUB. Examples 
of the use of the double substantive 
are given by BUR, in his note on 
MscYi. P. V. 2. 

70. ' Thcse who used to confine their 
poetical effusions to wretched attempts 
in Greek.' LUB. Compare Petr. de 
Inst. .Juv. beg. CS. 



74. This intimates that be kept no 
servant, and that he stripped to work. 
Virg. G. i, 299. 

'His wife' Racilia, CS. " with 
tiembling haste.'^G Ji^. 

75. ' Bravo ! poet.' 

76. Accius (Juv. vi, 70, note) wrote 
a tragedy on a similar subject to the 



* Those who had not even the art to Ijacehaeof Euripides: hence' Brisa-an,' 

depict a grove.' T. Hor. A. P. 16. For an epithet 0? the god, is transferred to 

this use of punere, s. Od. iv, 8, 8; the poet. FAR. Cic. for Arch. Macr. 

MAD. A. P. 34; Juv. i, 155; Ov. A. .'^. i, 7; vi, 1 f; 5; V. Max. iii, 7, 11. 

A. iii, 401. artifices ponere is a Gre- PRA. His general style appears to 

cism. KG. ])r. 11. have been uncouth but vigorous ; dark, 

71. Persius here parodies and plays rugged, and sublime. (Jne specimen 

upon some favourite of tho town. The of his tortuous bonibast may amuse the 

poem, thus ridiculed, appears to have reader : indecorabiliter alienos alunt, 



16 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Sunt, quos Pacuviusque et verrucosa moretur 
Antiopa, (Brtinitnft cor luctijicahile fulta. 
Hos pueris nionitus patres infundere lippos 
80 Quum videas, qua^risnc, unde hajc sartago loquendi 
Venerit in linguas ? unde istuc dedecus, in quo 
Trossulus exsultat tibi per subsellia levis ? 



ut romloitas tcrras ferro Jidas pro- 
schulant glclms. The obstinate attach- 
ment of the Roinans to their earliest 
poets annoyed Horaee and the eritics 
of the Augustan age. After a lapse of 
three-score years, the same fondness 
still existed. The very defects of the 
old writers were carefully copied. A 
corrupt age is aUvays an affected one: 
simplicity is lost in silliness ; and vigour 
in preposterous tumour. Kude and ob- 
/ solete terms were culled from the old 
drama to gratify a morbid taste, a sickly 
delicaey which had no relish of nature, 
and to the indulgence of which the poet 
justly attributes the corruption of fo- 
rensic eloquence and the debility of 
metrical composition. qtiid quod nihil 
jam propriiim placet, dinn parmn cre- 
ditur disertinn (fuod alius dixerit? a 
corruptissimo (jiiiiqiic poetannn Jigi/ras 
seu translationes miituamur, tum de- 
mnm ingeniosi, si ad intelligetidos tios^ 
opus sit ingenio '. Diomedes. GIF. 

Fewo«?^s" jagg'd andknotty." GIF. 
oratio autetn, sicut corpus /lominis, ea 
dem7im jiitlchra est, in qua non 
eviinent venae, nec ossa mnne- 
rantur, sed tcmperatus et honits sangnis 
implet membru et ejcsurgit toris, ipsos 
quoqne nervos ruhor tegit et decor 
commendat ; Tae. de Caus. Corr. El. 
21 . PL U. The metaphor is taken from 
old men whose veins stand out and look 
turgid, owing to the shrinking of the 
flesh. CS. 

77. Pacnvius was more ancient and 
more eminent than Accius, in con- 
junction with whom he is frequently 
mentioned : attonitusque legis terrai 
frngiferai, Accius et quidquid Pa- 
cuviusque vomunt ; Mart. xi, 91, 6. 
I He was a native of Brundusium, and 
a painter as well as a poet : he died 
131 B. C. His mother was a sister of 
Ennius. CS. Gel). i, 24 ; xiii, 2 ; Quint. 
X, 1 ; PRA. V. Pa4;. ii, 9, 3 ; Cic. to 
Her. ii, 23. Our satirist does not mean 
to disparage the general merits of 
these old writers. KG. 



' Warty.' MAB." Hard and horny." 
GIF. 

' Fasclnates.' Hor. Ep. i, 13, 17. 
KG. 

78. Quis Ennii Medeam et Pacuvii 
Ant iopam contemnat et rejiciat? 
Cic. Fiii. i, 2. Antiopa, when divorced 
by Lycus for her intrigue with Jupiter, ■ 
was tormented by his new wife Dirce; 
on whom she afterwards took dr^eticlful 
vengeance. SVL, Apoll. iii, 5, 5. (HY.) . 
KG. 

' Propped' i. e. ' beset, begirt.' T. 

' Her dolorific heart shored round , 
with teen.' (Brnmna was obsolete when 
Quintilian wrote ; he gives lahor as 
tantamount to it. But, though a pro- 
fuseandpromiscuousintroductionof an- 
tiquated terms is censurable, a sparing 
and judicious use of them has its i.d- 
vantages ; and, at all events a lan- 
guage is not much the worse for pos- ' 
sessing two words with nearly tbe same 
meaning. GIF. 

79. Infundere : for the metaphor, s. 
Hor. E. i, 2, 69 f. 

' Furblind:' in a double meaning. 
KG. s. Hor. S. i, .3, 2.5 f. K^ovixaTs 
Xtifiai; ovrm; XnfiuvTts ra; {ppivas' Arist. 
PJ.581. 

80. Sartago is literally a frying-pan; 
and the allusion is to the miscellaneous 
ingredients of the hash ; and also, per- 
haps, to the hissing and sputtering of ^ 
the oUa podrida while undergoing the ^ 
process of cookery : T. FAR. as in 

OUr BUBBLE AND SQUEAK. (UnleSS 

B u b b 1 e be derived from huhale : as 
hnhale frustum ' a beef-steak from a 
wild ox.' Petron.) " They have made 
ourEnglish tongue a gallimaufrey ^ 
orhodge-podge of all otlier speeches;" ^ 
Epist. Pref. to Spenser's Shep. Cal. 
" Such patching maketh Littleton's 
hotchpot of our tongue, and, in 
effect, brings the same rather to a '- 
Babellish confusion than any one entire 
language;" Camden's Remains. 

82. The Roman knights, under the 
kings, were called Celeres, afterwards 



SAT. I. 



OF PKHSIUS. 



17 



Nilne pudet capifi noii posse pericula oano 
Pellere, quiu tcj)iduni hoc oj)tes audire, ukckntp;u ! 

85 " Fur es" ait Pedio. Pedius quid ? Criniina rasis 
Librat in antithetis: doctas posuisse figuras 
Laudatur: r.ELLUM Hoc! — Bellumhoc.'' an,Romule,ceves? 
Men nioveat quipjje et, cantet si naufragus, asseni 
Protulerim ? Cantas, quuui fracta te in trabe piclum 

90 Ex humero jiortes ? Veruni nec nocte jjaratum 
Plorabit, qui me volet incurvasse querela. 

" Sed numeris decor est et junctura addita crudis." 
Claudere sic versum didicit: Berecyntius Attis. 



Flexumines, and lastly Trossuli ; for 
having taken Trossulum in Etruria 
without the aid of the infantry. Plin. 
xxxiii, 9. This nauie was afterwards 
applied to effeniinate and parapered 
persons ; and the knights began to be 
ashamed of it. Its origin was forgotten : 
and a new derivation assigned it; fros- 
sulus q. d. torosulus from torus • a roll 
offlesh:' Nonius. F. Sen. Ep.87; CS. 
ib. 87 ; KG. s. iii, 86, note; [Job xv, 
27.] 

83. ' Is it not monstrous, that in 
pleading for gray hairs, in a matter of 
life and death, the orator should be 
ambitious of pretty conceits.^' LUB. 

84. Tepidum ' luke-warm.' CS. 

85. Pedius B/tBsus was accused by 
the Cyrenians of peculation and sacri- 
lege: of which he was found guilty 
and expelled the senate. Tae. A. xiv, 

, 18. He appears to have undertaken 
his own defence. LUB. PRA. 

Ait ' says the accuser.' L UB. 

Ubi vero atrocitate., invidia, misera- 
tione pugnandum est, quis ferat contra 
positis et pariter cadentibus et consi- 
milibus,irascenteni,Jlenteni,rogantem? 
cum in his cura verborum deroget af- 
fectibus fidem ; et ubicumque ars osten- 
tatur, veritas abesse videatur ; Quint. 
ix, 3, end. PRA. 

86. Non pudet Christianos et sa- 
cerdotes Dei, f/uasi de rebus ludicris 
agatur, verbis dubiis hcerere, et ani- 
biguas librare sententias, quibus lo- 
quens magis guam audiens decipitur ? 
S. Hier. Ep. to Pamm. CS. 

" In terse antitheses (Cic. Or. 49 ; 
KG.) he weighs the crime, Equals the 
pause, and balances the chime :" GIF. 
so that, as in Timon's garden," Grove 



nods at grove, eacli alley has a brother, 
And half the platform just reflects the 
other;" Pope, Mor. Ep. iv, 117 f. 

87. ' Does Romulus (Juv. iii, ()7; 
MAD.) play the spaniel .'" by giving 
" Sweet words, Low-crook'd curt'sies, 
andbasespanielfawning;" Shakspeare, « 
J. C. iii, 1. '* You play the spaniel, 
And think with wagging of your tongue 
to win me;" id. K. H. 8th, v, 2. 

88. Si vis me flere, dolendum est 
primuni ipsi tibi; tunc tua me infor- 
tunia ladent; Hor. A. P. 102 f. LUB. 

89. ' I should say, What ! do you 
sing?' 

Qtium 8fc. Juv. xiv, 302, note. This 
trick was often played by impostors ; 
ihdTeioTe pictum is emphatic. KG. 

90. Verum, understand ploratum. 
PRA. 

' Not conned over-night;' MAD. 
[' no lucubration.'] 

91. Intelliges non magis tibi in- 
curvari licere, quam illi, si quis 
modo est, cujus humeris mundus in- 
nititur ; Sen. Cons. to Pol. 26; quid 
est iu tormentis, quid est in a/iis, quce 
adversa appellamus, ma/i? hoc, ut 
opinor, succidere mentem et incur- 
vari et succumhere ; id. Ep. 71; Cic. 
T. Q. ii, 23; s. Hor. A. P. 110. KG. 

92. ' Even unfinished verses derive 
a grace from a happy conjbination and 
adaptation of words.' Quint. x, 4 ; KG . 
Hor. A. P. 47 f. MAD. 

93. Attis was a beautiful Phrygian 
boy, beloved by Cybele, to whom mount ^/ 
Berecyntus, in the Lesser Asia, was ' 
sacred. Ov. M. x ; T. Cat. Ixiii ; {DCE.) 
Ov. F. iv, 223 ; PRA. Macr. S. i, 2] . 
KG. Dio says of Nero Ixifia^iyimriv 
'.\ttTvx- Ixi, 21; SCA. Ov. Ib. 455 ff. 



18 



thp: satires 



SAT. I. 



Et: qui cceruleum dirimebat Nerea delphin. 

95 Sic : coslam lougo suhduximus Apennino. 

" Arma virum — iionne hoc spmnosum et coitice pingui?' 
Ut ramale vetus vegrandi subere coctum. 
" Quidnam igitur tenerum et laxa cervice legendum ?" 
Joria Mimalloneis impUrunl cornna botnbis, 

100 Et raplum ntulo capul ablatura superbo 
Bassaris et li/ucem Moinasjiexura corymbis 



94. ' The dolpliin clave blue Nereus 
right in twain :' in plain English, ' was 
swimming thvough the sea.' LUB. V. 
Flac. i, 450 ; KG. Tib- iv, 1, 58. PS W. 

95. Siibilucere is a military term, 
and means ' to suiprize and preoccupy 
a position bv foreed or stolen inarches.' 
\tou i^rfiou h^ftvi ] x A 6 ■v^ a < [t/ viioa.irSai 
XaSiii/rus xa) aoTrccffjCi ^SavdvTas ,] is 
used in this sense by Xenophon ; 
and some pleasantry passes between 
him and the Spartan Cherisophus on 
the relative dexterity of their country- 
men in stealing: An. iv, 6, 10.. 12. 
GIF. ' Through luck divine, we, with 

'our hostile line, Stole by surprize the 
chine of Apennine.' [Livy i, 3, 4.] 

Est in eo quoque nonnihil, quod 
singulis verbis bini pedes contiuentin\ 
quod etiam in carniinibfis est permolle : 
nec sotuni ubi qiiina sijllabce nectnntur^ 
ut in his '■'■ fortissima Tyndarida- 
rum :" sed etiam iibi qi(aferncB, quum 
versus cluditiir " Apennino,'' et " ar- 
mamentis,^' e<" Oriona;" Quint. Inst. 
ix, 4, 65. CS. 

96. ' Is not this' " A pithless branch 
beneath a fungous rind ?" GIF. [s. 
BY, on H. S. i, 2, 129. K.] 

Artna viriim is here put for the 
whole yEneid, and that for Virgil him- 
self. Ov. R. A. 367 f; Tr. ii, 533 f ; 
iVlart. viii, 56, 19; Aus. Ep. cxxxvii ; 
Sidon. ii, 4. KG. A depreciation 
of the standard poetry is, in every 
oountry, oue of the most striking signs 
of a decay of taste ; and it is usually 
accompanied by a passion for the crude 
and imperfect productions of an earlier 
age. GIF. 

97. Persius takes up the far-fetched 
metaphor and, adopting his opponent's 
own phraseology, replies that although 
the bark might be turgid aud corky, it 
had sound and well-seasoned timber 
under it. GIF. Quint. x. PRA. 



Siiber; Plin. xvi, 8 or 13; PRA. s. 
Hor. Od. iii, 9, 22; MAD. Ov. Her. 
5, 28 ; Theoph. H. P. iii, 16. KG. 

Coctinn is opposed to crudum. CS. 
Virg. lE. xi, 554. KG. 

98. ' Without the throafs being 
braced and strained.' 

99. Spectator, No. 617. 
Mimalloneis ' of the Bacchantes.' 

Sch. Mimas was a mountain of lonia 
wherefheorgieswerecelebrated. PRA. 
Strab. X ; SVL. s. Schol. on Lycoph. 
1236 ; 1464 ; Stat. Th. iv, 649 ff; {BA.) 
KG. Ov. A. A. i, 541. 

Bombis ' with the hum.' PRA. From 
liiifiliiTv ('' to bumble,' Chaucer;) are 
derived ^c/ijiavXioi' Arist. Ach. 831 ; 
and px/fi^uXiof id. V. 107; whence our 
BUMBLE-BEE, more commonly called 
HUMBLE-BEE, and, provincially, DUM- 

BLEDORE. 

The first line of this burlesque seems 
parodied from CatuUus : multis raiici- 
sonos ejftabant cornua bonibos ; Ixiv, 
264 ; CS. s. Lucr. iv, 550. 

100. Many expressions in this poem 
closely resemble those in the Bacchaj '/ 
of Euripides ; s. 735 ff. CS. GIFr^^ ^ 

Pehtneus is here designated as ' the 
calf ;' for so his frantic mother Agave 
fancied, whenshe(with hercompanions) // 
tore him in pieces; and ' arrogant,' for " 
his conduct towards Bacchus. LUB. 
s. Hor. S. ji, 3, 303 f; but according 
to Ovid, she imagined him to be a boar : 
M. iii, 714. PRA. 

101. Bassaris is here applied to 
Agave, from Bassareus (Hor. Od. i, 
18, 11;) an epithet of Bacchus : the 
etymology is uncertain. Sch. 

The car of Bacchus was drawn by 
' lynxes' harnessed ' with ivv-branches.' 
LUB. 

Mecnas; Juv. vi, 317- MAD. 

Flectere ' to guide,' Virg. G. ii, A')l ; 
iE. i, 156. MAD. 



SAT. T. 



OF PERSIUS. 



19 



Evion ingemivat ; reparabilis adsonat Echo. 
HoBC lierent, si testiculi vena ulla paterni 
Viveret in nobis } sumraa delumbe saliva 

105 Hoc natat in labris et in udo est M(enas et Attis, 
Nec pluteum caedit nec deraorsos sapit ungues. 
" Sed quid opus teneras mordaci radere vero 
Auriculas } Vide sis, ne majorum tibi forte 
Limina frigescant: sonat hic de nare canina 

110 Litera." Per me equidem sint omnia protinus alba: 



102. Pvion, an epithet of Bacchus. 
8. Juv. VII, 62, note; MAD. Hor. Od. 
ii, 19, 7; PRA. Eur. B. 141. KG. 

' Reproductive.' LUB. Calp. v, 20. 
KG. 

Ec/io; Ov. M. iii, 356 flF; LUB. 
Aus. Ep. xi; also Plin. ii, 46; xxxvi, 
15. PRA. 

103. ' Any spark of pristine vigour,' 
GIF. ' any vein of the manliness of 
our sires.' si qind in Flacco viri es( ; 
Hor. Ep. XV, 12. PRA. 

104. " This -cuckoo-spit of Rome, 
Which gathers round the lips in froth 
and foam !" GIF. ' these nerveless 
and superficial effusions, which float 
on the lips and not in the brain.' CS. 
FAR. 

105. In udo is equivalent to in ore : 
(s. 42, note) implying perhaps at the 
same time that these aliectations were 
relished,soas to make the mouth water; 
which always prevents a person from 
speaking with force and distinctness. 
T. 

106. See Quint. x, 3. PRA. ' They 
give no proof of pains.' culpantur 

frustra calami immeritusqiie laborat 
iratis natus parics dis atque poefis; 
Hor. S. ii, 3, 7 f; MAD. in versu 
faciendo scepe caput scaberet., vivos et 
roderet ungues ; Hor. S. i, 10, 70 f; 
PRA. Ep. 5, 47 f ; and in v, 162 f ; 
KG. Rambler, No. 169. 

107. No raree-show man shifts his 
figures quicker than Persius does his 
fantoccini : we may therefore suppose 
that the friend, who had been a silent 
listener since he expressed his dissent 
in V. 11, now again steps forward to 
warn the satirist of his danger. GIF. 
Obsequiumamicos, veritas oditimparit; 
Ter. And. i, 1,41. 

Quorum (i. e. ' of things to be learnt') 
nejejuna atque arida traditio averteret 



a7iimos, et aures prcesertim tam de- 
licatas raderet, verebamur; Qoint. 
Inst. iii, 1. KG. 

108. Auriculas; Hor. S. ii, 5, 32. 
Vide, as cave^ in Hor. Ep. i, 13, 19 ; 

LUB. and va/& (but that is before a 
vowel) in Virg. E. iii, 79; Fasciculus 
Poet. p. 5. 

Sis Livy xxiii, 47, d. 

Our author still affects the disguise 
which he put on at first, as though he 
had to dread expulsion from the tablea 
of the rich. GIF. Opuer, ut sis vitalis, 
7netuo ; et 7najorum ne quis a^nicus 
frigore te feriat; Hor. S. ii, 1, 
60 ff. FAR. 

109. We often find attributed to the 
threshold that which belongs, pro- 
perly, to the i n m a t e ; s. Ov. M. xiv, 
703 f; Am. i, 6, 67 f; Prop. i, 16, 17; 
ii, 16, 23; KG. superba civium poten- 
tiorum limina; Hor. Ep. 2, 7 f. 

(1) " This currish humour you ex- 
tend too far, While every word growls 
with that hateful gnarr." GIF. r is 
called the dog's letter, because the 
vibration of the tongue in pronouncing 
it, resembles the snarling of a dog. 
s. Alchyrnist, ii, 6; MAD. irritata 
canis quod homo quam planiu' dicit ; 
Lucil. Shakspeare Rom. and Jul. ii,4, 
end. GIF. or (2) " Methiuks they're 
touch'd already, and I hear The dog- 
gish letter R sound in my ear." HOL. 
House-dogs were chained at the gates 
of their residences, with a notice on the 
wall cave caneiyi; Ov. Tr. ii 459 f; 
Pet. 27; 77. The surliness of the 
porter and the growls of the dog may 
both be traced to the coolness of their 
lord. PSW. PLU. OE. KG. DBN. 

110. Alba. To /Av XtuKoii T^i ayu6ou 
(puffstaf, t)) S{ /uiXicr koikoZ' Pythag. in 
Laert. PRA. T. Sil. xv, 63. (i2.) 
KG. 



20 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Nil inoror. Euge ! omnes etenim bene niirae eritis res. 
Hoc juvat? " Hic" inquis " veto quisquam faxit oletum!" 
Pinge duos angues : ruERi, sacer est locus ; extra 
Me.tite. Discedo. Secuit Eucilius Urbem, 
115 Te, Lupe, te, Muci, et gcnuinum fregit in illis. 
Omne vafer vitium ridenti Flaccus amico 
Tangit et admissus circum pra^cordia ludit, 
Callidus excusso populum suspcndere naso. 
Men rautire nefas ? nec clam nec cum scrobc ? " Nus- 
quam." 



1 1 1 . See Hor. S. i, 1 0, 1 1 . . 15 ; PRA. 
vil moror; ib. 4, 13; MAD. Juv. iii, 
183, note. 

The French have this idiom in their 
language: " bien admirablc." 

112. Hoc jiivat? Hor. S. i, 1, 78. 
KG. 

See Juv. i, 131. MAD. ' You affix 
to your poems' " Commit no nuisance : 
decency forbids !" 

113. Veteres Geutiles serpenfes ap- 
pinxere ad conciliandani loco sacro 
reverentia)n, f/itos mi/stcB suos genios 
interpretabanti(r;ffte>nadmodum C/iri- 
stiani cruceni tippingunt : Laurent. 
DMD. Every plaee had its genius, 
who was generally represented imder 
the figure of a snake. Serv. s. Her. 
viii, 41, note; ii; Liv. x; Flor. xi ; 
Paus. ii, Virg. J£. v, 82 ; {HY.) Prop. 
iv, 8; T. ilacr. S. i, 20; Plut. V. 
xxxviii,end; JLxxvii; vEl. An. ii, 2. 
16 f; PRA. Arist. Pl. "33. CS. Deane 
on the Serpent Worship. 

Sacer est locus; Calp. ii, 55. KG. 
' Go elsewhere, if you have need.' 

114. There is considerable humour 
in making the poet, after he had been 
wanied otf the premises by the for- 
bidding snakes, linger as he retires, 
aud flnally turn back and justify his 
right lO remain by tbe examples of 
Lucilius and Horace. GIF. 

Lucilius (Juv. i, 20, 165 f;) sale 
muHo urbem defricuit ; Hor. S. i, 10,14 
f ; primores populi arripuit jjopulumque 
tributim; S. ii, 1, 69; PRA. S. i, 4, 
1 ff ; MAD. id. Ep. 5, 4. KG. Lucilius 
was great-uncle to Pompey, and lived 
in habits nf intimacy with the chiefs of 
the repubiic, with L;elius, Scipio, aud 



others, who were well able to protect 
him from tlie Lupi and Mucii of the 
day, had they attempted (which they 
probably did not) to silence or molest 
him. GIF. 

115. P. Rutilius Lupus, who wa3 
consul. The passage is preserved in 
Cic. Fin. i, 3. PRA. 

Muci; [Q. Mucins Sceevola, MN. 
but s.] Juv. i, 154. 

Genuinum frangere is more than 
flentem illidere ; Hor. S. ii, 1, 77. KG. 

In illis for in vobis : an instance of 
avaxiXovfov. L UB. 

116. " With greater art sly Horace 
gain'd his end : But spared no failing 
of his smiling friend ; Sportive and 
pleasant round the lieart he play'd, And 
wrapt in jests the censure he convey'd ; 
With such address his willing victims 
seized, That tickled fools were rallied 
and were pleased." DMD. 

117. Ridentem dicere verum, 
quid vetatf Hor. S. i, 1, 34 f. LUB. 

Amico. s. Hor. S. i, 3, 63.. 69. 
PRA. 

" Play'd lightly round and round 
the peccant part, And won, onfelt, an 
entranee to his heart." GIF. 

118. See-40, note; LUB. [s. BY, 
on H. O. i, 1, 5. K.] 

Excusso ' without a wrinkle,' LUB. 
' witli well-dissembled sarcasm.' 

119. An allusion to the story of 
Midas's barher, who, being unable to 
contain the seeret of the king's having 
ass's ears, whispered it to a hole dug 
in the ground ; Sch. CS. Ov. M. xi, 
90 ff. PRA. Pope had his eye on thi» 
passage in the prologue to his satires. 
69 ff. DEN. 



SAT. I. 



OF pp:rsiiis. 



21 



1'20 Ilic tanien infodiani : ' Vitli, vidi ipse, libelle : 

Auriculas asini quis nou habet ?' lloc ego opertuiu, 
IIoc ridere raeum, tam nil, nulla tibi vendo 
Iliade. Audaci quicumque afllate Cratino, 
Iratum Eupolidem pra'grandi cum sene palles, 

1*25 Adspice et haec, si lorte aliquid decoctius audis. 
Inde vaporata lcctor mihi ferveat aure : 
Non hic, qui in crepidas Graiorum ludere gestit 
Sordidus et lusco qui possit dicere, lusce ! 



120. ' Here in tny book will I bury 
the secret.' CS. 

Infodiam was more applicable to the 
ancient than to the modern mode of 
writing. Juv. i, 63, note. MAD. 

121. Quis uon hahetf "We have here 
the sentence complete, which was com- 
menced but abruptly suppressed at 8. 
LUB. Midas was gifted with asinine 
ears for the bad taste he betrayed in 
delivering judgement on Apollo's min- 
strelsy. PRA. 

122. Hoc ridere ioT hunc risutn ; s. 
9. MAD. 

' Such a mere nothing.' s. 2. KG. 

123. ' Not for that Iliad you so 
hiuhly prize.' GIF. s. 4. LUB. [s. 
BUR, on JE. P. V. 1004.] 

' Inspired by bold Cratinus' with 
the contempt of folly and the hatred of 
vice. CS. Eupolis atque Cratinus 
Aristophanesqve poetce atque alii, quo- 
rum comaidia prisca virorum est, si 
guis erat dignus describi, quod malus 
aut fur, quod mcpchns forct aut sica- 
rius aut alioqui famosus, multa cum 
libertate notabant ; Hor. S. i, 4, 1. .5. 
Persius mentions the three in chrono- 
logical order, Cratinus carried his 
boldness so far, that it was found 
necessary to restrain his personalities 
by a special edict. He flourished before 
the Peloponnesian war, and lived to the 
age of nearly a hundred. s. Luc. Macr. 
t. iii, p. 227 ; Ath. i ; Eus. Chron. Quint. 
y. ; V. Pat. i, 16. PRA. GIF. 

124. The anger of Eupolis was 
directed against the pestilent dema- 
gogues who wcre the curse of his 
country. s. Cic. Att. vi, 1. PRA. 
Why the youngest of these dramatists 
18 called prcegrandis seneje, is uncer- 
tain. [Cic. Or. ili,43; Hor. A. P. 80.] 
He lived, however, to be nearly seventy, 



smd is styled the prince of the old 
comedy. PS W. Cleon and the minions 
of the people lived in awe of him : 
GIF. and the fame of his writings 
had excited an interest even at the Per- 
sian court. MIT. 

Palles : 26, note. 

126. Decoctius ' less crude;' a meta- 
phor from fruits, L UB. or from wine or 
other liquors reduced by boiling. Virgil 
is said to have composed fifty lines or 
more every moming, and in the evening 
to have cut them down to ten or a 
dozen. materiam volo priuium esse vel 
ab u ndantiorem, vel ultra quam 
oporteat fusam : multum inde deco- 
que nt anni, mnltum ratio limabit, 
aliquid vel ipso usu deteretur ; Quint. 
xi, 4 ; PRA. s. 45 f. MAD. 

126. ' Let my reader glow with an 
ear warmed by their strains.' PRA. 
This passage aocounts for the constant 
succession of new speakers in Persius. 
Horace and Juvenal profess to imitate 
Lucilius ; while our youthful poet took 
for his model the old comedy, and 
therefore threw his satires into the 
dramatic form. Whatever his reasoa 
might have been, he certainly secured 
vivacity and freedom hy his choice; 
and though his success might not be 
great, yet his ambition is not to be 
censured. GIF. 

127. The Greeks were distinguished 
by the sandal (creinda) or slipper (sofea), 
as the Romans by the shoe (calceus) : 
Gell. xiii, 10; sapiens crepidas sibi 
numquum nec soleas fecit ; sutor tamen 
est; Hor. S. i, 3, 127 f; PRA. Suet. 
iii, 13. KG. The quantity of crcpidas 
is chauged from *g»T/Sa;. BAX. To 
ridicule national peculiarities of dress 
is a proof of a low and vulgar mind. 

128. Podily defet-td are objects of 



22 



THE SATIRES OF PERSIUS. 



8AT. I. 



Sese aliquem credens, Italo quod honore supinus 
130 Fiegerit lieminas Areti aedilis iniquas : 

Nec qui abaco nuraeros et secto in pulvere metas 
Scit risisse vafer, multum gaudere paratus, 
Si Cynico barbam petulans nonaria vellat. 
His mane edictum, post prandia Callirhoen do. 



pity rather tlian ridicule. Plat. Prot. 
flf Sia (fiuffn alffp^^oTf evoiit iiriTi/iia' 
Arist. Eth. iii, 5. SVL. The brutal 
. stupidity of this piece of insolence is 
happily dashed out at a single stroke : 
" Halloo! blind man!" This is all the 
wit which the lout can muster. GIF. 
[Soph. CE. R. 420.] 

129. Aliqifcm; Juv. i, 74. 
Si/piiius, Juv. i, 66; has three dis- 

tinct meanings, ' indolence,' ' effemi- 

nacy,' and ' pride.' Suetonius joins 

the expressions .lupinus, ccelum in- 

tuens, and stupidiis ; ii, 16. Besides 

which, the arrogant throw up their 

. heids Ln walking, so that their face is 

j tunied upwards, in much the same 

\ manner as if they were lying on their 

backs. s. Mart. v, 8, 10 ; Sen. Ben. ii, 

13; Ep. 80; Ov. M. vi, 275; Cat. 

xvii, 25. CS. GUR. cratera Hercu- 

leuni Tirynthius olim ferre manu sola 

spumantemque or e s u p i n o vertere 

solebat; Stat. Th. vi, 531 ff. 

130. Juv. X, 100 ff", notes ; Cic. Leg. 
ii. T. 

' Half-pint pots:' here put for mea- 
sures ih general. T. Plin. xxi, 109. 
PRA. 

Aretium a town of .Etruria, now 
i; • Arezzo.' Mart. xiv, 98. PRA. 
*"' 131. The ahacus was a slender frame 
of an oblong shape; in the bottom of 
which, counters for reckoning were 
either ranged in grooves, or traversed 
on graduated wires; thereby furnishing 
an easy and compendious niode of cal- 
culation. GIF. ' Arithmetic' LVB. 
FAR. 

The economical sand-boards of the 
\ M adras School were uo novelty eighteen 
\centiiries ago. GIF. [s. Dutens En- 



quiry, &c.] ' Geometry.' LUB. FAR. 
Archimedes {homuiiculus a pulvere et 
radio; Cic. T. Q. v, 23.) KG. was 
thus engaged when Syracuse was taken 
and he himself fell by the hand of a 
Roman soldier. Liv. xxv, [31.] The 
palace of Dionysius was quite dusty, 
from the number of mathematicians 
who pursued the study of geometry 
there, Plut. PRA. 

133. ' He is ready to die with laugh- 
ing if an impudent quean pluck a Cynic 
by the beard.' These philosophers were 
patient under injuries and regarded in- 
sults with indifference ; and hence they 
were exposed to many trials of temper. 
CS. vellunt tihi barham lascivi pueri ; 
Hor. S. i, 3, 133 f; MAD. Sen. de 
Ira iii, 38. KG. The common women 
were not allowed to show themselves 
before three o'clock in the day. Sch. 
[Liv. V, 41.] 

134. Edictum (according to the 
phrases edictum ludorum, edictum mu- 
neris gladiatorii, Sfc. Piiny) signified 
a programma drawn up by authority 
and, like our play-bills, announcing 
the public amusements of the day. It 
was stuck up, early in the moming, 
against the walls, where it formed 
a focus of attraction for idlers and 
loungers. nemo, qui parturienti filia 
ohstetricem accersit, edictum et liido- 
runi ordinem perlegit ; Ep. 98. MRC. 

Callirhoe is just such another woeful 
ditty as Phyllis and Hypsipyle. GIF. 
s. Paus. vii, 21. It appears from 30 f; 
38 ; 51 ff ; that these mawkish lays were 
recited after their dinners. 

Do : thus forum putealque Libonis 
mandaho siccis; Hor. Ep. i, 19, 8 f. 
CS. 



SATIRE II. 



ARGUMENT. 

It was the Roman custom to ofter vows, and send presents to relations and 
friends on their birthdays ; and Persius, who probably knew that his 
belovcd JNIacrinus delighted in verse, embraces the opportunity of this 
festival, to seud him an excellent moral and religious poem. GIF. 

After the exordium, or congratulatory address to jNIacrinus, 1 ff ; there is 
first an enumeration of interested and impious prayers ; prayers, which, 
too iniquitous for the ear of man, can only be trusted to the gods in 
private; 3.. 16. The gross folly of these prayers is attributable to the 
false and unworthy ideas entertaiued respecting the gods; 17..30; 
52.. 70. Then follows a spirited exposure of those extravagant and 
ridiculous petitions for superfluous objects, which originate in ignorance 
and superstition; 31.. 40. We have next an indiguant reproof of the 
rash expectations of those, who frame requests for blessings which they 
madly labour to defeat by their own vicious excesses; 41. .51. GIF. KG. 

Tlie Satire concludes with some just aud elevated remarks on the true 
nature of sacrifice and prayer, 7 1 . . 75 ; which might be written up in 
more than one Christian temple. DMD. 

lu this little poem, which assumes a tone almost too serious and solemn 
for satire, the author had iu view the second Alcibiades of Plato, upon 
which the tenth Satire of Juvenal is also founded. DR Y. The matter 
of tbis celebrated dialogue, (of which Addison has given a pretty analysis 
in No. 207 of the Spectator,) Persius has compressed and arranged with 
great care. GIF. 



24 



TIIE SATIRES 



SAT. II. 



HuNC, Macrine, diem numera melioie lapillo, 
Qui tibi labentes apponit candidus annos. 
Funde merum Gcnio ! Non lu prece poscis emaci, 
Qua? nisi seductis nequeas committcre divis. 
3 At bona pars procerum tacita libabit acerra. 

Haud cuivis promptum est murraurque humilesque 
susurros 



1. Plotiiis Macrinus w;is a man of 
considerable learning and warmly at- 
taehed to our poet, He studied in the 
house of Servilius, the tutor of Persius, 
so that they were, in some sort, fellow- 
students. Sch. 

See V, 108 ; Hor. S. ii, 3, 246 ; Mart. 
ix, 53, 4 f. PRA. The Thracians 
used to throw into a box a white 
stone for evcry happy day aud b 1 a c k 
stones for unhappy ones ; and, at the 
end of the year, they eomputed how 
many days they might be said to have 
really lived. Plin. vii, 40 ; Ep. vi, II ; 
Cat. Ixviii, 148 ; Hor. Od. i, 36, 10. 
L VB. KG. non est vivere, sed valere, 
vita. [Kevelation ii, ir.] 

This idle tale has heen handed down 
from age to age. It makes indeed a 
pretty figure in poetry ; {et si calculus 
o?nnis huc et illuc diversus hicolorque 
digeratur ; vincet candida turba ni- 
griorem ; Mart. xii, 34, 5 fiF;) and not 
a conteniptible one in a tritical essay ou 
morality: but the expression is merely 
metaphorical, and means nothing more 
than ' lucky.' It would probably puzzle 
a more metaphysieal head thau ever 
stood upon a Scythian's shoulders, to 
distinguish the happy days from the 
unhappy ones : and were there no neu- 
trals ? were their days never chequered ? 
Did the evenings always set upon the 
fortunes of the moruings? A rude and 
barbarous people, (fjuorum p/austra va- 
gas rite trahunt domos ; Hor. Od. iii, 
24, 10;)would scarcely occupy them- 
selves in seeking for black and white 
stones, to mark the colour of their 
fortune ; and all others would speedily 
discover the futility of so ridiculous a 
practice. GIF. "^Bp. Butler An. p. 
66; 299.] 

2. Labentes; s. Hor. Od. ii, 14, 2; 
MAD. Ov. M. XV, 174 fif. KG. 

Candidifs ; i, 1 10 ; PBA. Ov. Tr. v, 
5, 13 f. KG. 

3. Genins est deus, cujus in tutela, 
ut quisque natus est, vivit. hic, sive 



quod, ut genamu r, curaf ; sive quod 
una genitur nobiscum ; sive etiam 
quod nos gen itos suscipit ac tuetur : 
certe a genendo G eniu s appella- 
tur; Censor. de D. Nat. The birthday 
wa.s sacred to the Genius alone ; the 
customary offerings were incense, wine, 
and flowers ; because, as Censorinus 
tells us from Varro, (and it is a pretty 
fancy) cum munus annale Genio solve- 
rent, manum a cade ac sanguine absti- 
nerent, ne die, qua ipsi lucem accepis- 
sent, aliis demerent. T. GIF. piabant 
fioribus et vino Genium memorem bre- 
vis eevi ; Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 143 f; Tib. ii, 
2, 8 ; &c; i, 7, 49 ff. (HY.) On other 
days, however, they did sacrifice vic- 
tims to the Genius : s Hor. Od. iii, 
17, 14 ff; {JN.) PRA. Prop. iii, 8, 
12; Juv. xi, 85, note. KG. 

' You claim not as a due with mer- 
cenary prayer.' LUB. emax denotes 
' making a bargain.' Plat. Euryph. 
statim ante quam limen Capitolii tan- 
gant,alius donum promittit, si propin- 
quum divitem extulerit ; alius, si the- 
saurum effoderit, SfC ; Petr. PRA. 
Juv. iii, 276, note. Spectator, No. 391. 
[Hor. O. iii, 29, 59.] 

4. Seducfis: s. Tib. ii, 1, 84. (HY.) 
KG. i. e. omnibus arbitris procul amo- 
tis ; Sall. B. C. 20 ; Her. i, 89, note 57. 

Committere: s. Juv. x, 346 ff; vi, 
539, note. 

5. At bona pars hominum ; Hor. S. 
i, ], 61. Thus we say ' a good many 
men.' MAD. 

Acerra:'0\-. Pont. iv, 8, 39 f; 
PRA. Hor. Od. iii, 8, 2 f. (JN.) 
KG. 

6. Labra movet ?netue)is audiri : pul- 
cra Laverna! da ?nihifaUere, dajiisto 
sanctoque videri ; ?\octe??i peccatis et 
fraudibus objice nube??i ; Hor. Ep. i, 

"l6, 60. LUB. Thus the merchant 
prays to Mercury : da ??iodo lucra 
inihi, da facto gaudia luc?-o ; et face 
ut e??itori verba dedisse juvet ; Ov. F. 
V, 689 f. PRA. 



SAT. II. 



OF PERSIUS. 



25 



Tollcre dc tempHs ct aperto viverc voto. 
" Men.s bona, fania, fidcs !" ha^c clarc et ut audiat hospcs : 
Illa sibi introrsum et sub lingua iramurmurat : " O si 
10 Ebullit ])atruus, pra^clarum funus !" et : " O si 
Sub rastro crcpet argenti mihi seria, dextro 
Herculc ! Pupillumve utinara, quem proximus heres 
Impello, expungam ! namque est scabiosus et acri 



T. It was au excellent precept of 
some philosopher, that " We should 
address ourselves to men as if Go<l 
heard us, and to God as if men heard 
us:" Macr. i, 7. PRA. 

8. See Juv. x, 356. L UB. roga bonam 
menteni, bonam valetudinern aniini, 
deinde coijwris ; Sen. Ep. 94; PRA. 
Petr. 3. KG. 

Fides. s. Juv. iii, 143 f. KG. 

' So that strangers and standers-by 
may hear.' HOL. This is opposed to 
sibi in the next line. KG. 

9. See Juv. x, 23 fiF. 

Sub lingua. a. Virg. iE. x, 464 f. 
KG. 

' would that:' s. Hor. S. ii, 6, 9. 
LUB. 

10. Ebullit for ebul/ierit, by archa- 
ism, as axim for egerim, comedim and 
edim, dedtm, CS. vixit ; Virg. M. xi, 
118; PRA. excussit for excusserit; 
Plaut. Bac. iv, 2, 16. 

With ebullit understand animam : 
' to throw out by boiling,' ' to boil 
away;' hence ' to die:' Sen. Apocol. 
(before the middle ;) Petr. fr. Trag. 42 ; 
62; F. 8. Cic. T. Q. iii, 42. Others 
would read ebullet ' would vanish like 
a bubble;' hoino est bulla; Var. R. R. 
i, 1. PRA. " Like a bubble on the 
fountain Thou art gone, — and for ever ! " 
Scott, L. of the Lake; iii, 16, 23 f ; 
8. iii, 34. 

' His uncle,' both because of his 
strictness, i, 11 ; KG. and for the sake 
of his fortnne. Sch. Nothing can be 
more ingenious than the manner in 
which Persius has contrived to frame 
tbese impious requests, and caim the 
conscience of his votary. The suppli- 
cant meditates no injury to any one. 
The death of his uncle is concealed 
under a wish that he could see his 
magnificent foneral ! which, as the poor 
man must one day die, is a prayer be- 
coming a pious nephew, who was to 
inherit his fortune. (Boileau has noted 
the humour of this paasage, and given 



it in his happiest manner: " Oh, r/ue, 
si cet hiver un rhumc salutaire, Guvris- 
sant de tous maux mon avare beau- 
pere, Pourroit, bien confesse, Cctendre 
en un cerceuil, Et remplie sa maison 
d'un agreable deuil, Que mon ame eti 
fe jour de joie et (C opulence , D^un 
superbe convoi plaindroit peu la de- 
pense '." The bien confesse is ad- 
mirable.) The second petition is quite 
innocent : if people will foolishly bury 
their gold, and overlook or forget it, 
there is no more harm in his finding it 
than another. Tlie third is even laud- 
able ; it is a prayer uttered, in pure 
tenderness of heart, for the release of 
a poor suflfering child. With respect 
to the last; there ean be no wrong in 
mentioning a fact which every body 
knows. Not a syllable is said of his 
own wife : if the gods are pleased to 
take a hint and remove her, that is 
their concern ; he never asked it. 
GIF. [" Ye gods, you gave to me a wife, 
Out of your grace and favour, To be the 
comfort of my life ; And glad was I to 
have her : But, if your providence divine 
For better fate design her, T'obey your 
will at any time I'm ready to resign her," 
Sir John Loverule in The Devil to Pay.] 

11. ' A jar.' s. Livy xxiv, 10, 4; 
ED. Plaut. Aul. si urnatn argenti 

fors qua mihi monstret ; Hor. S. ii, 6, 
10 ; PRA. n. rtui fwitu^ous r uutoTs 
dii^ouo'' . flSf oi v^ors^oi KOiriSitTo tuv 
a^yu^iaf ovioi ya^ 'icra<n Xiyouri Si toi 
Toit iraiTts " ouhiii oTJi» Thi iwauoov tov 
i/ttov trX»» ti Tis ai) o^vij." ET. veuXa 
yeiuXo», KToj//,ai ff/i,ivu>i», xai tus uigias 
ato^uTToj Arist. Av. 599 ff. 

12. Hercules was considered the 
guardian of hidden treasures; and the 
tithe of them, when found, was his due. 
FAR. amico Hercule ; Hor. S. ii, 6, 
12 ; {TO.) Plaut, Most. Diod. S. v, 2 ; 
PRA. s. 44. 

13. ' On whose heels I tread:' a 
metaphor taken from persons in a crowd. 
PRA. [21 ; 59.] It was a law of the 



26 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. II. 



Bile tumet. Nerio jam tertia ducitur uxor !" 
15 Haec sancte ut poscas, Tiberino in gurgite mergis 
Mane caput bis terque et noctem flumine purgas. 

Heus age,rcsponde: (minimum est, quod scire laboro:) 
De Jove quid senlis .? Estne, ut pra^ponere cures 
Hunc— ? "Cuinam?" Cuinam? Vis Staio? — An scilicet 
hajres, 
20 Quis potior judex puerisve quis aptior orbis? 
Hoc igitur, quo tu Jovis aurem impellere tentas, 
Dic agedum Staio : " Proh Juppiter ! O bone" clamet 
" Juppiter !" At sese non clamet Juppiter ipse ? 
Ignovisse putas, quia, quum tonat, ocius ilex 
25 Sulfure discutitur sacro, quam tuque domusque ? 
An quia non fibris ovium Ergennaque jubente, 



twelve tables : si jJater-familias intes- 
tato morif)ir, ad impubes suus heres 
escit, agnatus p'oximt(s tutelam nanci- 
tor. KG. 

• I might strike out.' s. Plaut. Cure. 
iv, 4, 24. KG. 

14. Bile titmet. Plaut. Tim. t. ix, p. 
420; Hor. Od. i, 13, 4 f . KG. 

His avarice is shown by his envying 
Nerius, who had already eome in for 
the fortune of three wives. s. Mart. x, 
43. KG. 

15. Juv. vi, 522 ff, notes; MAD. 
Virg. /E. ii, 719 f. PRA. Our author 
here exposes the absurd foUy of those, 
who imagine that sanctity consists in 
a due observance of the external forms 
and rites of religion ; while they shame- 
fully neglect the purification of the 
heart, of whieh the other is but tj^pical 
and ought to remind them. Cie. Leg. 
ii, 10 ; s. Luc. lcar. t. ii, p. 781 f. KG. 

16. Albnla, quem Tibrin merstis 
Tiberinus in unda reddidit ; Ov. F. ii, 
389 f. PRA. 

The rites of the infernal deities were 
performed in the evening, those of the 
celestials ' in the morning.' ApoU. Rh. 
Pind. Is. iv, 110 ff. PRA. 

Bis caput intonsum Jontana spar- 
giturunda: bis sua faginea tempora 
fronde tegit; Ov. F. iv, 655 f. PRA. 

Ter caput irrorat, tcr tollit in 
eethera palmas ; Ov. F. iv, 316 ; PRA. 
Virg. G. i, 345; MAD. M. vi, 
229; Tib. i, 11, 34; Petr. 131. KG. 

Pnrgas. Ablutions are srill per- 



formed, with this view, by the Turks, 
ac priiuum pura somnu7n tibi discute 
lympha ; Prop. iii, 10, 13 ; omina noctis 
farre pio placant et saliente sale; Tib. 
iii, 4, 9 f ; PRA. s. Arist. K. 1376 f; 
Pl. 656 f; Cie. for Coel. 14; Ov. Am. 
iii, 7, 43 f ; Virg. JE. viii, 69 f; Tib. 
ii, 1, 9ff; Petr. 104. KG. 

19. There is great bitterness in the 
ctfinam ? The man of prayer will not 
venture to decide; till he hears the 
name of the individual, whose virtues, 
as guardian and judge, are to be 
weighed against those of Jupiter: even 
then he hesitates ; till he is incidentally 
reminded, that the person thus selected 
had defrauded his ward in one instance, 
and condemned theinnocentin another: 
this overcomes his delicate scruples; 
and he tacitly admits the god to be the 
better of the two. GIF. 

W h o Staius was, is not known : we 
learn what he was, from the next 
line. KG. 

21. Liqiellere ' to assail.' Virg. JE. 
xii, 618 f. KG. 

22. C/aw/e/, understand Staius.LUB. 
s. Hor. S. i, 2, 17 f. KG. 

24. Juv. 13, 100, note. KG. 

25. ' The thunderbolt.' LUB. Plin. 
xxsv, 15 ; PRA. quocmnque decidit 

fulmen, ibi odorem sulfuris esse certum 
est; Sen. Q. N. ii, 53; Virg. M. ii, 
698. KG. [ta hlov.] 

26. "Ev ^ia. 'ivolv: Ergenna (i. e. the 
Tusean soothsayer,) gives directions, 
after consulting the entrails of the 



SAT. U. 



OF PERSIUS. 



27 



Triste jaces lucis cviti\ndiiniquc bidcntal, 
Idcirco stolidam pnebct tibi vcllcrc barliani 
Juppitcr.' Aut quidnam est, qua tu mercede deoruni 

30 Enicxis auriculas.? pulmonc et lactibus unctis.!* 
Eccc »via aut mctucns diviim matertcra cunis 
Excniit pucrum frontcmque atque uda labella 
Infami digito ct lustralibus aute salivis 
Expiat, urcntes oculos inhibcre pcrita ; 

35 Tunc manibus quatit et spem macram supplicc voto 
Nunc Licini in campos, nunc Crassi mittit in rcdes. 
" Hunc optent generum rcx et regina ! puellae 
Hunc rapiant ! quidquid calcaverit hic, rosa fiat !" 



sheep. CS. LUB. s. Juv. xiii, 62; 
PRJ. and vi, 587, note. This line, in 
constructiiin, foUows evitandum. rl S»- 
ToTi Touf iigtffuXeus xa.) Xr,rTas a<pi»Ttf 
Kai ToreuTous u^^iiTTas xai /iiaious xai 
Inopxous, i^uf Tiia ToXXixis xi^autoun 
n Xi6oi V ¥la/s IVT01 0001)1 aoixoufns '■ ItiOTl 
i\ ^^riffTov Tita xai 'itioi oSoirooov ; t/ 
ffiuTas, u Ziv, n euil touto fit ^ifcis 
i(Si»«i; Luc. Jup. Conf. t. ii, p. C38 ; 
KG. 8. Lucr. vi, 386.. 421. 

27. Jaces; Virg. JE. i, 99. (HY.) 
KG. 

' In those groves,' wrhere the ilex 
was struck and you escaped. MAD. 
Bklental. Gell. xvi, 6. PRA. 

28. Seei, 133; LUB. Juv. vi, 15f; 
xiv, 12. MAD. Dionysius of Syracuse 
took away the golden beard of ^scula- 
pius at Epidaurus, saying that the son 
ought not to have a beard, when his 
father ApoUo wasbeardless. PRA,[bB.] 

30. ' The pluck and the chitterlings 
with the crow.' 

31. This lustration was performed 
on the eighth day for a girl, and the 
ninth for a boy; and then the name 
was given. FAR. The goddess of the 
cradle, Cunina., was invoked among 
other deities: Lact. i, 20, 36. KG. 

Mater altcra, ' maternal aunt ;' L UB. 
amifa is the father's sister. MAD. 

' Superstitious,' itiffi^a/ftur Acts xvii, 
22. MAD. 

33. ' The middle finger;' Juv. x, 63; 
T. Dio Chrj'8. Or. 33 ; PRA. Anth. 
L. BU, f. ii, p. 528. KG. 

The officious gossip takes this oppor- 
tunity to effascinate the child. HOL. 
The ancients thought in hominis saliva 
vim esse ndverstis veneficia et fasrina- 



tiones; Plin. xxviii, 4, 22; LUB. 
Piut. 7nox turhatuni sptito pulverem 
anus medio sustulit digito frontemquc 
repugnantis signat ; Petr. 131. PRA. 
Among Papists, the saliva of tlie 
priest is still employed in tbe chrism 
applied to infants at baptism ; as I 
witnessed in one of the churches of the 
Netheilands. 

34. ' Withering, blasting.' Plin. vii, 
2. PRA. urere also signifies injury in 
general: Virg. G. ii, 196. The eye 
was supposed to have a poteut in- 
fluence in evil fascination ; Id. E. iii, 
103; MAD. s. Spectator, No. 19. 

35. ' ?he dances iu her anns her 
starveh'ng Hope.' GIF. s. Hom. II. Z 
474 ff. CS. 

36. The Licini or Licinii were ex- 
ceedingiy wealthy: Juv. i, 109; xiv, 
306, notes. KG. The epitaph on the 
barber of Augustus was as follows : 
marmoreo Licinus tumulo jacet ; at 
Cato parvo ; Pompeius nullo: quis 

putet esse deos? Varro. Sch. 

The richcs of Crassus were aJmost 
as proverbial as those of Crwsus. GIF. 

Mittit ' prays that he niay one day 
or other step into,' Virg. JE. xi, 47. 
PRA. 

37. Cat. lxii,42; Virg. JE. xi, 582 
f; G. i, 31. KG. 

38. Rapiatit is a slronger expresi5ion 
than amcnt. KG. 

See Claud. xxix, 86 ff; Calp. iv, 107. 
The contrary of this is, is, quacumque 
ihat, terram adurehat; Petr. 44. The 
mischief resulting from such prayers 
being granted is admirably set forth, 
Juv. X, 104 ; 289 ff. KG. ' May the 
Loves and Graces ever attend his steps !' 



28 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. II. 



Ast ego nutiici non mando vota ; negalo, 
40 Juppiter, hajc illi, quainvis tc albata rogarit ! 

Poscis opem nervis corpusque fidele senectae : 
Esto, agc ; sed pingues patinfc tucetaque crassa 
Annuere his superos vetuere Jovemque morantur. 
Rem stniere exoptas cseso bove Mercuriumque 
45 Arcessis fibra : " Da fortunare penates ! 

Da pecus et gregibus fetum !" Quo, pessime, pacto, 
Tot tibi quum in flammas junicum omenta liquescant ? 
Attamen hic extis et opimo vincere fcrto 
Intendit: " Jam crescit ager, jam crescit ovile, 
50 Jam dabitur, jamjam !" donec deceptus et exspes 

likely to ensure an old age of health. 
" Though I look old, yet I am strong 
and lusty : For in my youth I never 
did apply Hot and rebellious liquors in 
my blood ; Nor did not with unbashful 
forehead woo The means of weakness 
and debility; The-efore ray age ia as 
a lusty winter Frosty, but kindly;" 
Shaksp. As You Like It, ii, 3. MAD. 

44. ' Killing one's cattle is a strange 
way of augmenting one's stock.' L UB. 

Mercury was the god, to whose kind- 
ness <hey attributed any unexpected 
gains. LUB. Plaut. Amph. pr. PRA. 
Hom. II. S 489 ff; Hor. S. ii, 6, 4 f ; 
Ov. F. V, 689 f; KG. 12; v, 112; 
vi, 62. 

45. Da\ a Grecism: s. Call. H. 
Dian. 6; Ov. M. i, 486; Tr. i, 1, 34. 
KG. 

Aiterfortunare, understandyac?//to- 
tes meas. L UB. 

46. t^aiiiovii ayi^u» ! ' most unaccount- "^ 
able, or perverse!' Her. iv, 126; vii, 1 
48, ^ 

47. See Hom. II. A 460 ; 240 ; Cat. 
xc, 6. KG. 

48. Ed^tis. Vifg. G. ii, 194 ; JE. xii, 
215 f. KG. 

' To carry his point.' L UB. 

Fertinn was a cake or pudding of 
flour, wine, honey, &c. which made 
part of their usual oiferings. Cato R. R. 
134. CS. 

50. The epithets being applied to the 
money, which belong properly to the 
man, make a very humorous prosopo- 
poeia. ' The sestertius, deceived and ^ 
desponding, sits sighing to no purpose, - 
in the bottom of the money-chest, for ; 
his departed comrades.' MAD. " Like • 



LUB. as oa those of the goddess of 
beauty : tibi snaves dailala telliis snm- 
7uittit fiores; Lucr. i, 7 f ; " ^ te fio- 
riscono Gli erbosi jirati ;'" Metastasio, 
Inno a Venere. 

39. ' Silly old women are no judges 
of what is good or evil for a chikl ; CS. 
and I would never trust a nurse to put 
up prayers for a child of mine.' MAD. 
ctiamnum optas, quod tibi optavit nu- 
trix ; Sen. Ep. 60; omnium tihi eornm 
contemptum opto, quorum copiatu pa- 
rentes optaverunt ; ib. 32; PRA. s. 
Hor. Ep. i, 4, 6 fif. KG. 

40. When they performed solemn 
sacrifices, they dressed in white ; L UB. 
as emblematical of puritv : Cic. Leg. 
PRA. Hor. S. ii, 2, 6l'; Ov. Tr. ii, 
653 ff; Tib. ii, 1, 15f. KG. [Heucethe 
use and the name of the alb.] 

42. ' Well : there is no harm in this :' 
orandum est, ut sit nicns sana in cor- 
pore sano; Juv. x, 356. T. 

' But these prayers can never take 
effect, so long as rich made-dishes and 
high-seasoned viands constitute your 
ordinary meals.' 

From the receipt which is given for 
making it, tlie tucetum appears to come 
very near our ' minced-meat.' suis do- 
minis parabaf viscum fartim concisum 
et pu/jjamfrustatiin collcctam adpascua 
Juru/enta, et quidem naribusjam mihi 
ariu/abar tucetum perquam sapidis- 
simum; Apul. M. ii. It was a very 
savoury dish : esca regia; Fulgent. 
ambrosio rcdo/ent tuceta sapore ; Cal- 
limor. ib. GIF. and perhaps not much 
unlike ' the Bologna sausage.' 

43. See Hor. S. ii, 3, 288 S. KG. 
Nothing but a youth of temperance is 



SAT. II. 



OF PERSIUS. 



29 



Nt;quid(iuani fundo suspirel nunuis in imo. 
Si tibi crateras argenti incusaquo piugui 
Auro dona feram, sudes et pectore laevo 
Exeutiat gultas hutari prastrepidum cor. 
55 Ilinc illud subiit, auro sacras quod ovato 
Perducis facies. " Nam fratres inter aenos. 



the laiit rose of summer left blooming 
alone ; All its lovely companions are 
faded and gone!'' Moore. [s. Phillips, 
The Splendid Shillinfi.] 

51. ^iitii lya^ It Tuf/iitt fiiitu' Hes. 
O. D. 3(59 ; CS. sern pnrsiinonia in 

fiindo est ; Sen. Ep. 1 , end. DBN. 

62. Crater&s o{ i\\e first declension, 
from cratera : craterAs, Stat. Th. ii, 76 ; 
(BJ.) of the thi rd, from crater. WB. 
cratera impressitm signis; Virg. iE. v, 
536. The folloveing is a description of 
' the bowl' of Hercules : Centauros 
habet arte triices uurninrfiie Jiguris 
terribile : hic mixta Lapithariim ctede 
rotantur saxa, Jaces, aliiijue itcruin 
crateres; ubique inyentes morientuin 
iree : tenet ipse furentem Hi/lceum et 
torta molitur robora barha ; Stat. Th. 
vi, 536 ff. The vases were sometimes 
of silver and the figures of gold : noii 
habemus argeiitum, iii (/uod soUdi auri 
coBlatura descendit; Sen. Ep. 6. KG. 
CS. 

53. * You would glow with ecstasy.' 
Kayu oTu; nxavvei, X^i^^f "*' fufta 
'KiTo.nu iS^uTf Aspasia in Ath. v, p.2l9 
c. CS. [s. BY, on H. O. ii, 19, 6. K.] 
64. ' Your heart in your left breast, 
over-hasty in rejoicing, would foree 
tears from your eyes.' Cat. xlvi, 7 ; 
(DCE.) Juv. vii, 159, note ; KG. lacru- 
mas excussit mihi; Ter. Heaut. i, ], 
115. MAD. lcetari pratrepiduin cor 

\ is probably a hemistich from some old 

•1 poet. OE. 

55. Hinc, ' from your fondly fancy- 
ing that the gods resemble men.' PRA. 

Ovato ' taken in war and carried in 
the ovation or lesser triumph.' In this 
word there is probably something more 
than meets the ear. GIF. ' Compli- 
menting the immortals witli what has 
been taken from your fellow mortals by 
rapine and plunder.' MAD. 

56. Perdurere ' to overspread :' Virg. 
G. iv, 416. KG. 

' The brazen brethren' are either (1) 

the statues in the Pantheon at Rome ; 

; L UB. i. e. the heathen gods in general, 



FAR. " qui en effet sontfreres u-peu- 
pres, si on remonte d leur origine." 
RAO. or (2) the Herince, which were '^ 
numerous at Rome; and Mercury pre- ' 
sided over dreams. PLU. DBN. or(3) *" 
the fifty sons of ^Egyptus. Acron re- ^ 
lates that in the portico of the Palatine -' 
Apollo were the statues of the Danaidea, ' 
and, over against them in the open air, 
the sons of .iEgisthus(meaningof course 
./Egyptu.s); and some of these statues 
were said to give oracles by means of 
dreams. Sch. Subsequent commenta- 
tors (FAR. CS. PRA. MAD. DEN.) 
take the liberty of placing the gentle- 
men in the portico, and silently dis- 
missing their fair cousins. 

One of our old poets tells ns that 
mons ' a mountain' cometh from mo- 
vendo, because it standeth still: 
and a similar train of reasoning seems 
to have influenced those, who first gave 
the faculty of inspiring dreams to the 
fifty sons of iEgyptus. These poor 
youths were tbe last persons in the 
world who should have been selected 
for such a province: they were mar- 
ried to their fifty cousins, and, with- 
out foreseeing or even dreaming of 
their fate, bad their throats cut like so 
many calves, {velut vituli) in the same 
night, with the exception of one, who 
was roused out of a sound sleep by his 
wife: "surge!'' quce dixit juveni ma- 
rito, " surge! ne longus tibi sonimis, 
unde noii tiines, detur;" Hor. Od. iii, 
11,37 8". GIF. 

KG proposes foUowing Acron, for 
want of another guide, but, on turning 
to the authors of the Augustan age, 
finds the ladies only mentioned. We 
will give the passages: aurea Phoebi 
porticus a magno Ccesare aperta fuit. 
tota erat in speciem Poenis digesta 
columnis; inter quas Danai femina 
turha senis; Prop. ii, 31, l flf; the 
description is carried on for twelve 
lines, but there is no allusion to the 
young men. Again : inde tciiore pari 
grndihus subHmia celsis ducnr ntf in- 



30 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. II. 



Somnia pituita qui ])urgatissima raittunt, 
Prajcipui sunto sitquc illis aurca barba." 
Aurum vasa Numse Saturniaquc impulit ajra, 
60 Vestalesquc urnas et Tuscum fictile mutat. 

O curvaj in terras anima) ct ca^lcstium inancs ! 
Quid juvat hos templis nostros immittere mores 
Et bona dis ex hac scelerata ducerc pulpa ? 
Ha3C sibi corrupto casiam dissolvit olivo ; 



tonsi candida templa dei; signa pere- 
grinis ubi stmt alterna colunmis Be- 
lides ct stricto barharus ensc pater : 
quceque viri docto veteres cepere novi- 
i/ue pectore, lecturis inspicienda patent. 
fiuferehamfratrcs^ exceptis scilicet iltis, 
quos smis optaret non gemtisse parens. 
(jucerentem frustra custos me, sedibus 
illis preepositus, sancto jussit abire 
loco; Ov. Tr iii, 1, 69 ff ; Id. Am, ii, 
2,4; A. A. i, 73 f. 

57. Pituitais here atrisyUable. (Fasc. 
Poet. p. 2.) LUB. ' Fr5m gross hu- 
moars.' PRA. Macr. S. Sc, 3 ; Cic. 
Div. i, 43 ; Siiet. x, 7. KG. 

58. Suet.iv, 5^2. PRA. Ivory, marble, 
or bronze statues were often decorated 
with locks, which were literally ' gol- 
den,' and with a ' beard' of the same 
materials. Cic. N. D. iii, 34; /E\. V. 
H. i, 20; V.Max. i, 1, 2; Luc.Tim.t. 
i, p. 107; Petr. 58 ; KG. [s. 28.] 

59. In the time of Nuraa,the vessels 
used were of wood or earthenware. Juv. 
vi, 343 f. KG. Thatprince allowed nei- 
ther images nor gold to be introduced 
into the temples. Cic. Parad. i ; Plin. 
xxxiii ; 11. PRA. Juv. xi, 116, note. 
MAD. In the g o 1 d e n age, the metal, 
after which it was designated, was un- 
known. LUB. Ov. A. A. ii, 277 f. 

The temple of Satum, (Ov. F. i ; 
PRA.) was the treasury, and, from the 
currency, was called (erarium. In those 
days large sums of money were weighed 
and not counted ; and hence came the 
term d i spenser s. Sch, 

Impulit ' supplanted,' LUB. A me- 
taphor from gymnastics. KG. 14, 

60. Vesfales ' of pottery,' because 
SQch the Vestals used, LUB. Ov, F. 
iii, 11 f.KG. 

The religious rites of the Eomans 
came mostly from Tuscany ; CS. as 
well as much of their earthemvare. 
Juv. xi, 109 ; s, iii, 168 ; MAD. Plin, 
H. N, XXXV, 43 f ; 46. KG. 



61. See Lact. Inst. ii, 2, 13; Ov. M. 
i, 84 f ; Sil. XV, 84 ff. KG. This apo- 
strophe and the remainder of the satire 
contain sentiments worthy of a Chris- 
tian. MAD.Though Persiusmightbave 
somewhat profited by the ethical dia- 
logue from which his subject is taken : 
it is certain, that a brighter gleam must 
have occasionally broken upon the dark- 
ness of his mind, than the torch of Plato 
ever afforded : that he was unconscious 
of its source, is his misfortune. What 
Cornutus thought of this, cannot be 
told ; he could not but see, however, 
that though the words, in this section, 
were those of the Porch, they were 
used in a more spiritual sense than the 
wisest and best of its sectaries ever 
gave them, GIF. [The metaphor is 
taken from Vir, E, iii, 42.] 

62. <^^a(rat S)5 /icei, Tis h u^iXua v»7s 
6lo~i [Twy^f^ayii] ovira, a.vo tuji "hco^eon, ut 
'Jta^ huav Xafiliavovriv ; a fi,iv ya^ ^iSoaffi, ' 
irdyTi §?>.«»■ ovSiy ya^ IffTiv rtfiTf ayaSit, 
OTixv/ih IKiivoi^Ziffiy u Sf ^ao iifiuy Xafi/ici- 

vovffi, Ti u^iXovtTai ; Plato Eutbyph. 18 ; 
KG. quid eiiim immortalibus afque 
beatis gratia nostra (pieat largirier 
emolumenti? Lucr. v, 166 f. 

63. ' And to estimate what is goodto 
the gods, by a reference to our depraved 
carnal nature.' XZ75. piilpa answers to 
the ffa^% of the New Testaraent. MAD. 

64. See vi, 36 ; Plin. H. N. xiii; rit 
Tt fil^us Twv ^^tifiaraf oi ^oiiy^dlpot 
(p6 ^ai. ovofidXoviri, xa) ro fid-^ai fii^ vki 
xixXnxit vroir)Tns' (Hom. 11. A 141 ;) 
Plut. Symp. Q. v, t. xi ; M. Ant. de 
Eeb. S. vi, 30 ; (GK.) alba nec Assyrio 

fucatur lana veneno., nec casia liijuidi 
corrumpitur usus olivi ; Virg. G. ii, 465 
f. (H Y. VS.) KG. Both the epic poet 
and the satirist use the language of the 
old republic : they consider the oil of the 
country to be vitiated, instead of im- 
proved, by the luxurious admixture of 
foreign spices; the consumption of which 



SAT. 11. 



()F PKRSIUS. 



31 



Oo llxc Calabnim coxit viliato niuricc vcllus ; 
Ha^c baccaui concha) rasissc et stringcrc vcnas 
Fcrvcntis niassa? crudo de pulverc jussit. 
Peccat et hajc, peccat : vilio tamcn utitur. At vos 
Dicite, pontifices, iu sacro quid facit aurum ? 

70 Nempe hoc, quod Vcneri donata^ a virgine puppa). 
Quiu danms id supcris, dc magna quod dare lance 
Non possit magni Mcssala^ lippa ])ropago : 
Compositum jus fasque animo sanctosque recessus 
Mentis ct incoctum generoso pectus honesto : 

75 Ha)c cedo, ut admoveam tomphs, et farre Utabo. 



at Rome must have been iramense at 
this period, since they were infused into 
every dish, and almost into every cup. 
The conclusion of this spirited passage 
is closely followed by Prudentius : 
gemma, bombyx^ purpura, in carnis 
usum tnille (jiKernntur dolis. GIF. 

65. The Lydians are said to have in- 
vented the art of dying. Plin. vii, 66. 
PRA. 

Tarentum in Calabria produced the 
finest wool. Plin. H. N. viii, 48 ; ix, 61 
fif; LUB. Calp. ii, 69 ; KG. e. Juv. 
viii, 15, note. 

The inurex was found in the greatest 
perfection off the coast of Tyre. Virg. 
M. iv, 262 ; Hor. Ep. xii, 21. MAD. 

66. ' The berry of the shell' i. e. 



;. *the pearl.'erasA't'A-c!<«< etiam in senecta, 
conchisque adhcBrescnnt^ nec his avelli 
queunt nisi lima; Plin.ix, 35 ; LUB. 
Hor. Ep. viii, 14 ; PRA. Mi. N. A. 
XV, 8. KG. 

Stringere ' to collect,' PRA. 
Venas ; Juv. ix, 31. KG. 

67. ' Of the fiised metal (v, 10 ;) from 
the crude ore.' MAD. vagantur hi ve- 
narmn canales per tatera puteortan (' of 
the shafts which miners sink') et huc 
illuc, inde nomine invento ; tellus ligneis 
columnis suspenditur. quod effossum 
est, tunditur, lavatur, xiritur, moliturin 
farinam; Plin. H. N. xxxiii, 21. KG. 

68. ' It makes some use of its vicious 
propensity.' Juv. i, 49, note. KG. 

69. Ln sacro i. e. »» /gy ' in a temple.' 
CS.a. Juv. xi, 111 fif. KG. 

70. Girls, when they were grown up 
and beeame marriageable, offered ' wax 
dollsto Venu8:'Varro; Sch. ^X. Lact. 
Inst. ii, 4, 13 ; Hor. S. i, 5, 66 ; (Sch.) 
KG. that she might in retum biess their 



nuptial couch with real babies. PRA. 

71. The entrails of victims were of- 
fered in these dishes. On the size of 
them, s. Plin. H. N. xxxiii, 52. KG. 

72. Some degenerate descendant of 
M. Valerius Corvinus Messala, Juv. 
viii, 5; who was seven times consul. 
Sch. Macr. i, 6, fin. PRA. 

Lippa denotes ' morally blind.' L UB. 
i, 79. KG. If Messala had any p h y- 
s i c a 1 defect in his eyes, would Persius 
have thonght fit to taunt him with it ? 
s. i, 128,note. Unless (with Pi?^.) we 
attribute this disease to a life of intem- 
perance ; which would aUer the case : 
s. Arist. Eth. iii, 5 ; s. also v, 77- 

73. Compositum 'harmoniously blend- 
ed.' 

Jus comprehends ' our duty to our 
neighbour,' fas ' our duty to God ;' 
CS. or jus ' what is enacted by hu- 
man laws,' and fas ' what is enacted 
by the divine law.' PRA. 

Sanctos ' holy,' ' without poUution.' 
LUB. 

RecessilS : rk K^wrvra ruv avf^d-ruf 
Romans ii, 16 ; MAD. Theoc. xxviii,3. 
KG. In this passage Persius may be 
more easily admired than translated. 
His lines are not only the quintessence 
of sanctity, but of language. Closeness 
would cramp and paraphrase would 
enfeeble their sense ; which may be 
felt, but cannot be expressed. GIF. 

74. ' Imbued :' "itKaiirut^ fiifiafiftitov 
tit (iaias ■ MAD. Ant. de Reb. S. iii, 4 ; 
Lact. Inst. vii, 21, 6; a metaphorfrom 
a fleece that is died. L UB. Virg. G. iii, 
307. MAD. 

75. The poor substituted ' salted 
meal' for frankincense. Plin. xviii, 3; 
LUB. Virg. JE. V, 745. MAD. 



32 



THE SATIRES OF PERSIUS. 



SAT. 11. 



Litare is ' to perform a eacriflce 
auspiciously.' LUB. tum me Jupiter 
faciat, nt semper sacrifice^n, nec um- 
quam litcm ; Plaut. Poen. ii, 42; Liv. 
xxxviii, 20. PRA. It is pleasing to 
observe witli what judgement Horace 
has adapted a similar thought to the 
plain understanding of his village maid : 
im^nunis aram si tetigit manus, non 
sumtuosa blandior hostia mollibit aver- 
sos Penates farre pio et satiente mica; 
Od. iii, 23, 17 ff. Seneca too says well, 
(and Persius probably had it in his 
thoughts,) nec in victimis, licet opimee 
sint, auroque prcefulgeant, deorum est 
honos ; sed pia et rectavoluntatevene- 
rantium : itaque boni etiamfarre acfic' 



tili religiosi sunt, fyc. GIF. And again : 
primus est deorum cultus, deos credere : 
deindc reddere illis mqjestatem suain, 
reddere bonitatem, sine r/ua nulla ma- 
jestas est : .scire illos esse, (/ui prtesident 
mmido, qui universa vi sua temperant, 
qui humani generis tutelam gerunt in- 
terdum curiosi singulorum. vis deos 
pj-opitiare ? bo?ius esto. satis illos coluit, 
</uis(juis imitatus est ; Ep. 95 ; s. Plat. 
Alc. ii, t. V, p. 99 ; Virg. M. viii, 102 ; 
Prop. iii, 3, 1 7 ; O V. Tr. i, 2, 75 ; Pont. 
iv, 8, 29; V. Max. ii, 5, 5. KG. 
Litare is also ' to obtain that for which 
you sacrifice ;' v, 120 ; MAD. Livy 
xxiii, 36, 2. 



S A T I R E in. 



ARGUMENT. 

The whole of this Satire manifests an eamest desire to reclaim the youthful 
nohility from their itlle and vicious habits. It opens not unhappily. 
A professor of the Stoic school ahruptly enters the hed-room of his 
pupils, -whom he finds asleep at mid-day ; 1 . .6. Their confusion at this 
detection, 7.. 9, and their real indolence amidst an affected ardour for 
study, 10. .14, are exposed ; and the fatal consequences of such thought- 
less conduct is beautifully illustrated by apt allusions to the favourite 
topics of the Porch; 15.. 24. 

The preceptor, after a brief ehullition of contempt, points out the evils to 
which the neglect of philosophy (i. e. the sbjdy of virtue) will expose 
them, and overthrows the ohjections which they raise against the neces- 
sity of severe application, on account of their hirth and fortune; 24.. 30. 
In a suhlime and terrible apostrophe, he pourtrays the horrors of that 
late remorse which must afflict the vicious, when they contemplate the 
fallen state to which the neglect of wisdom has consigned them; 31 . .43. 

He then descrihes, in a lighter tone, the defects of his own education, 
44.. 51, and shows that the persons whom he addresses are without this 
apology for their errors, 52.. 65; he points out, with admirable brevity 
and force, the proper pursuits of a well-regulated mind, 66.. 76, and 
teaches them to despise the scorn of the vulgar and the rude buffoonery 
of wanton ignorance, 77. .87: lastly, he introduces a lively apologue of 
a glutton, who, in spite of advice, perseveres in his intemperance till he 
hecomes its victim, 88. .106 ; concluding with an apposite application of 
the fable (after the fashion of the Stoics) to a diseased mind ; 107. .118. 

The Satire and its moral may be fitly summed up iu the solemn injunc- 
tion of a wiser man than the Schools ever produced: " VVisdom is the 
principal thing ; therefore get Wisdom ;" Proverbs iv, 7- GIF. 



34 



THE SATIKES 



SAT. III. 



" Nempe hoc assidue } Jam clarum mane fenestras 
Intrat et angustas extendit lumine rimas." 
" Stertimus, indomitum quod despumare Falernum 
Sufficiat." " Quinta dum linea tangitur umbra ! — 
En quid agis ? Siccas insana canicula messes 
Jara dudum coquit et patula pecus omne sub ulmo est. 
Unus ait comitum. " Verumne ? itane ? Ocius adsit 
Huc aliquis ! — Nemon ?" Turgescit vitrea bilis ; 



1. See Ov. Am. i, 13, 17 f; Aus. 
Eph. i, 1 ff. KG. From tlie mamier iii 
vvhich the speaker announces himself, 
he appears to have been a domestic 
tutor to some of the young nobility. 
With the decay of literature and the 
empire, the authority of these private 
iustructors declined: ninic videre est 
philosophos ultro currere, ut doceaiit, 
ad foras juvcnum divitum, eosque ibi 
sedere atque operiri prope ad meridiem, 
donec discipuH nocturnum omne vinum 
edormiant ; Gel. x, 6. GIF. 

Mane is here used as a noun. LUB, 
Macr. S. i, 3; Gell. iii, 2. PRA. 

Their windows were closed with 
' shutters,' which were either of solid 
board or of lattice-work, Hor. Od. i, 
25, 1. {JC.) KG. 

2. Ejctendit ' makes them appear 
wider.' PRA. Prop. i, 3, 31 f; Virg. 
M. iii, 152 f. KG. 

3. ' To digest the froth or scum of the 
wine fermenting in the stomach.' L UB. 

'Falernian:' Juv. iv, 138, note; 
Cat. XXV, 2. KG. 

4. ' It wants but aa hour to noon, 
according to the sundial.' LUB. 
[" The sun is up three rods, is to 
say that you are late:'' Illustrations of 
Men and Things in China, in the 
Chinese Repository, vol. x, p. 50.] On 
the day and its divigjons among the 
ancients, s. Plin. H.^N. ii, 76 f ; vii, 
60 ; Macr. S. i, 3. ROD. AX. The in- 
\entar of sun-dials (according to Pliny) 
was Anaximenes ; according to D. 
Laertius, Vitruvius, and others, it was 
Anaa'i»>(inder. They were introduced 
ac Rome in the tirst Punic war ; but 
they were known earlier in the east : 
II Kings XX ; s. S. Ilieron. on Isaiah; 
PRA. KU.I yx^ yveufiajv ffxiii^u fiiffnv 
T«v 'ToXnr (/jLirov rov vriXtv:' EU.) Luc. 
Lexiph. t. ii, p. 326. KG. The Ro- 



mans used a natural day, dividing the 
time from sunrise to sunset into tvrelve 
equal parts or hours : which would 
only equal our hours iu length, when 
the days and nights are equal ; that is, 
when the sun rises arid sets at six pre- 
cisely. Cens. de D. N. 24. HOL. 
Eleven o'clock was the dinner hour 
among sober people: Sosia, pranden- 
dum est : quartam jam totus in horam 
sol calct ; ad quiutam flectitur umhra 
notam : Aus. Eph. L. O. C. 1 f. Scipio 
Nasica introduced the clepsydrce or 
' water clocks.' GIF. 

Quinta agrees with umhra^ instead 
of linea, by hypallage. MAD. 

5. Stella vesani leonis ; Hor. Od. iii, 
29, 19 ; rahiosi tempora sig^ii; Id. S. i, 
6, 1 26. The intiuence of the dog-star, 
when the sun entered leo, was supposed 
to produee excessive heat, as well as 
cauine madness and other disorders. 
PRA.LUB. 

6. Nunc etiam pecudes umhras et 
frigora captant ; Virg. E. ii, 8. LUB. 
Jam pastor uu/hras cum grege languido 
rivunique fessus qucerit, et korridi du- 
meta Sylvani ; Hor. Od. iii, 29, 21 ff; 
MAD. Nemes. E. iv, 39 ff; Calp. v, 
66 ff. KG. 

7. ' Of the fellow students:' CS. 
ihose young men of inferior birth or 
fortune, whoin the wealthy father had 
taken into his house to be companions 
to his son, both in his studies and in 
his amusenifnts. KG. 

Ocius. A li vely sketch of the manners 
of the rich, who have servants always 
at their beck or call; s. Hor. S. ii, 7, 
34. KG. The sleeper too is anxious 
to make up for iost time. LUB. 

8. 'TaX^Sjjs x°^^ '1 *h^ medical 
writers, froui its shining and glassy 
appearance : splendida hitis ; Hor. S. 
ii, 3, 141. CS. 



SAT. iir. 



OV PERSIUS. 



S6 



Fiiiditiir: Arciidiiu pccuariu nidcrc dicas. 

10 Jam libcr ct bicolor positis nieinbrana capillis 
Inquc manus chartae nodosaquc vcnit arundo. 
Tunc qucritur, crassus calanio quod ])cn(leat liunxn-; 
Nigra quod infusa vanescat sepia lyniplia : 
Dilutas queritur gcminet quod fistula gutlas. 

15 O miscr ! inque dics ultra miser ! huccinc rcrum 
Venimus ? At cur non potius, tencroquc palumbo 
Et similis regum pueris, pappare minutiun 
Poscis ct iratus mammaB lallare recusas ? 



9. ' He bursts.' FJR. 

' The herds of Arcadia.' Juv. vii, 
160, note; MJD. Aus. Ep.lxxvi. KG. 

Ruilere: the Hrst syllable is short in 
Virg. G. iii, 374. LUB. The noise is 
produced by his yawning and bellowinfi 
for the servant at the same time. KG. 

10. ' The bofk,' probabh-, contained 
the thesis for the morning's exercise ; 
' tbe eoarse paper' was to receive the 
first thoughts of the j'oinig writer; 
which, when matured and corrected, 
were to be transferred to ' the parch- 
ment' for the benefit of inankind ; G TF. 
s. Juv. vii, 23, note. MAD. It is 
probable that waxen tablets and the 
siyle were not used, lest the youth's 
eye-sight should suffer ; Quint. x, 3 ; 
Mart. xiv, 5. KG. 

PositisioT depositis; LUB. Juv. iii, 
186. 

Cap/i/is, which denotes ' human 
hair,' is put catachrestically for pifis, 
which signifies ' the hair of an animal.' 
CS. 8. TT, on Liv. xxxii, 1, 10. KG. 

11 . According to Varro, ' paper' was 
invented in the time of Alexander. Be- 
fore which they wrote on the leaves or 
bark of trees; then on paper manufac- 
tured from tlie papyrus, an Egyptian 
flag ; and lastly parchment was invented 
at Pergaraus, in the reign of Eumenes ; 
PRA. s. Plin. xiii, 12; Hor. S. i, 10, 
4; S. ii, 3, 2. MAD. 

Before the use of pens, they wrote 
with reeds, {arundo, calnmus, and 
fistula,) which wcre knotted or jointed ; 
the best eame from Egypt; Plin. H. 
N. xvi, 63; Mart. xiv, 38. LUB. 
PRA. KG. 

12. ' At first the ink is too thick : 
water is added ; and then it is too 
pale.' SVL. 

13. The Africans used the black 



liquor of the cuttlefish for ink; others 
a preparation of lamp-black. Sch. The 
former was vulgarly suppused to be the 
blood, (s. Lord Bacon, N. H. 742 ; ED.) 
which the fish dischargcd, when closely 
pursued, whereby it rendered the water 
turpid and escapt d ; Plin. ix, 29 ; SVL. 
xxxii, 10,end; PRA. xxxv, 25; Arist. 
An. iv, 2. KG. " He that uses many 
words frir the explaining any subject, ' 
doth, like the cuttlefish, hide himself for 
the most part in his own ink ;" Ray on 
the Creation. s. Hcr. vii, 176, 25. 

16. ' A tender ring-dove' is said to be 
fed by i(s niother with the half digested 
food irom her own crop. PRA. These 
birds, also, were often kepi as pets by 
young ladies, and tended with the great- 
est care. CS. Hence, perhaps, the word 
(" dove ! pigeon !" ED.) became a term 
of endearment addressed to little boyq. 
Thus the flatterer calls the children, 
at the house where he visits, viirTiK 
Mittle chicks:' [Theoph. Ch.] KG. 
Juv. V, 143, and vi, 105, notes. [s. BY, 
on H. O. i, 2, 10. K.] 

17. The wealthy nobility were called 
reges by their fiatterers aud dependents ; 
Hor. Od. i, 4, 21 ; Juv. viii, 160 ff. 
KG. 

Pappare, an infinitive used as a noun, 
Plaut. Epid. v, 2, 62 ; PRA. ' pip' or 
' food chewed by the nurse:' LUB. 
and thus, lallare ' the lullaby:' and 
velle for iwluntas, v, 53 ; note on i, 9. 

1 8. Iratus ' fractious,' ' in a passion.' 
MAD. 

Nurses when thcy were putting babies 
tosleep used tosay " Lalla! lalla! lalla! 
go to sleep, or suck." Sch. Ov. F. ii, 
599 f. KG. " Philomel, with melody, 
Sing in our sweet lullaby ! Lulla, lulla, 
lullaby ! lulla, lulla, lullaby !" Shaksp. 
Mids. N. ]lr. ii, 3. 



36 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



" An tali studeam calamo ?" Cui verba ? quid istas 
20 Succinis ambagcs ? tibi luditur : eflluis amens. 
Contemnere : sonat vitiura percussa, raaligne 
Rcspondel viridi non cocta fidelia limo. 
' Udum et molle lutum es,nunc, nunc properandus et acri 

Fingendus sine fine rota. Sed rure paterno 
25 Est tibi far modicura, purum et sine labe salinum, 



Mammee ' of your grandmother, 
mamma, or nurse.' T. Their father 
theycalled Tata: Cato; PRA. [mam- 
VI as atqne tatas habet Afra; sed 
ipsa tatarinn dici et mammarum 
maxima m n m m a potest, Mart. i, 101 .] 

19. Ci(lpa)Lti(r frxstra calami; Hor. 
S. ii, 3, 7. T. 

Cuiverha, understand das, T. ' whom 
do you deceive by such frivolous ex- 
cuses? notme!' PRA. 

20. Tibi IttditKr ' the stake is your 
own.' (The verb is used impersonally as 
viuift(r; v, 53 ; coitcitrritt/r; Hor. S. i, 
1, 7. MAD.) This reminds oue of the 
sapient speech [of Ensign Northing- 
ton]: " My father and mother wished to 
mate me clever: books I hated. They 
wanted to send me to school: school 
I detested. However, they did send 
me. — But I nicked che old puts; 
for I never learnt any thing!" 

Effliiis is a metaphor from a leaky 
jar." CS. Some difiiculty in foUowing 
the poet arises from his putting the 
iUustration before the example. These 
famiUar metaphors of the Stoics con- 
tribute to their being inteUigible, though 
they may not always be very creditable 
to their taste. GIF. 

21. Contemnere; Hor. S. ii, 3, 14. 
Sch. 

' A cracked jar betrays its flaw by 
the dead soimd which it yields when 
struck.' LUB. aXXk f/,ii Ka^drt^ a'i 
frijmjai X"'''^^' «lax^ivofMvcci , (iii ffaS^ov 
a-ro<p6'i'yyrirar Luc. Paras. t. ii, p. 841 ; 
KG. V, 24; 106. 

Nec vox hominem sonat; Virg. 
M. i, 328. Sch. 

Maligne respondet is opposed to soli- 
dum crepat; v, 25. PRA. 

23. Idonetts arti cuilibet: argilla 
(fitidvis imitaberis uda; Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 
7 f ; MAD. ccreiis in vitiumjiecti ; A. 
P. 103; s. V, 40; KG, dtim tener eit 
naius, gencrosos insere mores. S VL. 

Propernndus: s. Juv. iv, 134 ; Virg. 
G. i, 2G0 ; Ov. M. v, .396 ; xv, 748. KG. 



G. 



141. 



Acri ' rapid:' Virg. 
KG. 

24. Sine fine : we never reach per- 
fection, therefore there is always room 
for improvement. SVL. If we stop 
short, there is every danger of our going 
backwards. Plin. Ep. vii, 9, 11. KG. 

Sed fyc. This has been the language 
of vicious indolence from the first mo- 
ment that wealth becarae heritable : 
" What needs me care for aniebookish ^ 
skill, To blot white paper with my rest- J 
less quiU ; Or waste o'er painted leaves, ' 
on winter nights, IU-smelling oyles, or 
some stiU-watchiug lights P Let them 
that raeane to earne their bread — for 
me, Busie their braines with deeper 
bookerie : Have I not landes of faire 
inheritance Derived by right of long 
continnance To first-horne males," &c. 
HaU, S. ii, 2. GIF. 

25. ' A competency.' MAD. Not 
such a superabundance as to provoke I 
Nemesis, s. Luc. v, 527 f. KG. [Y, ' 
154.] 

' The salt-ceUar' or, as our old writers 
more simply termed it, ' the salt,' formed 
a distinguished feature in the garniture 
of the iloman tables. As salt was the 
general seasoning of the food of man 
and was also used to check the progress 
of putrefaction, it was associated, from 
the earliest ages, with notions of moral 
purity, and occasionaUy employed in 
metaphors too sacred to be repeated 
here. Salt made a part of every sacri- 
fice ; and hence the vessel which held 
it acquired a certain degree of sanctity 
and was supposed to consecrate the 
table on which, at meal times, it was 
reverently placed,before the other arti- 
cles : {sacras facitis mensas salinoritm 
appositu ; Arn. WB.) if the salt was 
ever forgotten, it was looked upon as 
a bad omen. With these claims to 
peculiar veneration, the salt-ceUar ap- 
pears to have been regarded as a kind 
of heir-loom, and to have descended 
from sire to son. Hor. Od. ii, 16, 13 f. 



SAT. III. 



OF PERSIUS. 



37 



((Juid metuas ?) cultrixiiue foci secura patcUa. 
lloc satis ? Au deceat puhnoneiu lunipere ventis, 
Stemniate quod Tusco ramum, millesime, ducis ; 
Censoremque tuum vel quod, trabcate, salutas ? 
30 Ad populum phaleras ! ego te intus et in cute novi. 
Xon pudet ad morem discincti vivere Natta) ? 



(Ml. D(E.) More cost was lavished on 
it than on the rest of the furniture. la 
the poorest times, the most frugal and 
rigia of the old republicans indulped 
themselves with a silver salt,which,with 
the pa/ella, (a little platter for the offer- 
ing to the household gods,) was fre- 
quently all the plate they possessed. 
When the necessities of the state 
obliged the senate to call for a general 
sacrifice of the gold and silver of the 
people, the salt-cellar and the paten 
were expressly exempted from the con- 
tribution. (Livy xxvi, 36. ED.) Here 
it appears put for plate in general, 
fumiture, aiid establishment. MRC. 
GTF. MAD. The epithets appear to 
denote the acquisition of this property 
by fair and honest means. FAR. DEN. 
s.Ov.Tr.iv, 8,33; H. 17,14; 69; Juv. 
xiv, 68 f; Hor. S. i 3, 13. KG. In the 
once favourite song, " Ere around the 
huge oali," we have a similar use of 
this metaphor : " The farm I now hold 
on your honour's estate Is the same 
that my grandfather till'd. He, dying, 
bequeathed to his son a good name, 
"Which u n s u 1 1 i e d (pxrion) descended 
to me : For my child I've preserved it 
unblemish'd with shame ; And it still 
from a spot {nine labe) shall be 
free!" 

26. Qitidmetuas? hemg major ^ua?n 
cui possit fortuna nocere. LUB. You 
have wherewithal to live comfortably 
yourself and to conciliate the gods: the 
far pivtn, the saliens mica, the hostia 
to propitiate the Penates. Hor. Od.iii, 
23, 18 ff ; Stat. S. i, 4, 1.30 f. KG. 

Before eating they cut off a portion of 
the meat, which was put into ' a paten' 
or deep dish, Tib. i, 10, 48; and, after 
being offered to the Lares, burnt on the 
hearth. LUB. PRA. MAD. 

27. ' And is this all ?' DEN. 
* With airs.' 

28. See Juv. viii, 1, 131 ff; Prop.iv, 
11, 11; Sen. H. F. .338 ; /El. V. H. 
xi», 36 ; KG. Isid. ix,C. The Roman.« 
felt proudif they could tracetbeirnriKin 



to Tuscan blood. LUB. PRA. Hor. 
Od. iii, 29, 1 ; S. i, 6, 1. MAD. 

In this and the next line, vocatives i 
are put for nominatives : LUB. [Per- 
sius indubitanter vocativum pro nomi- 
nativo posnit: ct Iloratius *■ macte 
virtute esto,' pro ' mactus virfute;' 
Pri. xvii, end ; s. SCA, on Priap. p. 
210; KLZ? Liv. ii, 12, s;] xxii, 49, 
8 ; ED. Flac. i,392 f. KG. The figure 
is called antiptosis. MAD. v, 124. 

29. There was a twofold lustration or 
muster of the Roman knights, censio and 
transvectio ; the latter is here meant. ''i 
The censio was held every fiye years, w 
the transvectio annually, i^iTairis irnfia: - '■ 
Dio. In tlie fornier, which was strictly 

a review, the knights marched on foot, 
leading their horses ; in the latter, they 
rode : in fact, the ceremony had more of 
military pomp than service in it, as they 
appeared in grand costume, {trabeati, 
Juv. viii, 259, note. FAR.) and crowned 
with olive wreaths. On these occasions, 
the knights assembled in the temple of 
Mars without the walls, and rode 
through the principal streets to the 
Capitol, defiling by the censors, who 
sat in front of the temple of Castor in 
the Forum, and saluting them as they 
passed. Aug^stus revived this ancient 
custom which had fallen into disuse: 
Suet. ii, 38. After it had flourished for 
a few years, the emperors assumed the 
censorial office among others, but 
neglected its duties; and the practice 
was soon finally dropped. MRC. GIF. 
s. Liv. ix, 46 ; Dionys. H. iv, 2 ; V, 
Max. ii, 2, 9. KG. 

Tuum ' of your own family.' FAR. 

30. " Such pageantry be to the peo- 
ple shown ; There boast thy horse's 
trappings and thine own ! I know thee 
to thy bottom, from within Thy shallow 
centre to thy utmost skin." DRY. 
Juv. xi, 103 ; Petr. 65. KG. 

Potest ingenium fortissimum nc hea- 
tissimum sub qualibet cutelaiere ; Sen. 
Ep. 56. KG. 

31. " Artiiot ash.nmed tolivelikcdis- 



38 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



Sed stupct hic vitio et fibris increvit opimiim 
Pinguc : cavet culpa ; nescit, quid pei'dat, ct alto 
Dcmcrsus, sunnna rursus non bullit in unda. 
35 Magnc pater diviim, sa)vos ])unire tyrannos 
Haud alia ratiouc vclis, quum dira libido 
Moverit ingenium fcrventi tincta veneno ; 
Virtutem videant intabescantque relicta ! 



solute Loose (Sil. ii, 56; vii, 153; R.) 
Natta ? But, alas ! he's destitute Of 
sense ! He stands amazed in vice! The 
deep Fat brawne of sin makes his heart 
so^indly sleep, That now he doth not 
sinne ! No, he's so grosse, So stupid, 
that he's senseless of his losse ! And 
sunk down to the depth of vice, he'll 
swim No more again up to the water's 
Irim." HOL. 

32. Scej)e malis stiipeo ; Ov. Her. 8, 
111. KG. If a parallel to the charaeter 
of Nattabe sought in Jnvenal, it will be 
found (if at all) in that of Peribomius,ii, 
16. But we must do Persius the justice 
to acknowledge the superior energy and 
gravity of his description : perhaps,the 
palsy of the mind, the deadening elfect 
of habitual profligacy, was never more 
skilfully or more strikingly delineated. 
GIF, As Natta was a name of the Pi- 
narian clan,(Juv. viii, 95,note:) domiis 
Hercnlei custos Pinaria sacri ; Virg. 
JE. viii, 270 ; and Peribomius a fictitious 
name (Juv. ii, 16, note,) signifying 
* one employed about the altar :' arce 
sacerdos ; Virg. ib. 179 j (& 186; hanc 
aram hico statuit, quee maxima 
semper dicetur nohis et erit quce maxi- 
ma sempcr ; ib. 271 f ; s. Juv. viii, 13, 
note ;) I have little doubt but that they 
are one and the same person. 

33. ' Fat' cannot feel ; Aristotle ; 
Galen. s. i, 57, note. opimitas impedit 
sapientiam ; Tert. de An. 20 ; PRA. 
Psalm cxix, 70. MAD. pingue is used 
substantively ; LUB. as in Virg. G. 
iii, 124. PLU. 

Conipare with this description, Arist. 
Eth. iii, 5; CS. ayvoii fiiv ouv vra,; o 

Tton- K T. X. ib. 1. [Leviticus iv, 2 ff; 
Whewell, pref. to Sir J. M.'s Eth. Phil. 
§8, p. 22.] 

34. " Content in guilt's profound 
abyss to drop, Nor, struggling, send one 
bubble to the top." GIF. " A man ! 
an heir of death ! a slave To sin ! a 



bubble on the wave!" L. Richmoud, 
Annals of the Poor. 

35. This is a noble apostrophe; poeti- 
cal, impassioned, and even sublime : that 
it is ineffectual, is not the fault of Per- 
sius. Well did St. Augustin observe in 
allusion to it, inox ut eos '■'■ libido'''' pcr- 
pulerit '■'■ ferventi,'" ut ait Persius, 
" tincta vencno," magis iutuentur, quid 
Jupiter''' iuagnus pater divAm^' feccrit, 
quam quid ducuerit Plato vel censuerit 
Cato ; Civ. D. v. " None other payne 
pray I for them to be But when the 
rage doth lead them from the right That 
looking backewarde Vertue they may 
see E'en as she is, so goodly faire and 
bright; And while they claspe their 
lustes in arms a erosse, Graunt them, 
good Lord, as thou maist of thy might, 
To freat inwarde for losing such a 
losse !" Wyat, Ep. to Poynes. GIF. 

36. Persius omnibus pa>nis, quas ty- 
rannoruin vel crudcHtas excogitavit vel 
cupiditas pcndif,/tanc unam anteponit, 
qua cruciunfur homines, qui vifia,quce 
vitare nonpossunt, coguntur agnoscere ; 
S. Aug. de Mag. 9; compare Juv. xiii. 
CS. 

Libido : s. Claud. xv, 165 f. KG. 

38. Oculorum, inquit P/ato, est in 
nohis sensus acerrimus ; quihussapien- 
tiam 71011 cernimus. quam illa ardentes 
amores excitaret sui,sividerefur ! Cic. 
Fin. ii, 16 ; hahes oculos foris, unde vi- 
deas aurum : infus est oculus, unde vi- 
deatui' pulcritudo justitice. qucedam 
ergo cst pulcritudo jusfiticB, quam vi- 
demus oculis cordis, et amamus, et ex- 
ardescimus, 8fc. S. Aug. on Psalm Ixiv ; 
PRA. si virtus humanis oculis conspi- 
ceretur, miros amores excitaret stii ; 
Sen. MAD. h <p^iiiniri; oh)^ o^aTai' ^tneiis 
ya^ av ^a^tTxi* 'i^uTas ti roiouTotiawrns 
Iva^yiS tfSaiXov va^ii^iro Sij iV'<» /«v* 
Plat. Phffidr. s. Cic. Oft". i, 5. 

Intabescitq u e videndo successus 
hominum ; Ov. M. ii, 780 f ; CS. vir- 
futem incolumem odimus ; sublatam, ex 



SAT. III. 



U{' PEKSIUS. 



99 



Aimc maf^is Siculi gciimoiunt ifiii juvcnci 
■iO Kt niagis ;iuialis pcndcus laqucaribus onsis 
Pui-puicas subter cervices terruit, " Imus, 
Imus praxii^itcs" quani si sibi dicat ct intus 
Palicat iuiclix, quod proxima nesciat uxor ? 
Saepe oculos, memini, tangebam parvus olivo, 
45 Grandia si nollcm morituri verba Cattjnis 

Discere, non sano multum laudanda magistro, 
Quaj pater adductis sudans audiret amicis. 



oculi» qutErimiis itividi ; Hor. OJ. iii, 
24, 31 f ; PRA. s. v, Gl. 

39. Inviilia Sicii/i uon invetiere ty- 
ranni majiis (ormentiim ; Hor. Ep. i, 
2, 58 f. LUB. Perillus an Athenian 
artist, to gratify the savage cruelty of 
Phahiris the tyrant of Agrigentum, 
fabricated the brazen bull, and, as a 
just revvard for his ingenuity, was con- 
demned to make the first trial of its tor- 
tures. FAR. Perilliim ncmo laitdat, 
seeviorem Phalaride tyranno, (jiii tau- 
runi fecif, mugiius liominis pollicitus 
igne subdifo, et primus eutn ewperfus 
cruciafumjustiorescevitia; Plin. xxxiv, 
8 ; PRA. nec vero ulla vis iinperii fanta 
esf, (fuce, premenfe tnetu, possit esse 
diuturna. tcstis est Phalaris, cujus est 
prceter ceteras nobilitata crudclitas : iii 
quein universa Agrigenfitiorum multi- 
tudo impetnm fecif ; Cic. Off. ii, 7 ; 
Juv. xiii, 192 ff; KG. id. xv, 123, 
note; MAD. and i, 71, note. 

40. Damocles, an outrageous flatterer 
of Dionysius of Syracuse, professed to 
believe that the smn of buman happiness 
was comprised in regal state. The ty- 
rant, (for all tyrants delight inpractical 
jests,) to give him a convincing proof of 
it, caused him to be clothed in purple 
and served with a magnificent banquet 
at his own table. So far all was ad- 
mirable : but immediately over the head 
of the mock monarch glittered a naked 
8word,8Uspended by asinglehorse-hair. 
Damocles lost both his taste and ap- 
petite at the sight, and for a time, no 
doubt, enjoyed all the felicity of a real 
despot. Cic. T. Q. v, 9, 20 f ; Macr. 
S. Sc. i, 10. districtus ensis cui super 
iinpia cervice pendct, non Siculce dapes 
dulcem elaljorabunt saporem; Hor. Od. 
iii, 1, ir ff. LUB. PRA. GIF. 

Laquear w;is a ceiling, divided into 
square sunk panels adorned with carv- 



ing, gilding, and painting.-J. Hor. Od. 
ii, 16, 11. JC. XCT^. 

41. Imus ! n. Juv. x, 94, note. PRA. 

42. Ille demcns, et jamprideni ad 
poe nain e xif iiiin(iue praecepa ; 
Cic. de Har. R. 24. 

43. Sfrangulat inclusus dulor, atque 
exeestuat intus ; Ov, Tr. v, 1, 63; 
PRA. mcdias(/ue fruudes palluit au- 
dax; Hor. Od. iii, 27, 27 f. MAD. 
The torments of a guilty conscience are 
well depicted by Cicero, S. Rosc. Am. 
24 ; and Pis. 20. KG. " A nd withers at ^ 
the heart, aud dares not show His bosom 
wife, the secret of his woe !" GIF. 

44. ' I used to touch my eyes with 
oil, to make the master believe that 
they were sore.' LUB. s. Ov. A. A. i, 
662. {BU.) KG. 

45. Ca^o of Utica; wbosidedwiththe 
party of Pompey even in their defeat, 
and after deliberation slew himself to 
avoid falling into Caesar's hands. vicfrix 
causa deis placuit sed victa Catoni; 
Luc. i, 128 ; PRA. Sen. Ep. 24. On 
tbis sort of exercise, see Quint. Inst. ii, 
4 ; Juv. i, 16, note. KG. " It must be 
so. Plato, thou reason'st well ! &c." 
Addison, Cato : which speech, with a 
translation of it by Bland, will be found 
in the Spectator, No. 628. 

46. ' My old master (Petr. 55;) showed 
no great sense, either in setting a cliild 
such a task, KG. or in the extravagant 
encomiums which he used to pass upon 
the trash when concocted and spouted.' 
MAD. Praise i.s very useful,when ad- 
ministered with judgement: laudata 
virtus crescit, ef iinmensmn gloria cal- 
car habet; Ov. Pont. iv, 2, 35 f. PRA. 

47. These declamations took piace 
every week. Quint. ii, 7; x, 6. 
PRA. 

' Perspiring with anxiety.' s Stat. 
S. V, 3, 215 ff. KG. 



40 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



Jure : etenim id sumrnum, quid dcxter senio ferret, 
Scire erat in voto ; damnosa canicula quantum 
60 Raderet ; angusta? collo non fallier orca ; 
Neu quis callidior buxum torqucre flagello. 

Haud tibi inexpertum curvos deprendere mores, 
Quajque docet sapiens bracatis illita Medis 



48. ' And well he might.' MAD. 

The <af//s was a cube, (except that it 
Iiad only four flat sides : the two others, 
'.vhich were opposite, beiug rounded) 
with figures on four of the sides : the 
numbers were tlie ace (unio, or canis), 
the trey ((ernia), the cater {(juaternio), 
and the sice (senio), which was opposite 
to the ace. The ace was a losing throw, 
the sice a winning one: nisi parva 
felicitastibi videtur vincere alea, etcum 
aliis in nnionem evolvitur, tihi semper 
senionem emergere ; Isid. xviii, 66. 
They did not play with a pair of dice, 
as we do, but with four. Augustus in a 
lettei" to Tiberius mentions the game: 
t)iter ccenam lasimus ytgeyrncus : falis 
enini jactatis, nt ([uisque canem aut 
senionem miserat, in singulos talos siti- 
gulos denarios in medium conferehat, 
quos tollebat universos (jui Veneremje- 
cerat ; Suet. ii, 71; [s. Hor. O. ii, 7, 
25. (Sch. CQ.)^ Venus was when 
ace, trey, cater, and sice were thrown 
at one cast : ^jjSsvof airT^ayuXou vtirivTos 
"r^ <r;^vfia.Tr Luc. Am. t. ii, p. 415; 
Ov. A.A.ii,204ff"; Tr.u, 471&': canes 
or canicula is supposed to be when all 
four turned up the same. Herodotus 
attributes the invention of the game to 
the Lydians, i, 26 ; s. AX, iii, 21 ; 
ROD, XX, 27 ; T,v,G; xxvii, 3 ; KT, 
pt. 2, bk. V, p. 249; Sen. Apoc. 134. 
(FM.) CS. PRA. AD. KG. GIF. 
It woulJ seem that there were difierent 
ways of playing with the tali, as there 
are a great variety of games at cards ; 
that of Augustus seems to have been not 
much unlike our te-totum, (with the let- 
ters P, T, N, H ;) for every ace or sice 
they put so many sixpences into the pool 
(P); caters and treys either went for no- 
thing (N), or for taking up so many six- 
pences ; and Venus was (T) take up all. 
In the game referred to in the text, what 
was taken up or put down appears (as 
at Loo) to have depended on the state 
of thepool, and theieforethesubjunctive 
xaooAs ferret and raderet are used. 

50. Raderet, Mart. xiii, i, 6, £F; KG. 



is a very expressive word to denote the 
sweeping of the stakes. 

The next sport was a superior kind 
of cherrypit, where the boys, insteadof 
pitching cherry-stones into a hole in the 
ground, chucked nuts into a jar : (Hor. 
S. ii, 4, 66;) vas quoque seepe cavum 
spatio distarde locatur, in tjuod missa 
levi nux cadit una manu ; Ov. Nux, 
85 f; LUB. PRA. Hor. S. ii, 7, 17; 
KG. h T ^o Ta xaXeufiivti vraihta yiyviTai 
/iiv ui( To iroXv S/ a7T^%ya.Xa)M. oi; a<pntTis 
ffTd^aZ,evTai fio^^ov t/voj iis uToho^ijv Ttis 
ToiauTns pi^icas l^iviTK^is •Jffroinfi.iveu 
•^oXXaxis Se xa) axvXeis xa) fiaXdvois avr} 
Tuv aiTT^aydXuv oi piVTovvris i^Qci/vTe 
Poll. ix, 7, 103. CS. 

51. ' The whipping-top' made of 
' box,' SVL. Virg. ^."vii, 378 fl"; and 
Tib. i, 5, 3. (.HY.) PRA. 

52. Curvos ' whicb deviate from the 
straight rule of right.' MAD. 

' You are no child : you ought to 
know better thaa to waste your time in 
trifles. What end do you propose to 
yourself?' s. Hor. Ep. i, 18, 96 ff; 
Epict. 50. KG. 

53. The epithet sajiiens is transferred 
from the philosophers to their place of 
meeting. LUB. s. Hor. S. ii, 2, 43 ff. 
KG. 

Bracatis ; Juv. ii, 169, note; MAD. 
Xen. Cyr. viii. 3, 13; M\. V. H. xii, 
32. (PER.) KG. 

'H jreixi^ti irroa, ' painted'bj' Mjxon 
and Iiis son Polygnotus, witb thebattles 
of the preeks against the Medes and 
Persians. LUB. s. Laert. vii, 5; Plin. 
H. N. XXXV, 9; Diod. vi, 9; Herod. 
Plut. V. 25, 4 ; PRA. huic (Mittiadi) 
ta/is honos trihutus est in porticu, 
quce poecile vocatur, quutn pugna 
depingeretur Marathonis ; ut in decetn 
prcetorutn nutnero, prima ejus imago 
potieretur ; C. Nep. i, 6. This porch 
formed the favourite retreat of Zeno and 
his followers, who were thence denomi- 
nated Stoics. Besides tbe fresco paint- 
ings, there were parts of the grand de- 
sign painted on panels by Polygnotus 



SAT. iir. 



OF PERSirS. 



41 



Forticus ; in.soinnis (niibiis ct detonsa juvcntus 
55 Invi<,'il;it, sili(juis ct grandi ])asta ^iolcnta. 
Et tibi, (|ua" Saiuios tlitluxit litcia ranios, 
Surgcntcin clcxtro monstravit liuiite callcni. 
i Stcrtis adliuc ? laxunujue caput coin])agc solula 
) Oscitat hcstcrnuni, dissutis uudi(|ue malis ? 
6*0 Est ali(iuid (luo tcndis ct in (juod diiigis arcuni ? 
An passini scqucris corvos testaque lutoque, 
Sccurus quo ]ies ferat, atquc cx tcm])ore vivis ? 

llclleborum frustra, quuni jam cutis aigra tnracbit, 
Poscentcs vidcas. Vcnienti occurritc morbo. 
65 Ecquid opus Cralero magnos promittcre montcs ? 



and hung alnng the walls. These were 

extant in the fourth century : but one 

Antiochus, proconsul of Achaia in the 

reign of Arcadius and Honorius, was 

annoyed at the preference wliich the 

'■ Stoics showcd to the pnrch above the 

1 temples of the gods ; and, by way of 

humbling them, he had the tablets torn 

<iown and defaced the other paintings. 

After this exploit, can wc wonder tbat 

he wa.s a partizan of the Goths and 

\ threw open the passes of Thermopyla! 

^to those barbarians ? Zosim. Paus. i, 

16. CS. KG. GIF. 

54. Detonsn: s. Juv. ii, 1.5. PRA. 
Luc. Vit. Auct. 20; Hermot. 18. KG. 

bo. Gramli; showingtliat the severe 
discipline (Luc. Nigr. 27 f;) agreed 
with them. CS, 

Polfiita; Plin. xviii, 7; xxii, 25; 
PRA. Juv. xi, 58 f; Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 
123. KG. 

56. Pythagoras, the Samian, selected 
( the letter y a.s the symbol of human life. 
' The part during which the charactcr is 

unformed, is typified by the stem ; tbe 
right hand branch, which is the finer of 
the two, represents the path of Virtue, 
the otlier that of V^ice. Serv. The fancy 
took mightily with the ancients. s. v, 
34 ; litera Pytliagorce^ discrimitie secta 
bicorni, humantB vitcc sjieciemprceferre 
videtitr; Mart. Laert. Pliilostr. iv ; Lact. 
vi, 3; Hes. O. i). 286 ff; Plat. Kep. 
ii, t. vi, p. 220; Xen. M. ii, 1,20; Sil. 
XV, 18 tf ; Anth. L. BU, t. ii, p. 416 ; 
Ep.cxl; SVL. CS. PRA.KG. GIF. 
Pythagorce hivium ramis jtuteo ambi- 
guis Y ; Aus. Id. xii. 

57. Maxjaj oi x.at o^iin eif^cs' Hes. O. 
D. 28H. s. Juv. X, Ma (. KG. 



58. ' And are you still snoring, and 
nodding, and gaping .^' LUB. 

59. Oscitaiido evnporat et rdormit 
hesteriiam crapulam ; Mart. MAD. 

60. ' Instead of any definite aim.' 
(Cic. de Fin. uiiam scmc/, ad r/uam vi- 
vas, regiilam prcndc,etad haiic omncm 
vitam tuaincxcEqiin; Sen.Ep.20.s, M. 
Arton. ii, 7. /f.) ' You amuse yourself 
with pursuing tlie most trivial objects ; 
and instead of stringing and bending 
your bow, which raight be of some ser- 
vice, yon arm yourself with potsherds 
and lumps of dirt, which never j-et 
brought any game to the ground.' L UB. 
CS. ^ ^ 

61. 7« TiTof/.iva ^iuKiis, CS. like chii- 
dren, who Jancy they shall catch birds- 
by putting salt npon their tails. MAD. 
' You engage in a wild-goose chase.' 

62. -Ei' tempore ' without one thought 
for the morrow.' LUB. 

6.3. ' In a confirmed dropsy, remediea 
come too late.' LUB. s. Plin. xxv, 5 or 
22; Gell. xvii, 15; PRA. Petr. 88; 
V. Max. viii, 6. KG. 

64. Principiis ohsta : sero mediciiia 
paratur, cum malapcr loiigas invalucre 
moras; Ov. K. A. 91 f. MAD. 

65. Craterus,\\\e all the physicians 
in fashionable practice at Kome, was a 
Greek ; he is mentioned both by Cicero, 
Att. xii, 13 f; and Horace,S. ii,3, 161 ; 
and said to have been pliysician to 
Augustus. There were practitioners,in 
the poet's age, whosc credit and wliose 
fees wcrc equal to thoseof Craterus, and 
whose names would therefore have fur- 
nished as apt an cxample: but Pcisius 
could never keep his thought.s, nnr his 
finiiers from Horace. It i.s curious to 



42 



TITE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



Discite, o iniscri, et causas cognoscilc reruni ; 
Quid sunius r ct quidnani victuri gigniniur? ordo 
Quis datus ? aut metaj qua nioUis llexus et unde ? 
Quis niodus argento ? quid las optare ? quid asper 
70 Utile nunnis habet ? patrire carisque propinquis 
Quantum elargiri deceat ? quem te deus esse 
Jussit? et liunsana qua parte locatus es in re ? 
Disce ; ncque invideas, quod multa fidelia putet 



learDjfroin the elder Pliry, that a phy- 
sician in repute niade neavly as much 
money by his practice, in Eome, as is 
now made by the most popular of the 
jirofcssion with us : he notices several 
vvliose iees amounted to five or six thou- 
sand a year. GIF. PRA. 

66. Felir <iiiipotuH rerinn cognoscere 
causas; Virg. G. ii, 4!H); LUB. s. S. 
Aug. Civ. T). ii, 6; PRA. Hor. Ep. 
i, 2, 67 ff; 18, 96 ff. R. lu what 
follows, hesides the Greek philosophers, 
the poet had in vievi- Cicero and perhaps 
Seneca. From the treatise de Finibus 
he has drawn largely. He has , however , 
expressed the sense of his eloqucnt but 
wordy masters with admirable force and 
brevity, and has given a beautiiul sum- 
mary of the pure ethics of his sehool. 
GIF. 

67. Tfuh ffiavTof Juv. xi,27. PRA. 
On self-knowledpe, s. Plat. Alc. i, t. v, 
p. 56, 65; itatjitc, qnantuxi possumvs, 
ab illa fortunn resi/iaiitus, quotl sola 

'preestabitsni natitrceiiue cognitio. sciat, 
guo ituriis sit, nnde ortus ; quod illi 
bonum, quod malum sit ; quid petat, 
quid devitet ; qvce sit illa ratio, quee 
appetenda ac fugienda discernat, qua 
cupiditatum niansuescit insania, tinio- 
rum scevifia compescitur ; Sen. Ep. 82. 
KG. There is the following epitaph 
in one of the churchyards at Eeading : 
qiiis sum, qualis eram, quiil ero, tu 
mitte royure : nil inea vifa refort; 
ducere disce tuam. 

Quidnam vicfiiri alludes either to the 
shortuess of life, {/loc, quod vivimus, 
proximutn nihilo est, et fainem late 
disponetur ; Sen. Ep. 99 ;) or to the end 
and object of it ; s. Juv. viii, 84, note. 
KG. 

' "What is the arrangement of fate : 
(s. M. Anton. iv, 45;) and what is the 
disposition and concatenation of good 
and evil estat)lished by the law of 
nature.' s. Epict. 29; Xen. M. ii, 1, 
18 ff. KG. 



68. ' There are many periods of life 
as critical as the end of the stadium in 
the chariot ra ce, w here the nicest judge- 
ment is required in turning the corner. 
If we pull the inner rein too soon or too 
shaiply, we shall infallibly run foul of 
the post; if, on the other hand, we hold 
too loose a rein, our antagoni.st will cut 
us out and get the start of us.' T. 
LUB. PRA. metaque fervidis evitafa 
rotis; Hor. Od. i, 1, 4 f . MAD. Or it 
may refer to death, spafium vitce ex- 
tremum ; Juv. x, 358; Pind. N. vi, 
10 ff; Virg. &. X, 4/1 ; xii, 546 ; Ov. 
Liv. A. 357; comparcd with Sen. Ep. 
30; Cic. E. iv, 5; M. Ant. iv, 48, 
50; Plat. Ap. Soc. t. i, p. 93; Cic. T. 
Q. i, 41 KG. 

69. Juv. xiv, 316 ff, notes. KG. 
Qnidfos ? ii, throughout. PRA. 

' Money' is ' rough' with the stamp 
impressed upon it, T. from the figures 
standing in relief. Juv. xiv, 62. MAD. 
non voles quod debeo, nisi in aspero et 
probo, accipere ; Sen. Ep. 19. (GT.) 
KG. 

70. See Cic. Off. i, 17; Hor. S. ii, 
2, 100 ff. KG. 

71. ' What character God has as- 
signed you.' irictith irSj o /3/of , xa) miy- 
v/a». ») ft.u.h vrcci^iiv Tri> tr^reu^tin fiirafiii, 
•/1 (fi^i Ta; HSuvas : S. Epict. 17. KG. 
These lines, and especially the word 
P e u s, seem to be of that high strain 
of divinity (for a heathen), which Plato 
reached when he affirmed that, when 
he said gods, he was not in earnest. 
HOL. 

72. ' In what station you are posted 
{riTayf/,iyos' s. Cic. Sen. 20 ; KG.) in 
human life.' A metaphor from soldiers. 
PRA. [Acts xiii, 48; and Romans 
xiii, 1, notes.] 

73. See Sen. Ep. 17. KG. 

Multa fiilelia as mulfa victima; 
Virg. E. i, 35. KG. The fees of the 
lawyers were taken chiefly in kuid : 
s.Juv.vii,119ff. GJF. 'Thejarsstunk' 



SAT. MI. 



OF PERSIUS. 



43 



Iii lociiplctc penu, dcfunsis pinguibus Uinbris, 
75 Et ])ipi'r et ]H'rn;v, Marsi mf^nimcnta clieiitis, 
MiciKKiue (]uo(l jtriiua noiuluin derecerit orca. 

llic aliquis de gente hircosa centurionuui 
Dicat " Quod satis est, sajiio inihi : non ego euro 
Esse, quod Arcesilas aDruinnosi([ue Solones, 
80 Obsti])o capite et figentes luinine tenani, 

Munnura quuin sceuin et rabiosu sileniia rodunt 
At(iue c x])ovrecto tvutinantur verba labello, 
.Egroti veteris meditautes somnia : (jiyni 



from their liaving more good things 
than the ad vocate could cousume. L UB. 
This and the tbliowing lines afford an 
example of alliteration. s. 1)2 f. 

74. The Umbrians were a very ancient 
people of Italy: Plin. iii, 14. Their 

' couutry is now the ducliy of .'■■polentano. 
^PRA. Cat. xxvii, 11; PropTT^^^, 
9 f. KG. 

75. The Marsians were a people of 
Apulia, Plin. iii, 11; who.se country 
was famous for its wild boars. PRA. 

76. Mana; Plin. H. N. ix, 26. CS. 
' Fresli jars come in, before you have 
tiuished your first.' LUB. 

11. These captains (Hor. S. i, 6, 7^ ;) 
thought the grand characteristic of a 
soldier was conteinpt of al! cultivation, 
whcther of inind or of body ; (Juv. xiv, 
194 f ;) conseijueDtly they conld not be 
agreeable companions, in any sense of 
the word. (Hor. Ep. xii, 5 ; Cat. Ixi, 
10.) KG. By putting the objections 
into the niouth of such a spokesman, 
Persius eff(?ctual!y shames those with 
whom he has been arguing. MAD. 
" Tush ! what care I to be Arcesilas, 
Orsome sad Solon,whosedeep-furrow'd 
face And sullen head and yellow-clouded 
sight Still on the stedfast earth are 
musing pight, Muttering wh;it censurts 
tbeir distracted minde Of brain-sicke 
paradoxes hath definde. Or of Par- 
menides or darke Heraclite, Whether 
all be one, or nought be infinite, &C." 
Hall. GIF. 

79. Arcesilas of Pitane in .^ojia 
was a disciple of Polemon and after- 
wards of Cratitor. LUB. He was the 
foundcr of the middle Academy, and 
maintained iu opposition to Zeno, that 
all things were to be doubted, and tbat 
nothing could be known. Hence he is 
called iyiioranlia.' viatfiiifer ; I.,act. iii. 



5; and philosophiie eversor ; Cic. Ac. 
His lifo is said not to have been a very 
regular one. Laert. iv, 40. PRA. 
MAD. KG. " Or cct Arcesilas, tout 
habile f/u^^il ctoit, avoit lc dcfaut (Vctre 
fort pctulant dans lc disputc, et d ctablir 
pour principe qu'on ne pouvoit rien 
savoir." It might perplex a plain- 
dealing man to account for such a 
person's disputing at all. He was, 
however, a very subtle caviller. GIF. 

Solon, the Athenian legislator, was 
reckoned one of the seven sages of 
Greece. LUB. Her. i, 29, note 16. 

80. ' Wi th their heads on one shoulder.' 
LUB. Hor. S. ii, 5, 92 ; KG. Stat. S. 
V, 1, 140; by hypalla>re ioT figentes 
lumina in terram ; the other forra, 
wliich is not so strong an expression, 
occurs, Virg. -'E. vi, 469; Ov. M. xiii, 
541 ; Tr. iv, 2, 29. \xviTa.irai ynZv t«» 
vuya^ta, Kxi Tas ip^Zi a.\a.Tiii>a.f ko.) /3ji»- 
fviumes Ti v^o; avTOt 'i^^%Ta.i riTavu^ii 
/iXsTuy K. T. \. Luc. Tim. t. i, p. 170. 
PRA. MAD. KG. 

81. ' They mumble murmurs.' Quint. 
X, 3. PRA. 

EsT et NON igitur, quoties lucem 
esse fatcndum est, sed non esse diera ; 
milte hinc certamina surgunt, hinc 
pauci, multi (inoiiuc talia commeditan- 
tes, murmurc conclusu rabiosa silentia 
rodunt : yualis vita hominum, duo quam 
monosyllaba versant! Aus. Id. xvii, 
21 ff; in BU, A. L. t. ii. Silent mut- 
teiing and a fixed look were indications 
of jnsanitv. Juv. ii, 14 ; Luc. de Sect. 
Princ. KG. MAD. 

82. Vcrba, s. Luc. Demon. 28. t. ii, 
p. .386. KG, 

8.3. Some ancient poet asked quid 
eerp-iitus umqunm somniarit, quod philo- 
sofihoruui nliquis non di.i'erit ? Lact. 
PRA. 



44 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. iir. 



])e iiihilo nihil, in vihHiini nil poaxe rcretti. 
85 Hoc est, quod palles ' cur quis non prandeat, hoc est?" 

IJis ]io]inlus ridet multunique torosa juventus 

Ingeniinat tremulos naso crispantc cacliinnos. 

" Inspicc : nescio quid trei>idat mihi pcclus ct legris 

Faucibus exsuperat gravis hahtus ; inspice sodes !" 
00 Qui dicit medico, jussus requiescere, postquam 

Tertia comjiositas vidit nox currere venas, 

Dc majore domo modice sitiente lagena 

Lenia loturo sibi Surrentina rogavit. 

' Heus I bone, tu palles.' " Nihil est." ' Videas tamen islud, 
95 Quicquid id est. Surgit tacite tibi lutea ]3ellis.' 



84. This is one of the most tiite phy- 
sical axioms. LUB. Lucr. i, 151 <fec. 
PRA. 

8.0. The absteiiiiousness of pliiloso- 
jihers is here attacked. postfiiam est 
i »1 prnnsi correptns voce viagistri; 
Hor. S. ii, .3, 257. PRA. pueriles 
ineptias! in hoc snpcrcilia siibduxi- 
miisf in lioc harlam demisimusf Iwc 
esf, fjiiod tristes docemus et pallidif 
Sen. Ep. -48 ; s. Juv. vii, 97, note. KG. 

86. Torosa, opposed to palliiln and 
impransa seiiectiis, KG. is applied to 
the youth of Eome in general. formo- 
suli nostri et torosuli et vix siimmis 
pedibiis adiimbranfes vesfigia, qnorum 
verba in pugnis siint et si/llogis7ni in 
calcibiis; S. Hieron. PLU. s. i, 82, 
note. 

S7. Miilfum ingeminat; i. e. ' laugh 
loud and long.' s. V. Flae. 459 ; Juv. i, 
164. KG. 

88. This person who consults his 
physician, has all the symptonis of a 
dangerous fever. Cels. iii, 6. KG. 

89. ' Rises up outof thestomach.' CS. 
exspirat conj. s. 99. GJ. 

' Fetid, ottensive.' Ov. A . A. iii 277; 
Petr. 93. KG. 

Sodes ; Juv. vi, 280. nofe. 

90. ' To keep quiet.' LUB. Cels. iii, 
2; PRA. Quiut. ii, 17; s. Plin. Ep. 
vi, 1. KG. 

91. Though this vvas the third uight, 
the fever might prove a quartan. KG. 

92. ' Surrentine wine,' of a good 
quality, was not common; therefore 

, he sends his servant to ' a great house' 

■ for it MRC. It was customary for 

wine and other little delicacics to he 

5<^nt bv fricnds tn those who were 111 ; 



s. Mart. ii, 40, 70. KG. 

" No sickly noggin, but a jolly jug." 
DRY. 

93. He sends for the wine, the first 
thing in the morning; and, after his 
meal, he takes a bath: which is dan- 
gerous for invalids, Suet. iii, 82. 
PRA. and for all persons, upon a full 
stomach. Juv. i, 142 ft'; MAD. plurimi 
fa/lunfiir, dum se primo die profinus 
siiblaturos langnorem aut exercifatione., 
aiif bcdneo, aut vino sperant ; &)C. Cels. 
iii, 2. KG. 

Siirrenfum was a town of Campania. 
LUB. Surrenfina vina capuf nullo 
modo tentant ; ef sfomaeliiet infestino- 
rum rlieumatismos cohibcnt ; Plin. H. 
N. xxiii, 1 or 20 ; Surrentina in vineis 
fanfiini nascenfia convalescentihus 
ma.viinc prohata proptcr lenuitatem 
sahibrifafemqiie; ib. xiv, 6 or 3 ; PRA. 
Tiherius dicehaf, consenfisse medicos, 
ut nobilifafem darent, alioquin esse 
generosiim acetum; ib Caligula 
calls it vappam nohilem. GIF. It was ••. 
kept till it was five and twenty years • 
okl before it was used. CS, 

'91. These are the vrords of an ac- 
quaiutance, who accidentally falls in 
with the patient as he is totteriug from 
the table to tlie bath ; and who, justly 
alarmed at the symptoms he observes, 
bhintly iiideed, but kindiy, tries to per- 
suade him to turn back. The petulance 
and ill-humour vvith which this kindness 
is received, are highly characteristic .■ 
and satirical. The dying wretch was . 
too much in the wrong to bear good 
advice. GIF. KG. 

95. Symptoms of dropsy. Gal. .^gin, 
iii; Cels. iii. PRA. 



SAT. III. 



OF PKHSirS. 



45 



" At tii (lctoriiis palk-s. Nc sis mihi lutor: 
Jam ])ri(k'in liunc sejjeli : lu restas." ' Perge : lacebo.' 
Tur^i^itlus hic epulis atque albo vcntre lavatur, 
Gulture sulfureas k'ute exhakuite uiepliiles : 

100 Seil trcmor inter vina subit calidumque trieuteni 
Excutit c nianibus ; dentes crepucre retecti ; 
Uncta cadunt laxis tune pulmentaria labris. 
llinc tuba, eandelae; tandemque beatulus, alto 
Compositus lecto crassisque lutatus amomis, 

105 In portam rigidos calces extendit; at ilkun 
Hesterni capite induto subiere Quirites. 



96. Varro Eumcnidihns : ut arquatis 
cf lulca (/ucs no)i sunt, et t/uee sunt, 
lutca ridfiifur; sic iiisniiis {cf ?) sani et 

furiosi videntur essc iiisani ; Nonius. 
PRA. 

97. Either (1) * you survi ve to lectare 
me:' PRA. or (2) ' I have you to bury 
still, it seeins, before 1 shall be iny own 
master ' FAR. " I have alrea<]y buritd 
two or three ; And, Doctor, I may live 
tobury thee." DRY. Compare" w««e* 
camposui." felices! nunc ego resto : 
conficel Hor. S. i, 9, 28 f. CS. 

93. Pingueni vifiis a Ib u m 'f ue ; 
Hor. S. ii, 2, 21, 7fi f; f/iiaiu ntulti 
roiifinitis volujitatibus pallcnt '. Sen. 
Yir, V. PRA. crescit indulgens sibi 
dirus hi/drops, nec sifiiii jjel/it, nisi 
causa morbi fugerit venis ct afjiiosus 
alho corpore languor; Hor. Od. ii, 2, 
1.3 ff; MAD. Ep. i, 6, 61 f; Sulp.36; 
Sid. Ap. v, 3:^9 f. KG. 

99. Mcp/tifcs is properly the stench 
from stagnant and putnd water. L UB. 
Virg. JE. vii, 84. MAD. guam firdi 
aff/ue pesfilentes ructiis sunt cxlialan- 
tibus crapulam vetercm '. scias putre- 
sccre suntfa, non coiico'/ui ; Sen. Ep. 
95. PRA. 

100. Quee desiderantibns alimenta 
erant, onera snnt plenis : iiiilc pallor et 
vervorinn vino madentium tremor ct 
miserahili'/r ex cruilitnfe 'iiiam cx fnnie 
nvicies : inde inccrti Inbfiiifiinn peiles ct 
semper f/uasi in cbrietfxtc tilubatio ; 
Sen. N. Q. v. PRA. 

Vina: s. Juv. viii, 1G8, note. MAD. 

The tricns, OE. or trienfal, «as a 
cup which held rather more than one 
fhird of a ])int. LUB. s. Hor. Ep. i, 
IG, 21 ff. KG. 

102. ' The rich viands,' which he 
had gorged liefore coming to the bath, 
and which his stomach now rejects 
undigesfed. LUB. 



The lip hanging loose and the drop- 
ping jaw are fatal symptoms according 
to Hippocr. Progn. PRA. 

103. ' Then comes a funeral.' Thii^ ■ 
is HfTt^at T^irt^or: ' the trumpet and ", 
torch' were used in the procession tothe '' 
funeralpile; 106. CS. A full account 
of the particulars referred to in these 
lines will be found in AD. 

Tnba: s. Poll. viii, 1 ; ."'erv. on ^E. 
V, 138; St Matthew ix, 23. PRA. 

Caiif/elce. s. Petr. 78; 129; Prop. ii, 
10, 19 f; xiii, 17 f; iv, 11,9. KG. 

Beatulus: thus nur Stoic calls tbe 
deceased Epi^^jjre in irony, because the 
Epicureans used to say : maximam illam 
voliipfnfcnt iiuhcnius, f/ucB /lercipitur 
onini dolore fletraHo : nam f/uonifim, 
f/Hum privamur tlolore, ipsa liberatione 
et vacuifate oninis molesticc ' gaiidcmus ; 
{omne auteni id, f/iirA grtndenius, volupfas 
est, nt onine id, i/iitj tiffrndintiir, ilolor ;) 
doloris omnis privatio rectc nontinata 
est voluptas; Cic. Fin. i, [11.' KG. 

Alto lecto. s. Ov. M. x, 463; F. ii, 
353; KG. Mart. viii. 44, 14; Prop. 
ii, 13, 21 f. PRA. 

104. Coni/iositns. s. Tib. iii, 2, 26. 
Virg. M. i, 249. {IIY.) KG. 

Ainomis. s. SM, on Sol. p. 401 ; Ov, 
Tr. iii, 3, 89; F. iv, 853; KG. Juv. 
iv, 108; viii, 159, notes. 

105. " Lies a stiff corpse, heels fore- 
most, at the door." GIF. s. Plin. vii, 
S; PRA. Hom.II.T212; Tac. A.iii, 
5; (L.) KI,\, 12. KG. 

106. Manumitted slaves shaved their 
heads and then put on the cap of liberty 
in the temple of Feronia. This waf j 
worn by the freeJ-men, who bore their 
late master's corpse to the furcral pile, 
as a badge of their beinir adniitted to 
therightsofcilizenship. Sch. CS. LUB. 
Juv. iii,60, note; MA D. fnxit Jnpiter, 
nt rgo hic liiidir, vnso rapifc, cftlvus 



46 



THE SATIRES OF PERSIUS. 



SAT. TII. 



" Tangc, miser, venas ct ponc in pcctorc dcxtram : 
Nil calet hic ! Summosqnc j)eclcs attinge manusque : 
Non IVigcnt !'' Visa est si forte pccunia, sive 

110 Candida vicini subrisit molle puclla, 

Cor tibi rite salit ? Positum cst algcntc catino 
Durum olus et populi cribro decussa larina : 
Tentemus fauces : lenero latet ulcus in ore 
Putic, quod liaud deceat plebeia radere beta. 

J 15 Algcs, quum cxcussit membris timor albus aristas. 
Nunc face supposita fervescit sanguis et ira 
Scintillant oculi, dicisque facisque, quod ipse 
Non sani esse hominis non sanus juret Orestes. 

rapiam piletini ! F\a.nt. Am])h.i, 1,306; pitation at yourheart?' Stat. S. 1, 2, 

(TB.) and v, 82; Liv. xxxiv, 52; qiii 210; Sen. Thy. 756. KG. Erasistratus, 

liberi fivbant ea catisa calvi eraut, (/tiod the physieian, discovered the passion of 

tempestafem servittdis videbantur ejfit- Antiochus, who was sick for love ot' 
gere, iit naufragio liberati solent ; 
Nonius. PRA. s. Juv. xii, 81, note; 



Livy xxiv, IG, 11. 

Siibiere. Yirg. 2E. vi, 222. KG. 

107. The youth, drowsy as he is, is 
still awake enough to discover that he is 
somehow involved in this anolcgue. As 



Stratonicehis stepmother,by feelinghis 
pulse when she was entering the cham- 
ber : V. Max. v, 7- PRA. 

112. ' A cold dish of coarse greens, 
DEN. not well boiled.' MAD. s. vi. 

' The sieve used by the common peo- 
ple' was so coarse, as to let through a 



the preceptor, however, appears to hira great dealof thehran. iC7'.B. 69f. PRA. 

to labouruuder a considerable mistake, 114. Radere the same as iergere ; 

he prepares to set him right; and iu a Hur. S. ii, 2, 24. KG. 

somewhatindignanttone(;«/*er.')affirms Beta, which Martial c?iX\s fabroriim 

himself to be in no danger of ' trumpets pranditim ; xiii, 13. PRA. 

and torches,'as is falseiy insinuated,for 115. Obstiiptii, steteriintf/tie comee ; 

that the stateof his health isexcellent Virg. ^E. ii, 774 ; LUB. Arist. Probl. 

It is now that the philosopher sees his viii, 18. PRA. " I could a taleucfold, 

advantages, and lurns upon the pcor whose lightest word wculd harrow up 

dreamerwith the moral of his fab!e, thy sou! ; freeze thy young blood: 

whichheenforceswithallthepoignancy Make ihy two eyes, like stars, start 

of satire and all the dignity of truth. from their spheres ; Thy knotty and 

The student can no longer mistake, for comhined locks to part, And each par- 

he is presented with an epitome of his ticuhir hair to stand an end, Like 

mostbesettingvices,and,amongothers, quills upcn tlie fretful porcupine;" 

that of ungovernable passion, of which Shaksp. Ham. i, 5. " With hair up- 

he had furnished a tokrable specimen — — '- - ^'^'- 1=' -^- _„. i.„:.." ;.i 



already : 8 f. GIF. KG. 
' Feel my pulse.' MAD. 

108. Coldness of the extiemities is a 
svmftom of approaching illness : Cels 
ii', 4. KG. [Plato Phado 66.] 

109. ' Have you no symptom of ava- 
rice, or any other passion.^' which are 
diseases of the inind. LUB. s. iv, 47. 

110. Candidu: Ov. A. A. ii, 6. KG. 
Risit et argiitis (jiiiddam promisit 

ocellis; Ov. Am. iii, 2. 83. PRA. 

Molle is used adverhially, KG. as 
<(crc,3-i ; diilceridcntem Lalagcn umabo, 
dtilcc loiiticntcm ; Hor. Od. i, 22, 23 f. 

111. ' Is there no extraordinary pal- 



staring, then like reeds, not hair ;" id. 
Temp. i, 2 ; Juv. vi, 95, note. 

1 1 6. Est etiam calor ille animo, qitem 
siimit in ira, aim ferviscit, et ex oculis 
micatacribtisardor: est et frigida multa 
coines formidinis atira; <juce ciet hor- 
rorem in membris, et concitat artits ; 
Luer. iii, 289 ff. 

117- Ardebanf oculi et ex toto corpore 
crudelifas emicabat; Cic. Verr. 7; ea,' 
illortim luminibus scintillce emicant, 
flammee tvsfuanf, anhelum pectus spi- 
rifum jacit ex ore, Sfc; Arn. i ; PRA. 
Hom.'ll. A 104 : A G62; Ov. A. A. iii, 
503 f. KG. 

118. See Hor. S. ii, 3. MAD. 



SATIIIE IV. 



ARC.UMENT. 

This Satirc (of which many have supposed Nero to he the ohjert) is foumled 
on the first Alcibiades of Phito ; and inany of the expressious are closely 
copied from that celebrated dialogue; 1 ff. 

It naturally arraiiges itself under three heads, the first of which treats of 
the preposterous aiubition of those who aspired to take the lead in state 
affairs, before they had learned the first principles of civil government ; 
1..22. 

The second division, which is of singubir merit, and possesses a rich vein of 
strong but appropriate bumour, and acute reasoning, turns on tlie general 
neglect of self-examination ; 23 f; it enforces, at the same tiine, the nc- 
cessity of moral purity, from the impossibility of escaping detection; and 
poiuts out the policy of restraining all wantou propensity to exaggerate 
others' foihles, from its tendency to provoke sevcre recrimination on our- 
selves; 25.. 46. 

The conclusion, or third part, rcverts to the subject with which the Satire 
opens, and arraigns, in terms of indignant severity, the profligacy of tho 
young nohility, and their sottish vanity in resting their claims to appro- 
bation on the judgement of a worthless rabble; 46. .52. GIF. 

To read this Satire, may be uscful to the young. It may help to correct 
petulance; it may scrve to warn inexperience. It may leach tlie youthful 
statesman, that, even in remote times, and in small stutes, govemment 
was considered as a niost dlfficult scieuce. It may show the high-born 
libertine, that, in proportion as the sphere in which he moves is wide and 
brilliant, are his conduct and character conspicuous, and his foUics ridi- 
oulous; DMD [St Matthew v, 14.] 



48 



TflK SATIRES 



SAT. IV. 



Ukm popiili tractas ? (bavbatum hoc ciedc niagistrimi 
Dicerc, sorl^itio tollit queni dira cicudu :) 
Quo frctus ? dic, o magni pnjnlle Pericli ! 
Scilicct ingenium et rerum prudentia velox 
5 Ante pilos venit, dicenda tacendaque calles. 
Ergo ubi commota lervct plebecula bile, 
Fert animus calidas fecisse silentia turbaj 
Majcstate manus. Quid deinde loquere ? — " Quirites, 



1. ' Do you presunie to take the reins 
of government into your handsP' DEN. 
Alcibiadess;iy?of Socrates : " dvsiiyzd^u 
//,1 ifioXeytTv, ori <roXXou iioiris a\i aliTos 
tTi, 1/U.avTeu f/lt afiiXai, ra, O A^riyaiuv 
<!rparTeo-'^ Plato Symp. 32. KG. 

UarbatK»!'. s. Juv. xiv, 12; iv, 103; 
Lucian often ; Hor. S. ii, 3, 10 ff. KG. 

Socrates was accounted the father of 
philosopliy, and prince of philosophers: 
Cic. Fin. ii, 1 ; N. D. ii, 1(57 ; T. Q. iii, 
8; V, 10. PRA. 

2. Juv. xiii, 185 f, notes; ilf^Z>. id. 
vii, 205 f, notes; Sen. Ep. 13; KG. 
Plin. xiv, 5; s. Ap. As. Aur. x; Plat. 
Soc. Ap. Lact. V, 16 ; Ath. xiii ; Socrates 
coHcitafis ininiicitiis, calnmniosa cri- 
minatione damnatus, morte mulctati/s 
est. sed einn postca iUn ipsn, quce 
pnblice damnatwrat, Athcnicnsium ci- 
vitas publice liiivit : in duos ejus uccu- 
satores 2/sf/ue adeo populi indignatione 
conversa, ut nnus eorum opprcssus vi 
multiiudinis interiret, c.vsi/io autem 
vuluntario at<juc perpctuo pwnu/n si/ni- 
lem altcr evadcret. tam prceclara igitur 
vitee mortisr/ue fama Socrates relifjuit 
plurimos suce philosophice sectatores ; 
S. Aug. Civ. D. viii, 3 ; PRA. v, 145. 

Sorbitio: pi<pn/ua' JE\.Y. H. ix, 38; 
Phsedr. i, 2G. {BU.) KG. 

3. "Oru tria-Tiijtiiv; Plato. MAD. 

' Alcibiades' lost his father, while he 
was yet a child. His guardians were 
Ariphron and Perlcles : educatus est in 
domo Periclis, (privignus enim ejus 
fuisse dicitur,) eruditus a Socrate ; C. 
Nep. ii, 1, 1. GIF. The vv'ord pupille 
is emphatic; he was still a ' ward.' 
LUB. s. Plut. PRA. 

Pericli for Periclis, from Pericleus, 
Periclei. s. CO, on Sall. H. fr. i, p. 934. 
KG. Pericles, the son of Xanthippus, 
was great both as a statesman and as a 
general. s. Just. iii ; LUB. Plut. 12; 
Cic. Brut. V. Max. viii, 9. Somc have 



supposed that Persius intended a pun in 
this place ; because Alcibiades, when 
young, was compared to a lion's whelp. 
PRA. s. Juv. iv, 31. 

4. Ingenium,ilociles nntura nos edidit, 
et rationem iletlit impcrjcctnm ,sed fp/fs 
perfici posset ; Sen.Ep.49. KG.lutoTHi, 
s. Arist. Eth. vi, 13. 

VelouL' ' precocious.' LUB. s. Ov. A. 
A. i, 183 ; Stat. S. ii, lOG ff. KG. 

6. Seris venit usus fd> annis; Ov. M. 
vi, 29 ; L UB. etenim niihi multa vetus- 
tas scire /ledit ; xiv, 695 f. Nero (whom 
many suppose to be alluded to under the 
charaeter of Alcibiades) was emperor, 
before he was seventeen ; Suet. 8 ; Tac. 
A. xiii, 1; G. PRA. 

Ab illis (philosophis) haec dicuntur ; 
si consfjnare tibi in faciendis et nun 
jacien/lis virtutis est, fjuce pars ejus 
pru/lentia vocatur, eadem in tlicendis et 
non diccndis erit ; Quint. ii, 20; Hom. 
Od. H 440 f ; Hor. Ep. i, 7, 72. KG. 

G. Hes. Th. 80 ff; KG. Virg. lE. i, 
149 ff. PRA. 

7. [Ov. M. i, 1.] 

Tm?naniter strepente exercitu^ ci/ni 
cieri tumultus violentior appareret, 
Valentinianus, elata prospere dextra, 
ut princeps Jiducia j)lenus, ansus incre- 
pare f^/ostlum ut scdifiosos et perfinaces, 
cogituta nullis interpclluntibus absolve- 
'bat; Amm. xxvi, [2.] PRA. 

8. Eit illa quasi privata censura, 
niajesfas clarorum viror//m, sine frihu- 
naiiumfastigio, sineapjinriforum mini- 
stcrio, potens in si/a amjjUtudine obti- 
nenfla. grafo enim cl Ji/ci/ntlo infroitii 
animis hotninum illabitur atbnirationis 
prcetexii/ velata: quam rccle quis dix- 
erit longi/m et beatiim honorem sine 
honore; V. Max.ii, end; ijui {Ji/pifer) 
jmstquam voce manuquc murmura com- 
jM-essit, tenuere silenfia ci/9icfi ; Ov. M. 
i, 205 f; s. Acts xiii, IG; PRA. Luc. 
i, 297 f. KG. 



SAT. IV 



OF PERSIUS. 



I!) 



Hoc, puta, non justum cst; illud male, rcctius ilhul." — 
10 Scis ctoniui justuui gemina suspenderc lance 

Ancipitis libra' : rectum discernis, ubi inter 

Curva subit vel quum fallit pede regula varo : 

Et potis cs nigrum vitio prierigerc theta. 

Quin tu igitur surama nequidquam pelle decorus 
15 Ante dieni blando caudam jactare ])opello 

Desinis, Anticyras melior sorbere meracas. 

Qua; tibi sumiua boni est } uncta vixissc patella 

Semper et assiduo eurata cuticula sole? 



9. SeeCie. Orat. i,12; Hor. Od. iii, 
3. KG. 

10. See Cic. T. Q. v, 17, KG. 

1). Virtue niay be compared to a 
straight line betwcen two crooked lines. 
To distinguish between what is correct 
and what is iucorreet, is often no easy 
task : irihiKaZ^euft ya^ el a.x.oci rris (ttirns 
X''i<^!' Arisi. Kth. ii, 7, » ; CH. s. iii, 
62. MAD. 

12. When, owinsc to the uecessary 
exeeptions, the strict adherence to the 
rule becomes improper. A madman 
demands the restitution of a sword, 
which he deposited with you when in 
his senses. The law bids you restore 
it : but common sense forbids. CS. 
[Cic. Of. i, 10.] 

13. (the first letter of Sd.iaTat) was 
set against the names of those sentenced 
tocapital punishment: nOsti morliferum 
qiKiestoris, Castrice., signum f est ojjeree 
pretium discere tlieta novum, fyc ; Mart. 
vii, 37; o multum ante a/ias injelijc 
litera theta. Sch. KG. GIF. 1 was 
the letter of acquittal. The Romans 
used A and C, the initials of absolvo 
and condemno. Cic. for Milo. A. Critics 
marked those passages of authors, which 
they approved of, with L {laudabile) or 
X ( xz^xr^rot), those of which they dis- 
appruved with 0. PRA. Sid. Ap. ix, 
335 f. CS. [Deane on the Serpent Wor- 
ship, p. 120; \Ad.\ 

14. Suet. vi, 51 ; Hor. Ep. i, 16, 
45 ; PRA. S. ii, 1, 64 f; KG. Tac. A. 
xiii ; MAD. v, 1 16. A striking instance 
of ferocity under a beautiful exterior 
was that of the sangninary revolutionist 
St Juste. 

' Your high pretensions savour more 
of foHy and insanity than of true wis- 
dom : but, to put the matter to the test, 
what is your idea of the sovereign good. 



the great end of life?' The answer is 
honest, at least. ' To indulge in idle- 
ness, and to fare well.' ' That,' retorts 
the poet, ' is precisely what this poor old 
herb-woman would reply.' And the ob- 
servation is just and pertinent. The 
Baucises, who cry radishes and water- 
cresses in our streets, have little coucep- 
tion of any happiness that is not con- 
nected with the table, and freedom from 
labour of every kind. The Hampshire 
farmer's boy, wlien asked what he would 
do if he were king, answered at once, 
" Why, I would swing on a gate and eat 
fat bacon, all day long." Our young 
pretender to state affairs now urges other 
claims, such as birth, beauty, <fec. in 
which he has decidtdly the Eidvantage 
of the old womaa : but our Stoic treats 
them with utter contempt, and changes 
the subject. GIF. ED. 

15. A metaphor from a peaeock, Hor. 
S. ii, 2, 26 ; Juv. vii, 32 ; i, 62 ; or from 
a dog, i, 87, note ; CS. s. Hor. S. i, 6, 
15 ff. KG. 

16. Anticyras : Juv. xiii, 97 ; Strabo 
ix ; Plin. xxv, 5; Gell. xvii, 15; 
Suet. iv, 29 ; expulit hellehoro mor- 
bum bilemque meraco; Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 
137; PRA. S. ii, 3, 83; note on i, 
51; MAD. Hor. A. P.300; Ov. Pont. 
iv, 3, 53 f. KG. 

17. See iii, 60. KG. 

Uncta patella. Si, bcne qvi ccenaf, 
hene vivit; /ticct, eamus quo diicit gula; 
Hor. Ep. i, 6, 66 f; PRA. Mart. v, 
46, 7. KG. 

18. Jnv. xi, 203 f. Sch. During the 
summer, the Romans used to rub oil into 
their skin, in the sun ; and in winter, 
before the fire ; /, precor, et totos avida 
cute combi/w so/es : f/uani/ormosus eris '. 
Mart. X, 12, 7 f ; PRA. s. 33 ; Plin. Ep. 
iii, 1 ; H. N. xxi, 14 ; Mart. i, 78. KG. 



H 



50 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. IV. 



Exspecta ; liaud aliiul lespondeat l)a;c anus. I nunc ! 

20 " Dinoniaclies ego suin." Suffla. " Sum candidus." Esto. 
Dum ne deterius sapiat pannucea Baucis, 
Quum bene discinclo cantaverit ocyma veraae. 
Ut nemo in sese tentat descendere, nemo ! 
Sed praecedenti spectatur manlica tergo. 

25 Qua;sicris: ' Nostin Vectidi prasdia ?' " Cujus ?" 
' Dives arat Cuvibus quantum non milvus oberret.' 
" Uunc ais ? Imnc dis iratis genioque sinistro, 
Qui quandoque jugum pertusa ad compita figit. 



19. Py way of raortifying the young 
iiian's pride, CS. he proposes appealing 
to an old vvoman passing by. LUB- 

I nitnc! Juv. vi, 306, note ; Virg. 
JE. vii, 425; Ov. Her. 9, 105 ; Prop. 
iii, It), 17. KG. 

20. n^of fiyir^l; ' AXxfiaioviin; -/i», 1« 
Altvt!u.a.^ri; yiyoveii; Tr.s MiyaK^/tov;' lr'lut. 
\ . xi, 1. 'Ihe Ak-mwoniate were one of 
the Doblest and wealthiest families in 
Athens, and were the most influential 
agents in the expulsion of the Pisistra- 
tidffi ; Her. iv, 92 f. KG. 

Siiffla ' putf away !' ' You do well to 
be proud of it.' PRA. s. Juv. viii, 46. 
KG. 

Can didif s et talos a vertice pulcher 
ad 17/108 ; Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 4. MAD. 

21. ' Old goody Baucis in her tatter'd 
gown,' (The name oecurs; Ov. M. viii, 
640 *e. PliA.) ' has the advantage 
over you in one respect: she has wit 
enough to fulfil her vocation well and 
profitably ; whereas you are utterly 
ignorant how to set about the business, 
which you so presumptuously under- 
take.' MAD. 

22. ' ' Qiiella Alto cantando ai dis- 
soluti servi L''erbette.'" SUI. 

Ocyma: s. Plin. xix, 7 or 36; CS. 
' basil.' Varro R. E. i, 31, 4; Cato"; 
Pliny xviii, 16 ; PRA. id. xx, 48; Mart. 
i, 42, 2. KG. 

23. See Juv. ii, 36 f ; KG. xi, 27. 
LUB. vt; Virg. E. viii, 41 ; Hor. S. i, 
1, 108; PRA. Ov. Her. 12, 33; 13, 
89 ; Spectator, No. 399 ; Rambler, Nos. 
24 and 28. 

24. Cum t)ia perrideas oculis mala 
lippus inunctis, cur in amicorum vitiis 
tam cernis acutum, quam ant aquila 
aut serpens Epidaurius ': Hor. S. ii, 3, 
298 f ; PRA. dixerit insanum qui me^ 
totidciH andipf ; ntqiie respicere ignnto 



discet pendentia tergo ; ib. 298 f. Tbe 
alIu«iou is to a fable of /Esop's : peras 
imposuit Jupiter nubis duas : propriis 
repletam vitiis post tergum dedit, alienis 
ante pectus suspendit gravem. hac re 
videre nostra mala non possumus ; aiii 
simul delinquunt, censores su?nus ; 
Phaed. iv, 10; MAD. LUB. tu autem 
tam laboriosns cs, ut post te non respi- 
cias ? in alio peduclum vides ; in te ri- 
cium non vides9 Petr. 57 ; Hor. S. i, 3, 
25 f; Sen. Ag. 270 ff; KG. nostram 
peram non videtites, aliorum, juxta 
Persium, manticam consideramus ; S. 
Hier. Ep. 91 ; non videmus id manticce, 
quod in tergo est ; Cat. xxii, 2 1 . PRA. 
KG. MAD. LUB. [St Matthew vii, 
3 ff.] 

25. Qucesieris ' if one ask.' KG. 

26. Juv. ix, 55. PRA. 

27. Isti qui cum geniis suis bellige- 
rant parcipromi ; Plaut. Truc. i, 2, 81 ; 
PRA. s. ii, 3; Juv. i, 49 f; x, 129; 
xiv, 1 ; MAD. Hor. S. ii, 3, 8 ; 123 ; 
Pha?dr. iv, 19, 15. KG. 

28. This festival {compitalia; Gell. 
X, 24;) was one of great celebrity; a 
kind of rustic saturnalia; Tib. ii, 7; 
Macr. S. i, 14. It was held after the 
seed-season, on a day annually named 
by the pifetor, but generally on or about 
the second of January. On the moru- 
ing of this day, the peasantry as- 
sembled near the eross-roads, probably 
for the advantage of space: here they 
erected a tree somewhat in the manner 
of our maypoles, on which the idle 
plough and yoke were hung, or, as 
some say, broken up. Tib. ii, 1. Under 
(his tree, some slight shed appears to 
have been raised, where they sacrificed, 
(Gell. i, 22; G.) feasted, and gave them- 
selves up to riotous mirth and joUity. 
Dionys. iv, 14. The origin of this 



SAT. IV. 



oi' iM:i{sirs. 



51 



SeriolcB vetereui inetiiens deraderu liiuimi 
30 Ingeuiit noc bene sit ! tuuieatuni cum sale mordeus 

Caepe, et, farrata pueris plaudenlibus olla, 

Pannusam fiecem morientis sorbet aceti." 
At si unctus cesses et figas in cute solem, 

Est prope te ignotus, cubito qui tangat et acre 
35 Despuat in mores, ]ienemque arcanaque lumbi 

Runcantem pupulo marcentes pandere vulvas. 

" Tu ciuum maxillis balanatum gausape pcclas. 



festival, which was probably, at first, 
an e,xpre:#sion of pious gratitude, is lo.st 
in antiquity. The Roman writers refer 
it to one of their kings, according to 
custom ; and as a god vras also ueces- 
sary, thev fi.xed upon the lares compi- 
talUii; Ov. F. v, 140; Suet. ii, 31. 
Sch. CS. LUB. PRA. KG. GIF. It 
somewhat resembled our harvest-home. 
MAD. 

Pertusa ' pervious.' Calp. iv, 126. 
KG. 

29. Serias omnes relevi ; Ter. Heaut. 
iii, 1, 51 ; (s. Hor. Od. i, 20, 2 f. 
PRA.) The diminutive marks his ava- 
rice ; as does the epithet veterem. CS. 

30. The solemn grace, whieh the old 
miser pronounces, indieates the extra- 
ordinary good cheer which wa,s forth- 
coming. BR. Tib. ii, 1, 31; Plaut. 
Stich. V, 4, 27; (LM.) PRJ. Petr. 
35 ; 65 ; Hor. S. ii, 6, 4 ; Ov. F. iv, 299. 
KG. The ecstasies of the boys are to 
tbe same eflfect. CS. 

' With all its coats.' PRA. 

31. See Juv. xiv, 171. PRA. 

32. [A miserly person endeavoured 
to dissuade a guest from trying his 
small beer by saying, " I am afraid you 
will find it dead." " I should notbe at 
a!l surprised,'' said the friend, " for it 
was very bad indeed when I last dined 
withyou."]'Heswillsthemotherydregs 
ofdeadvinegar,'i. e. tbesourwine which 
was the drink of those who could afford 
something more than water ; answering 
to our small beer. The mould had 
foimed a thick cake on the top, like a 
wooUen rag. Every word is emphatic. 
acre potet acefum; Hor. S. ii, 3, 116 
f. T. CS. MAD. [Ruth ii, 14.] 

33. ' If you lounge away your time.' 
s. 18. KG. 



34. ' Somebody or other, whom per- 
haps you little think of.' L VB. 

Aliquis cubito stantem prope 
tangens inquiet ; Hor. S. ii, 5, 42 f. 
PRA. 

35. Spitting was a sign of aversion 
and detestation. LUB. Plaut. As. i, 
1,26. .29; PRA. Theoc.vi, 39; xx, 
II ; Tib. i, 2, 96; Luc. Icar. t. ii, p. 
786. KG. In the following passage it 
is deeply to be regretted that a poet, 
who is universally represented as un- 
tainted by the gross sensuality of the 
age when he wrote, should have so far 
complied with its fashions as to use, in 
the exposure of the vices which he re- 
probates, language which will hardly 
admit of paraphrase. CS. 

The most malitious construction is 
put by this slanderer upon tbe effemi- 
nate anxiety of the young nobility to 
render their persons smooth and sleek, 
(s. Juv. viii, 16; ix, 12 ff; Arist. N. 
1005; 1079; Conc. 129; KG.) and to 
lay bare what nature intenJed to con- 
ceal. fruges coiisumere nati, sponsi 
Penelopce, nebulones, Alcinoique, in 
c u t e c u r an d a plus aquo ope- 
r at a,j u V e ntu s ; Hor. Ep.i, 2,27 ff. 

37. ' While you comb the falsebeard, 
perfumed with essences, which yon 
wear upon your cheeks and chin.' PS W, 
Suet. viii, 11; Mart. x, 42; Tac. A. 
xiv, exc. B ; L. Aug. Civ. D. iv, 1 ; 
Ov. A. A. i, 518 f ; Mart. ii, 36, 3 f. 
KG. 

MajLil/is; Mart. viii, 47. 3fSr. 

Pressa tuis balanus capillis jamdu- 
dum apud me est : Hor. Od. iii, 29, 4 ; 
{JN.) CS. Plin. xxiii, 5, 4 ; xiii, 1,4. 
PRA. 

Gausape ' Bhag.' vi, 46 ; PRA. Hor. 
S. ii, 8, 11 ; Mart. xiv, 138. KG. 



62 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. IV. 



Inguinibus quare detonsus gurgulio exslat? 

Quinquo palaestritaj licet hi€c plantaria vcUant 
40 Elixasque nates labefactent forcipe atlunca, 

Non tamen ista filix ullo mansuescit aratro." 
Coedimus inque vicem pra)bemus crura sagittis 

Vivitur hoc pacto : sic novimus. Ilia subter 

Ca^cum vuhius habes ; sed lato baheus auro 
45 Prajtegit. Ut mavis, da verba et decipe nervos, 

Si potes. " Egregium quum me vicinia dicat, 

Non credam ?" Viso si palles, improbe, numo ; 

Si facis, in penem quidquid tibi venit amarum ; 

Si puteal multa cautus vibice flagellas ; 



38. Gurgnlio is properly what anato- 
mists call the uvula, which hangs Irom 
the baek part of the palate. L UB. 

39. " la vain: shoukl five athletie 
knaves essay To pluck, {rnncare) with 
ceaseless care, the weeJs away, Still 
the rank fern, congenial to the soil, 
"Would spread luxuriant, and defeat 
their toil." GIF. The palcEstrita were 
probably the servants w ho trained the 
youiig gentlemen in the private schools 
of exercise. Mart. iii, 58, 25. KG. 

40. Elixas ' sodden' refers to the con- 
.stant use of the hot bath. LUB. Mart. 
iii, 7, 3. KG. 

41. On the stubborn nature of ' fern,' 
s. Viri,'. G. ii, 239; {VO.) 264; Juv. 
ix, 15": KG. 

42. ' We are more bent upon finding 
flaws in our neighbour's reputation ; 
than in raising our osvn above the reach 
of detraction.' LUB. ' We are so in- 
tent upon wounding our antagonist, 
that we leave our own weak parts un- 
guarded.' A metaphor from gladiators. 
Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 97; PRA. HY, exc. 
viii, on /En. vii. KG. 

43. ' Thus have we been taught:' 
LUB. or ' thus have we found it to be.' 
DBX. 

44- The metaphor is again taken 
from gladiators, who, when they re- 
ceived a wound, endeavoured to conceal 
it from the view of the spectators, by 
drawing over it their broad belt. Sch. 
It may also allude to power and wealth, 
which serve to blind the eyes of the 
world to many infirmities and faults. 
CS. s. Virg. .E. V, 312 f ; xii, 942 f. 
PRA. 



45. U( mavis ; Hor. S. i, 4, 21. 
PRA. 

Da verba; iii, 19, note. MAD. 

' Deceive your own senses and 
powers.' s. Hor. Ep. i, 16, 21. PRA. 
MAD. 

46. Vicinia ; Hor. S. ii, 5, 106. 
PRA. 

47. To the forming a correct estimate 
of our own weak points, it/ud prcecipue 
inipedit, quod cito nobis placemus ; si 
invenimus qni nos bonos viros dicat, 
(jui prudentes,(/ui sanctos, agnoscimus. 
nec sumus modica landatione contenti ; 
<juid(]uid in nos adulatio sine pudore 
congessit, tam(/na7n debitum prendi- 
mus ; optinios nos esse, sapicntissimos 
affirmantibus assentimur, cnm sciamus 
illos scepe mentiri ; Sen. Ep. 59. Al- 
cibiades owned that he had often suf- 
fered from flattery; Plat. Conv. 32. 
KG. 

Viso S)-c. s. iii, 109 fi^; Juv. viii 9 
flf; 135 ff. KG. 

48. ' Into your lustful mind.' KG. 

49. The signification of this line is 
obscure; and agreatdiversityofopinion 
exists among the commentators. From 
the several interpretations proposed, I 
have ventured to select the foUovving. 

' If, with all due precaution for your 
own personal security,you render your- 
self the scourge of the forum by con- 
stantl}' beating and wounding those 
who pass through it after dark.' Q. 
Vo/nsio, P. Scipiotie coss. otinm foris, 
fcsda domi lascivia : (pia Nero itinera 
urbis et Inpanaria et diverticula, vesie 
servili in dissimnlationem sui composi- 
tvs, pcrerrabat , romitantibns (fui rapc- 



SAT. IV. 



OF PEKSILS. 



58 



50 Ncquiil<iuam i^opulo bibulas clonaveris aurcs. 
Kespue, (luod nou es : loUat sua niunera cerclo ; 
Tecum habita: noris, quara sit tibi curta supellex. 



retU vetiditioni exposita et obviis vitlnera 
inferrent, adversns ignaros adeo, itt 
ipse qito^ite acriperet ictiis et ore prte- 
ferret . . . .Nero aiiteni luetitentior in 
posteriini, milites sibi et plerosqite 
gladiatores circnmdedit : qiti rixarum 
initia motiica et f/uasi privata sinerent : 
si a lcesis validiiis ageretiir, arma in- 
ferrent ; Tac. A. siii, 25; petitlan- 
tiam, libidinem, liiwnriam, avari/iam, 
crutlelitatem,. . .vetitt juvenili errore, 
exercuit....post crepitsculuin statim 
arrepto pHeo vel galcro popinas inibat : 
circitmqite vicos vagabatur ludibundus, 
tiec sine pernicie tamen. siquidem reil- 
eitntes a cwna verberare, ac repug- 
nantes vulnerare, cloacisqite demergere 
assiteverat . . . .ac scepe in ejusmodi 
rixis, oculorum et vitce periculum ailiit, 
a (jitofiain laiictavio, cujus uuorem at- 
trectaverat, prope ad tiecem ccesus. 
quare tiiimqttam poslea se publico illitd 
liorce sine tribunis commisit, procui et 
occuite subseqitentibus ; Suet. vi, 26; 
CS. PRA. MAD. s. Juv. iii, 278.. 
304, notes. GIF. 

Puteai literally means ' the cover of 
a well.' It was a sinall inclosure in the 
Comitium, the most frequented part of 
the Forum. It contained a low-raised 



piece of masonry, ahd appears to have 
been sometimes used as an altar. 
When, or why, it was railed in, was a 
matter of uncertainty even in Cicero's 
time ; though he supposed the famous 
rasor and whet-stone of the augur 
Nicvius was deposited there ; Div. i, 1 7 ; 
32 ; Liv. i, 36. There was another, 
called the pitteai of Libo, in the Julian 
portico near the Fabian Arch : Fest. 
xvii, p. 487; SM. GIF. Dionys. iii, 
end ; Cic. for Sext. 18; Hor. Ep. i, 
19, 8; S. ii, 6, 35. PRA. 

50. Sed vereor ne citide te piits quam 
fibicredas; Hor. Ep. i, 16, 19. PRA. 

Bibuias. g.Hor.Od. ii, 13,32 ; PRA. 
Prop. iii, 4, 8. {BU.) KG. 

51. " Fling the rabble back their vile 
applause." GIF. Mart. iii, 16; stulfus 
Itoiiures scepe daf indignis; Hor. S. i, 6, 
15 f; PRA. Juv. iv, 153, note. MAD. 

52. See i, 7- CS. si perpendere fe 
voies, sepone pecuniam, domum, digni- 
fafem ; infus fe ipse consiiie ; Sen. Ep. 
80; feipsumconcute; Hor. S. i,3, 34 f ; 
S. ii, 7, 1 12; fuo tibijitdicio est ufetiditm: 
tibi si recfe probanti piucebis, fum non 
modo fu te viceris, sed onincs et omnia ; 
Cic. T. Q. ii, 63. PRA. 



S A T I R E V. 



ARGUMENT. 

The poetical antl philosophical daims of Persius rest, in some measure, 
upon this poem; and it is but justice to say that they are not ill 
supported hy it. 

The Satire consists of two parts; the first expressive of the poefs deep 
and grateful sense of the kindness of his friend and instructor, Cornutus, 
1..29; with a beautiful summary of the hlessings derived from his 
■wisdom and goodness; 30. .64. 

The second part is a laboured and ostentatious display of our poefs pro- 
ficiency in the esoteric doctrine of the Stoic School ; something must 
here be forgiven to the ardour of youth, and the vehemence of inex- 
perienced virtue. This division of the Satire is principally occupied 
with that celebrated paradox of the sect, that the wise man alone is 
essentially frce, 65 ff; and that the passions of avarice, 109 fi", luxury, 
142 flf, love, 161.. 175, ambition, 176 £f, superstition, 179 fl; and other 
passions exercise as despotic a control over their victims as the severest 
taskmaster over his slaves. It cannot be supposed that much new matter 
should be produced upon such a topic. Both Persius and his preceptor 
came too late for this ; and could only repeat, iu other forms, what had 
beeu said a thousand times before. But there may be iiigenuity, where 
there is no novelty; and tliis is not wanting. 

Some amusement may be found in coutrasting the sober earnestuess of 
Persius, with the solemn irony of Horace. The language of both is 
much the same, aud the conclusions do not greatly difter ; but the 
Stertinius of the latter, in spite of his inflexible gravity, must have pro- 
voked resistless laughter; while the youthful poet commands respect, 
aud though he may fail to convince, always secures attention. GIF. 



SAT. V. 



THE SATIRKS 0¥ PKRSIUS. 



55 



\'ATiijrs liic nios cst, centuni sibi poscere voccs, 
Centuni ora, et linguas optare in carnnna centuni : 
Fabula seu niaLJsto ponatur hianda tragoedo, 
Vulnera seu Partlu duccntis ab inguine ferruni. 

5 " Quorsuni ha^c .' aut quantas robusti caiTninis offas 
Ingeris, ut jiar sit centeuo gutturc niti ? 
Grande locuturi nebulas Helicone legunto, 
Si quibus aut Procnes aut si quibus olla Thyestaj 
Fervebil, s;epe insulso ccenanda Glyconi. 

10 Tu neque anhelanti, coquitur dum niassa caniino, 



1. Homer wa.s contentwith ten; et/i' 
u fioi iixa /iif yXufffou, lixa Ss ffriftaT 
tiir 11. B 484. Hostiussquared thenum- 
ber at once ; tioti si mi/ii /i/i(/ttcp eeutiim 
atqiie ora sient totidem vocesfine /iijnata; 
B. Ist. ii; Macr. S. vi, 3. With this 
hyperhole succeedin» poets appearto 
have rested content; Virg. G.ii, 43; ^E. 
vi, 62.5; vii,37ff; Sil. iv,527; Claud. 
Prob. 55 f: not so the o rators ; omnia 
licet liuc revocemus prtpterita, et ad 
canendas unius /audes, universorum 
vatiim scriptorumque ora consentiant : 
vincit tamen res isla mi//e /ingiias, 
4'f; Quint. Decl. vi, end ; S. Hier. 
Epit. Paul. beg. Cassiod. Ep. xi, 1 ; 
PRA. s. Virg. J£. vi, 43 f; MAD. 
Ov. M. viii,5:i2 ff; Tr. i,453 ff; F.ii, 
1 19 ff; KG. " Non io se ceato bocc/ie 
e liugue cento Avessi e ferrea /ena e 
ferrea voce, fyc;'' Tasso. GIF. 

3. Tristia mfrstum vu//um verlu de- 
cent; Hor. A. P. 105 f. PRA. 

Ponatur; i, 70, note; Quint. Tnst. ii, 
3. KG. 

Hionda: Juv. vi, C34 ff; PHA. 
Prop. ii, 23, 5 f. Much baJ taste pre- 
vaili-d on the stiige in these days. evV 
av Ikiivm vioidii Tov; Xoyovs , fin xa) xar 
iiXXe Ti ynui/.ai Toli wox^ira?; txntois. 
e'i -reWaxis '/j Ayaniuvovos « Kfiiofrcs t) 
xai'ii^axXievs avrovT^o^wTey/ZiiiA.rifiriSj 
^euffiiaf rjuipii<r/j.iyoi xai otito* ^XiTotris, 
xai f/,tya xt^rivorts, fiix^ov (fhyyevrai xai 
iir^yot xai yvtaixaOi; . xai rr,s 'Exdfitis v 
neXv^ims voXv ra/riiiori^ov Luc. iNlgr. 
u 1, y. 50 ; iJoi-. A. P. 96 f. KG. 

Tragwdiis and tragicus ditfer as co- 
moedifsa.n(\ comicus ; Juv. iii, 94. FRA. 

4. The Parthian wars were carried 
on under Augustus and Nero. s. Tac. 
An. xii f; Suet. Just. L)io. FRA. aut 



/a/jcntis cquo describere vu/ncra Par- 
t/ii; Hor. S. ii, 1, 15; MAD. s. Ov. F. 
V, .581 ff; Prop. iii, 7, 5;i. {BU.) KG. 
A/t inguine denotes the position of 
the quiver, KG. near tlie groin, WB. 
or side. s. Virg. ^. x, 589 ; and Serv. 
on iE. ix, 417. Pi?/. ' The Parthian 
wounded by the lance of the pursuing 
Roman, GIF. when in the act of 
drawing his arrow from the saddle-how :' 
where holsters are now slung. 

5. " Thosehugegobbetsofrobustious 
song." GIF. 

6. ' Tliat you require the support.' 
CS. 

7. Ne, dum vitat /lumuni, nu/jes et 
inania captet ; Hor A. P. 230 ; versus 
inopes rerum, nugaque canorce ; ib. 
322. PRA. 

8. Procnes ; Juv. vi,644, note. ^G. 
T/ii/estcB ; Juv. vii, 73, note ; Serv. 

on JE. i, 572 ; Claud. i, 171 ; Hor. A. 
P. 91. KG. 

9. Thetheatrical tasteof the Romans 
must have degenerated sadly since the 
Augustan age ; when such disgusting 
exhibitions would have been exploded. 
Hor. A. P. 182.. 188. PRA. 

Ccenanda is here used for ' to be 
acted,' as forming one of the principal 
features in these tragedies: in like 
manner sa//arc fahulam is used ; Ov. 
Tr. ii, 519 ; Juv. vi, 63 ; Hor. S. i, 5, 
63. KG. 

The tolerating such an unnatural 
spectacle, enacted by an ' insipid' per- 
former, was a reproach to the audience. 
GIF. 

10. Juv. vii, 111, note. KG. a 
nostris procu/ est omnis vesica /ibe//is, 
musa nec insano syrmatc nostra tumet ; 
Mart. iv, 49, 7 f. PRA. 



66 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V, 



Folle premis ventos ; nec clauso muvmure raucus 
Nescio quid tecum grave cornicavis inepte ; 
Nec stloppo tumidas intendis rumpere buccas. 
Verba toga; sequeris, junctura callidus acri, 
15 Ore teres modico, pallentes radere mores 
Doctus et ingenuo culpam defigere ludo. 



^ 



11. See iii, 81, note. MAD. 

12. ' Nor do you croak;' Pri*cian 
viii, 828 ; a//i iiitra se ne.soio f/uid cor- 
nicaiifes tvmentia verba trutinantnr, 
Sj-c; S. Hier. Ep. iv; PRA. x^d^ur 
Arist. Pl. 369 ; (Sch.) Virg. G. i, 389. 
(HY.) KG. 

Inepte ; Hor. A. P. 457 f. KG. 

13. St/oppifs i.s the sountl made hy 
inflating the cheeks to their utmost 
extent, and then forcihly expelling the 
air by striking them together with the 
hands. PRA. 

14. Verba togcE. This phrase must 
have signified ' the language of good 
society at Eome,' as distinguished from 
that of the populace, {tunicatus pope/- 
lus,) and frora that of the prnvinces 
and a great part of Italy, where " none 
assumed the toga but the dead." The 
toga had fallen into general disuse 
among the lower orders in the days of 
Augustiis, aud from his reign to the 
age in which Persius lived, there was 
sufTicient time for the invention of a 
term so obvious. The phrase in question 
was not coined by Persius himself, but 
owed its origin to some one of the in- 
numerable dicaces et urbani who had 
preceded him; he employed it as a 
well known and familiar expression. 
FEE. 

Notum si ca//ida verhim reddiderit 
junctura novum ; Hor. A. P. 47 f- ca/- 
lidus, ' workmanly,' is there used (as it 
is by Persius) in strict conformity to 
the metaphor ; (s. i, 64, note.) acris' 
junctura may be understood to signify 
what a workman might call ' a sharp 
joint,' meaning one that was close and 
accurate. We may conclude that the 
expression used hy Persius, like those 
of Horace, was familiar and usual in 
his time, that it had its origin in the 
manufactory and the shop, and was 
from thence transferred into the phrase- 
ology of the higher orders as indicative 
of elahorate accuracy, either in litera- 
ture or upholsteiy. FEE. 

15. Ore teres modiro is descriptive 



of the natural and easy mode of re- 
citation suited to compositions in a 
familiar style, as opposed to the stretch- 
mouthed declamation of the heroic 
poets. The frequent recurrence of 
poetical rehearsals, and the ohligation 
of attending them, is mentioned not 
only in instanees in which it raight be 
considered as a ludicrous exaggeration, 
hut seriously by Pliny, among others, 
as one of the main inconveniences 
attendant upon a residence in Rome. 
An occupation which took up so much 
of the leisure of a refined and fastidious 
people must have given rise to a variety 
of phrases such as that of which Persius 
here makes use. FEE. s. Hor. A. P. 
323 ; CS. V. Flac. ii, 242; {BU.) KG. 
p/ena queedam oratio, ct tamen teres ac 
tenuis, at non sine nervis ac viribus ; 
Cic. Or. iii, 197; i^RA. not like the 
specimen in i, 98. .102. MAD. 

Pa//entes may allude to the effects 
of a euilty conscience : ni/ conscire sihi, 
nu//a pa//escere cu/pa : Hor. Ep. i, 1, 
61 ; LUB. Juv. i, 165 fif. KG. Or the 
images and expressioa may he taken 
frora the spectacles of the circus. Ra- 
dere means to graze with a dart or 
other missile weapon, which accomits 
for pa//entes; and as the /udi g/adiatorii 
and the venationes of the Circus were 
considered as degrading to those who 
exhibited theraselves, the poet, in ap- 
plying the metaphor to himself, takes 
care to qualify the word /udus by the 
epithetof /woe/H/w*' gentlemanly.'[Hor. 
O. i, 27, 16.] The games of the Circus 
likewise, must have furnished a large 
supply of phrases to the conversational 
dialect of a people among whom they 
were considered as an object of interest, 
secondonly totheimmediatenecessaries 
of \\ie,panem et circenses. The associa- 
tion of ideas between a satirist reciting, 
and an armed man in a menacing atti- 
tude,is not peculiar toPersius,it occurs 
in Juvenal, ense ve/ut stricto quoties 
Luci/ius ardet; i, 165. The apparent 
oonfusion of metaphors in this passage 



the 
lor. y/ 



SAT. V 



or i^EUsius. 



:)7 



lliuc trah(.', (jiuv dicas ; int'ii.sas<jue nliiu[ue Mycenis 
Cuin capite et pedibus, plebeiatiue prandia noris." 
Non equidem hoc studeo, bullatis ut inihi nugis 

20 Paj^ina lurgescat dare pondus idonea funio ; 

Secreti loquiniur. Tibi nuiie, hortante Camena, 
Excutienda daraus praccordia; quantaque nostiie 
Pars tua sit, CornTTte, aninne, tibi, duleis ainice, 
Ostendisse juvat. Pulsa, diguosccrc cautus 

25 Quid soliduni crepet et pictae tectoria Hnguaj. 
Hic ego centenas aiisim deposcere voccs, 
Ut, quantum mihi te sinuoso in pectore fixi, 
Voce traham pura totumque hoc verba resigncnt. 



is a stroDg proof that it consists of 
terms in familiar use. FEE. [" Shoot 
Folly as it flies, And catch the living 
manners as they rise."] 

1 7. Respicere exemplar vi/ce moriim- 
que jnbebo doctirm imitatorem et veras 
hinc diicere voces ; Hor. A. P. 317 f. 
KG. 

]S. ' The head and feet' were re- 
served to show Thytstes, ou what he 
had been banqueting. denudat artus 
dirus atque o.ssa amputat ; tantum ora 
servat et datas fidei manus ; Sen. Thy. 
PRA. Her. i, 119, notes. 

' Familiarize yourself with every-day 
dinners.' 

19. ' Inflated frothy nothings.' am- 
pullas et sesquipedalia verba ; Hor. A. 
P.97; Pi?^. "Air-blowntrifles."GIjP. 

20. ' The page' is put for its contents. 
Prop. ii, 17, 1 ; inque lihellis crevisset 
sine te pagina nulla mcis ; Ov. Tr. v, 
9, 3 f; Mart. ix, 78, 2. KG. 

Nugis addere pondus; Hor. Ep- i, 
19, 42. MAD. 

21. ' You are not to suppose that what 
I am about to say is dictated eitber by 
flattery or a love of display : for we are 
enjoying a snug tete-a-tete.' LUB. 

22. Explicandus est animiis.i et quce- 
cvmque apud i II u mdejjositasunt .^subinde 
excuti dehenl; Sen. Ep. 72. KG. ' To be 
thoroughly sifted:' but s. 27 f. notes. 

Prcprordia • xriyu fAv ra f^ttut sjfai 
KiaT if ftu;^^ Theoc xxix, 3. KG. 

23. This sentiment is borrowed from 
Pythagoras, who said a friend wa« " an- 
otherself." ITorace calls Virgil,a«/;wfF 
dimidium 7nefe ; Od.i,3,8.Sch. Orestes 
and Pylades duo rorporthus, ^nenfihus 



unuserant; Ov. Tr. iv, 4, 72; S. Aug. 
Conf. iv, 6. Hence the expression 
fvii^ux'a used by Greg. Naz. PRA. 
Thu saiiie idea is constantly occurring 
both in heathen and in Christian writers: 
as Hor. Od. ii, 17, 5 ft'; Ov. Pont. iii, 
4, 69 ; Stat. S. iii, 2, 7 f ; Luc. Tox. 
t. ii, p. 55'^ ; KG. Ov. Her. x, 58 ; xviii, 
125 f. M. viii, 406 ; Maxim. El. ii, l 
f ; V, 117 f ; D. Chrys. Or. iii, 56 ; S. 
Hier. Ep. i, 15 ; M. Fel. i, p. 20 ; Lact. 
de M. Pers. viii ; Clem. Kom. Ep. Cor. 
ii, 12; and tbat beautiful picture of 
perfect friendship which is described in 
Acts iv, 32. 

Anneeus Cornufus was banished by 
Nero, in the fourth year after the death 
ofhispupil. LUB. 

24. Pulsa: a metaphor from earthen- 
ware, which will not ring, when struck, 
if there is any flaw in it. LUB. s. iii, 
21 ; MAD. Auson. Id. xvi, 12 ff. KG. 

25. ' The tbin vamish of the painted 
tongue;' LUB. s. Juv. vi, 467; [St 
Matthew xxiii, 27.] 

Res est (i. e. the Holy Scripture) solida 
el sincera, non fucafa eloquia, nec ullo 
linguce tectorio inane aliquid ac pendu- 
lum crepitat ; S. Aug. to Volus. FRA. 
Compare St M.atthew xxiii, 27. MAD. 

26. Persius iniiraates, to borrow the 
words of Cicero, omni officio ac potius 
pietate erga Cornntum, etsi aliis 
safisfaceret omnihtis, at ipsum sibi 
numquam safisfacere ; Ep. i, 1 ; to 
Lentulus. PRA. 

27. ' FuU of folds :' a metaphor from 
a gown. KG. 

28. ' 1 may draw fortb' from those 
folfls. KG. 



/. 



58 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V, 



Quod latet arcana non cnarrabile fibra. 
30 Quum primum pavido custos mihi puqjura cessit 
Bullaque succinctis laribus donata pependit ; 
Quura blandi comitcs, totaque irapune Subura 
Permisit sparsisse oculos jam caudidus umbo : 
Quumque iter ambiguum est et vilae nescius eiTor 



Pura opposed to picta : L UB. ' guile- 
less.' MAD. 

' May unseal,' PRA. ' and unfold for 
your perusal, more than my words can 
express.' 

29. Fibra : i, 47 ; PRA. Luc. ii, 285 
f ; Sil. i, 140. KG. 

30. Boys might feel ' timid ' (.Juv. xvi , 
3 ; MAD.) at first laying aside the dress 
of their early years, and assuming the 
garh of manhood. LUB. Cat. IxTiii, 15 
ff; Ov. Tr. iv, 10, 27 ff; Prop. iii, 13, 
3 ff. KG. 

The prcefexfa was intended to he ' a 
protection' to those who wore it. CS. 
(Maer. S. i, 6 ; SVL. Plin. ix, 3ti ; pra-- 
texta infirmitatem puerifia sacramficri 
et venerabilem, non secus ac sacerdotes 
vestibus suis ; Quint. Decl. 340: s. im- 
berbisjuvenis ta7idem custode remoto ; 
Hor. A. P. 161. PRA.) In the general 
corruption of manners, hovvever, its sa- 
cred character was utterly disregarded. 
Cif. Cat. ii,2, 10; Phil.ii,18; Juv. x, 
308; Mart.often. Forbette; seeurity the 
boys were always accompanied fo and 
from school by a pedagogue. Hor S. i, 
6, 81 ff; Juv. X, 114 ff; Mart. xi, 40 : 
K. Prop. ii, 3, 10 f ; Pttr. 85 ; V. Max. 
iii, 1 ; iv, 1 ; Pliu. Ep. iii, 3. KG. per 
hoc inane purpura decus preco^r ; Hor. 
Ep. V, 7. DEN. 

31. Bulla; Juv.v, 164,note; PRA. 
Petr. 60. KG. Boys consecrated their 
bulla, as girls did their dolls : s. ii, 70, 
note ; AX, v, 18. PRA. This dedicatioti 
was a private ceremony ; the putting on 
of the toga was a public one. If the 
latterwasp£rformedatRome,theyouths 
repairedimmediatelyafterwards tosome 
teuiple (generally to the Capitol) to 
complete the ceremony by offering the 
customary sacrifices. Being an aet of 
great solemnity, it frequeiitly formed, 
among the youths who changed their 
gown at thesame time, abondof fellow- 
ship which subsisted unbroken through 
life. GIF. Hor. Od. i, 36, 9. 

Succinctis. s. cinctidis ; Hor. A. P. 



60. These domestic deities, who were 
rather regarded as palladia or amulets 
than as gods of power, were probably 
represented in the same homely garb 
whicli they wore before Rome became a 
city. A kind of affectionate home-bred 
superstition forbade all attempts at in- 
novation in their costume. GIF. They 
weredressed,aftertheGabinian fashion, 
with their toga twisted over the left 
shoulder, leaving the right arm bare. 
Sch. s. Ov. V. V, 129 f; (BU.) Prop. 
iv, 1, 131. (BA//. FP.) KG. 

32. ' When I had indulgent com- 
panions, who would let me go my ovni 
way ; instead of an uncle to thwart me 
and a pedagogue to curb me.' PRA. 
MAD. [Liv. iv, 44, 2.] 

Subtira; Juv.iii,5,note; PiJ^. Anth. 
L. t. ii, ep. xli, p. 514. (BU.) KG. 

33. Ov. F. iii, 771. -778. KG. post- 
quam excessit ex ephebis, liberius vi- 
vendi fuit potestas : antea vero cetas, 
metus^ magister prohihebant ; Ter. And. 
i, 1, 24 tf; oculi sunt in amore duces; 
Ov. PRA. Their white gown, having 
the gloss of newness on this momentous 
occasion, would be candidus. GIF. 

The toga was so arranged as to be 
gathered into many plaits on the left 
slioulder ; the centre, where all these 
folds met, was called the uinbo or ' boss.' 
CS. T. s. Tert. de Pall. p. 373 ff ; palla 
nigerrima^splendescens alro nitore. (fuce 
circumcirca remeans, et sub deatrmn 
latus ad humerum laevum recurrens, 
u m b n i s v ice ?« dejecta parte lacini<x 
muliiplici contabulatione dependula ; 
Apul. xi. L. From this boss, the ex- 
tremity of the lappet fell down before, 
and was tucked into the girdie,forming 
the sinus, (an apology for a pocket,) in 
which papers and other light articles 
were curried ; and it is far from impro- 
bable that some affected display was 
made of it, in the pride of recent man- 
hood. GIF. 

34. See iii, 66, note; PRA. Juv. ii, 
20, note. 



SAT. V 



OF PERSIUS. 



50 



35 Diducit trepidas raniosa in compita mentes, 
Me tibi sup])osui. Teneros tu suscipis annos 
Socratico, Cornuto, sinu. Tunc l'allt;re solcrs 
Apposita intortos extendit regula mores 
Et premitur ratione aniraus vincique laborat 

40 Artiflccmque tuo ducit sub pollicc vultum. 
Tecum etenim longos memini consumere soles 
Et tecum primas epulis dccerpere noctes. 
Unum opus et recjuiem pariter disponimus ambo 
Atque verecunda laxamus seria mensa. 

45 Non equidem hoc dubites, amborum foedere certo 



35. 0< vE«( Tx tt^n tiffit tvfitTiifitKw 
Arist. Rh. ii, 14,2. 

Ramosa : s. Aus. Id. xv. PRA. 

36. The metaphor may be taken from 
an animal placing its neck under the 
yoke; Ov. Am. iii, 10, 13; orfrom a calf 
sucking ; Varr. I>.R.v,2;5;17. KG. 

37. The Stoics traced their philo- 
sophy from Socrates by the following 
line of succession : (1) Socrates, (2) 
Antisthenes, (3) Diogenes, (4) Crates, 
(5) Zeno, (6) Cleanthes, (7) Chrysip- 
pus : s. Plut. Laert. Cic. PRA. vark', 
hos paterno, ut yenilor, excipiani sinit ; 
Sen. Med. 384; Socratica Jide ; Petr. 
129; s. Quint. i, 9; ii, 2. KG. 

' You corrected me with such skill 
andaddress, that I insensiblyamended: 
80 gradually was your discipline re- 
vealed, that I was happily cheateJ, as 
it were, into reformation.' CS. MAD. 
Hor. Ep. i, 17, 10; KG. s. Lucr. i, 
936. .949 ; " Cosi alV egro fanciul por- 
giamo, aspersi Di soave licor, gli orli 
del vaso : Siicchi amari, ingannato, in- 
tanto ei beve, E dalV inganno suo vita 
riceve;" Tasso, G. L. i, 3. 

38. A metaphor from workmen. 
SVL. 

'Extends,'andconsequently*straight- 
ens,' PRA. 

39. Animuni rege ; qui, nisi paret, 
invperat : Imnc frcnis, Imnc tu com- 
pesce catena ; Hor. Ep. i, 2, 62 f ; homo 
cuni anitno inde ab ineunte cetate de- 
pugnat suo:...tti si animinn vicisti 
potius, f/uam animus te, est (juod gan- 
deas; Plaut. Trin. ii, 2, 24 <fec; s.'Cic. 
OfiF. i, 28, end ; efficiendum cst autciu, 
ut appetilus rationi obcdiant, ^-c; ib. 29. 
As the horse is broken in by the rider, 
so i» the mind to be managed by reason ; 



Plato. Pi?^. Virg. iE.viii,81; (HY.) 
Prop. ii, 1, 10; Arist. R. 868. KG. 
The imperfect babit of continence 
is here pictured : where the passions 
are not yet brought to acquiesce with- 
out reluctance in the supremacy of 
reason, as is the case in the perfect 
character of t em perance. s. Arist. 
Eth. vii, (where he treats of self- 
control,) and i, 13. 

40. Artificem sometimes signifies 'a 
finished piece of workmanship.' Ov. A. 
A.iii,555f; V. Flac. vi, 465; s. Prop. 
i, 2, 8; {BU.) id. ii, 23, 8. {BKH.) 
KG. 

Juv. vii, 237 f, notes ; PRA. Stat. 
S. iv, 6, 27. KG. 

41. Sape cgo longos cantando pue- 
rum memini me condere soles ; Virg. 
E. ix, 51 f; PRA. id. JE. iii, 203; 
Nemes. Ec, ii, 25; yEl. V. H. xiii, 1. 
KG. [" In sighs I waste the glow of 
day; In tears consume the gloom of 
night."] 

42. By ' the first nights,' is meant 
' the first part of the night,' i. e. * an 
hour or two after sun.set.' SVL. " Of 
thenight Have borraw'd thefirsthours, 
feasting with thee On the choice dain- 
ties of philosophy." HOL. 

Decerpere is contrasted with consu- 
mere. KG. 

43. Omnibus iinaqtiiesoperum,lnbor 
omnibus ideni; Virg. G. iv, 184. PRA. 

44. See Athen. Macr. vii, 1; Gell. 
xiii, 11. PRA. There seems to be a 
peculiar beauty in Persius's talking all 
along in the present tense; he recol- 
lected with so much pleasure those days 
which were past, that he seemed to live 
them over again. DEN. 

45. Fwdere certo; Virg. /E. i, 62; 



60 



THE SATIKES 



SAT. V. 



Consentire dies et ab uno sidere duci. 

Nostra vel a^quali suspendit tempora Libra 

Parca tenax veri, seu nata fidelibus hora 

Dividit in Geminos concordia fata duorum 
53 Saturnumnue gravem nostro Jove frangimus una: 

Nescio quod, certe est, quod me tibi temperat, astrum. 
Mille hominum species et rerum discolor usus : 

Velle suum cuique est nec voto vivitur uno. 

Mercibus hic Italis mutat sub sole recenti 
55 R':gosum piper et pallentis grana cumini: 



Sil. XV, 7o ; KG. nmgnus erit Geminis 
amor et conrordia dnplex ; quosqiie tla- 
bunt Chelae et qiios dat Aquarius 
ortus, vnitni pectus liaboit^fideique im- 
inobile vinclum ; Man. ii. PRA. Tt 
was believeJ that this unanirnity did 
not subsist between such as were bom 
under every sign : at quihus in lucem 
Pisces venientilus atlsutit, /lis non 
hna manef seni/ier sententia cordi ; com- 
jnutant aninios interdum et foetlera 
rutupunt ac repetunt ; Mani'. ii. MRC. 

46. Scit Genius natale comes qui 
tempcrat astru tu ; Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 187; 
M \i C. sicplacitum Parc is : seu Lib r a 
seu tne Scoipios adspicit fortnidolosus^ 
pars violentior natalis horae seit 
tyrannus Hcsperitx Capricornus u ndce ; 
■utruitique nostrum incredibili tiioilo 
consentit a)-tru m ; te Jovi s impio 
tutela Saturno refulgens eripuit, ^-c ; 
Hor. Od. ii, 17, 15 ff; (JC.) Sob. 
PRA. Juv. vii, 194 ff, notes. KG. 

47. ' The balanee' is a symbol of 
equality. When the sun enters this 
sign (whieh is about the 20th of Sep- 
tember), the autumnal equinox cora- 
mences. felix cetjuatce genitus sub pon- 
dere Librce ; Man. v. PRA. 

48 Parca non tnendax; Hor. Od. ii, 
16, 39. ' The Fate' of the Stoics is 
here meant. L UB. s. Juv. iii, 27, note ; 
Virg. E. iv, 47 ; PRA. [Cic. N. D. i, 
20.] 

50. See Juv. vi, 569 f, note. felices- 
que Jovis stellas Martisque rapacis et 
gtave Saturni sidus iti omne caput; 
Prop. iv, 1, 83 f; PRA. Macr. S. i, 
19; Ptol. in FC, B. Gr. t. vi, 14, p. 
449; Gell. xiv, 1; Cic. Div. ii ; Sext. 
Erap. v; Petr. 39. KG. 

5\. Nescio quid certe est; Virg. E. 
viii, 107; Ov. Her. xii, 212. 



Astrutn is properly ' a constellation.' 
LUB. 

52. Qtcot capita,tot sententice ; suus 
cuique mos ; Ter. Ph. ii, 3, 14 ; Cassiod. 
quot capitum vivuut, totidem studiorum 
ttiillia; Hor. S. ii, 1, 27; Sch. PRA. 
inque aliis rebus multis differrenecesse 
est naturas liomitmtn varias nioresque 
sequaces ; Lucr. iii, 315 f. 

53. Trahit sua quettique voluptas ; 
Virg. E. ii, 65; Sch. quod tibi tnag- 
tiopere cordi est, mihi vehettienter tlis- 
plicet ; Lueil. PRA. s. Ov. A. A. i, 
759 f ; Hor. Od. i, 1 ; and S. i. 4, 25 S. 
KG. 

54. Hic mutaf merces surgetife a 
sole ad eum quo vespertina tepet regio ; 
Hor. S. i, 4, 29 f ; Sch. itupiger ejctretnos 
currit inercator atl Intlos; Ep. i, 1, 
45. The word mutat properly beionged 
to a period, when commerce consisted 
in barter: utinatn totum e vifa posset 
abilicari aurum, sacra fatnes, atl per- 
nicietti vitcB repertuiti. quatitutti feli- 
ciore cevo, quum res ipsce permutaban- 
tur inter se, sicut et Trojanis tetnpo- 
ribus factitaium, Hotnero crcdi con- 
venit. ita cniiti, uf opitior, cotntnercia 
victusgratia invcufa,^-c; Plin. xxxiii, 
1. The invention of commerce is at- 
tributed to the Phoenicians; id. vii, 
56; AX. iv, 15; PRA. s. Arist. Eth. 
V, 5, 

55. Hce (i. e. the pods of ' pepper,') 
priusquam tlehiscant decerptce tostceque 
sole, faciunt qiiotl vocalur piper lon- 
gutn; paullatitti vero tlchiscentes tnatu- 
ritate, osteniluntcanditlum piper ; quod 
deinde tostum solibus colore rugisqtie 
tnutatur; Plin. H. N. xii, 7 or 14. and 
again, quce piper gignunt juniperis 
nostris similes; ib. PRA. s. 136 ; Juv. 
xiv, 293. ' The cumin.' whicb is a 



SAl'. \ 



C)F PERSIUS. 



«1 



Hic satur irrigiio imivult turgesccre somno : 
Hic c;ini|)o indulget : hunc alea decocjuit : ille 
In Vencreni est putris : sed quum lapidosa chiragra 
Fregerit articulos, veteris ramaha fagi, 
()0 Tunc crassos Iransisse dies lucemque palustrem, 
Et sibi jam seri vitam ingemuere relictam. 

Al te nocturnis juvat impallescere chartis: 
Cultor enim juvenum purgatas inseris aures 



inere dwarf in our gardens, grows to 
tbe l:i'ight of eipht or nine feet in bot 
countries. It is much cultivuted by 
the Maltese, with whom it forms an 
article of commerce. DMD. It .seems 
to have been used at comiinm tables as 
a substitute for ' pepper,' which was 
very expensive. GIF. cinninum pal- 
lorem bibentibiis gignil.ila certe ferunt 
Porcii Latronis, clari inter magistros 
(ticendi, affectatores similitiiitinem co- 
loris stialiis contracti imitatos, fyc ; Plin. 
XX, 14 or 57; xix, 47; xv, 29; quoil 
si pallerem casii, biberent exsangue 
cumin u m; Ilor. Ep. i, 19, 17f; PRA. 
KG. [ADD, Dialogue on Medals t. i, 
p. 504.] 

56. Fessos sopor irrigut artits; 
Virg. iE. iii, 511; ib. i, 091 ; {HY.) 
Lucr. iv, 908. 'I he metaphor is taken 
fiom plants which beconie more succu- 
lent from frequent watering. CS. s. 
Tib. ii, 1, 44. Hence also obesus som- 
niis ; Sulpicia 56. J^G. [Morpheus is 
represented as shaking poppies dipped 
in Letbe ou the brows of sleepers.] 

57. The Campns Martius; Hor. Od. 
i, 8, 4 ; Suet. Aug. 83. KG. 

Decoquit is a met.iphor from a liquor 
which is boiled quite away. CS. qiiem 
damnosa Venus, qitem prceceps alea 
niitlat; Hor. Ep. i, 18, 21. PRA. ' boils 
to rags.' 

58. ' Wanton.' omnes in Damalim 
putres tleponent opitlns ; Hor. Od. i, 
36, 17 f; {JC.) l'RA. vivitnt in Vene- 
rem ; Claud. x, 65. KG. 

Lapidosa ' fuli of chalk-stones.' LUB. 
nodosa; Hor. Ep. i, 1, 31. RRA. 

Chiragra, h a.y^» -Tris x^'i'' • PJ^'^- 
when it affected tbe feet, it was called 
podagra. LUB. [oculis capti talpce, 
Vir. G. i, 183.] 

59. Postffuam illis jiista chiragra 
contudit articulos ; Hor. S. ii, 7, 16 f. 
PRA. 



Ramnlia; s. i, 97. MAD. The dead 
branches ' of the beech' very soon decay. 
Pallad. Nov. xv, 2 ; Plin. H. N. xvii, 
79. KG. 

60 ' Of gross sensuality.' MAD. 
s. Cic. for Sext. 9. KG. 

' Light obscured by dense fogs,' 
MAD. and " All the infections tbat 
the suu sucks up From bogs, fens, 
flats;" Shakspeare Tem. ii, 2. May not 
the allusion be to the ignis fatuus ? 
tbe phosphorescent vapour arising from 
marshes, (commonly called Jack o' 
Lantern or Will o' the Wisp,) wbich 
'' Bewitehes And leads men into pools 
and ditches ;" Butler Hud. i, 1, 5)0; 
fHQ^o^ov TiXiiy xai trxuQ aiitu»' Arist, R. 
145 f. 

61. ' The life they bave forsaken:' 
DEN. ' the main end and object of 
their pnst life, which has been wboUy 
thrown away and abandoned by tbem ' 
s. iii, 38. GIF. '• Anger and grief doe 
then begin a strife Within them, for 
their base and durtie life Now spent : 
when now, but now too late, they looke 
Upon the life they wretchedly for- 
sooke." HOL. [sera nunquam est ad 
bonos niores via, Sen.] 

62. Vos eaemplaria GrcEca noctuma 
versate manit, versate diurna; Hor. 
A. P. 268f. LUB. 

63. Quod enim inunus reipublicce af- 
ferre majus meliusve possumus, quam 
si doceamits atqite erudiamus juventu- 
tem ? Cic. Div. ii, 4 ; cultura animi 
philosophia est, qucB extrahit vitia ra- 
dicitus, et praeparat animos ad satiis 
accipiendos, caqite mandat eis ct (id 
ita dicam) serit, quce adulta fructus 
uberrimos ferant ; id. T. Q. ii, 13. 
nemo adeo fcrus est ut non mitescere 
possit, si moilo citlturcB patientem com- 
modet aurem. virfus est vitium fitgere 
ct sapicntia pritna stultitia caruissc ; 
Hor. Ep. i, 1, .39 ff. PUA. 



62 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V. 



Fruge Cleaulhea. Petite hinc, juvcnesque senesque, 
65 Finem animo certuin niiscrisque viatica canis. 

" Cras hoc tiet." Idem cras fiet. " Quid? quasimagnum, 
Nempe diem donas." Sed quum lux altera vcnit, 
Jam cras hesternum consunisiraus. Ecce aliud cras 
Egerit hos annos et semper pauUum erit ultra. 
70 Nam quamvis prope te, quamvis temone sub uno 
Vertentem sese frustra sectabere canthum. 



64. ' Of Cleanthes,' the son of Pha- 
iies. LUB. s. Laert. vii, 174 ; {MEN.) 
Cic, N. D. i, 37; V. Max. viii, 7; 
PllA. Cic. Ac. iv, 41 ; Claud. xvii, 
87 f. He was the preceptor of Chry- 
sippus. KG. [37, note;] Juv. ii, 7, note. 

JEque pauferibus prodest^ loctipleti- 
bus (e(/ue ; >rque neglectxtm jmeris 
senibusque 7iorebit ; Hor. Ep. i, 1, 
25 f PKA. 

65. Cerfum voto pete fiuem ; Hor. 
Ep. i, 2, 56 ; LUB. "Su a-ravra rov St/va- 
(ttsvav ^Sv KCCTO. T»)v avTfV •r^oa.i^icriv Sitrfai 
Tita (TxaTov Tov KaXas ^^v. trjof ov UTto- 
(i)iiTuv ■roiwiTat fdirai tols ■r^d^iis ■ u; 
To lyi pM ffvTird^Sai to» /3/a» «■go; T/ 
Ti\os a.(ppo<rmrii -roXXiJi ffnfiUotsirTi' Anst. 
Eth. Eud. ii ; vita si)ie scopo vaga. 
scire debet., quid pefnt ille, qui sagiftam 
vult mittere, et tunc dirigere et mode- 
rari telum ; errant consilia nostra, 
fjuia non /labcnf, quo dirigantur ; Sen. 
Ep. 71. KG. 

Animo is the dative. KG. 

Bias used to say that ' virtue vras the 
best provisionfor life's journey :' LUB. 
Laert. i ; aptissima omnino sunt arma 
senectufis, artes exercitationesque vir- 
tutum, quce in omni cetate cultce, cum 
multum diuque vixeris mirificos af- 
ferunt fructus, non solum quia nutn- 
quam deserunt, ne extremo quideni 
tempore cetafis {quamqnam id maxitnum 
est), verum etiam quia conscientia bene 
actce vitcB, mulforioiiqiie benefactorum 
recordafiojucundissima est ; Cio. Sen. 
9. PRA. 

' Miserable' would they be without 
such provision. LUB. 

66. See S. Aug Conf v-'ii, 10 f; cras 
te victitrum, cras dicis, Fostume, sem- 
per ; dic mihi, cras istud, Postnme, 
quando venit ? quam longe cras istitd 9 
ubi esf? aut imde petentlum? niim- 
quid apud Parthos Armeniosqne latet ? 
jam crns isfud hahrf Vriami vcl Ne- 



storis annos. cras istud quanii, dic mihi, 

possit emi ? cras vives : hodie Jam 
vivere, Postume, serum est. ille sapit, 
quisquis, Posfmne, vixif heri ; Mart. 
V, 58 ; PRA. qui non est hodie, cras 
jninus aptus erit ; Ov. R. A. 94. CS. 
" Be wise to day, 'tis madness to defer : 
Next day the fatal precedent will 
plead. Thus on, till wisdom is push'd 
out of life Procrastination is the thief 
of time ; Year after year it steals, till 
a!l are fled, And to the mercies of a 
moment leaves The vast concerna of 
an eternal scene ;" Youn.'?, N. Th. i ; 
DEN. " To-morrow, and to-morrow, 
and to-morrow, Creeps, in this petty 
paee from day to day, To the last 
syllable of recorded time ; And all our 
yesterdays have lighted fools The way 
to dusty death ;'' Shaksp. Macb. v, 6 ; 
MAD. " To-morrow didst thou say ! 
Methought I heard Horatio say To- 
morrow ! Go to — I will not hear of it: 
&c." Cotton. Cowley has translated 
the text thus : " Our yesterday's to- 
morrow now is gone, And still a nevir 
to-morrow does come on. We by to- 
morrows draw out all our store, Till 
the exhausted wellcan yield nomore." 

69. Egerit, not from agere, but from 
egerere; CS. ' consumes, exhausts.' 
MAD. tofa querelis egeritur questuque 
dies; V. Flac. viii, 453 f ; KG. truditur 
dies die novcBque pergunt interire lunce; 
Hor. Od. ii, 18, 15 f. PRA. 

70. The temo is ' the perch,' its con- 
tinuation forms the pole; to the ex- 
tremity of whioh is attached the yoke. 
The opposite end is connected at right 
angles to ' the hind axle.' parallel to 
which, where the pf rch and pole meet, 
is the fore axle. 

71. Canthiis ' the felloe :' a word, 
which Quintilian objects to as a bar- 
barism, being either an African or 
Spanish ward ; i, 3, 5. {BU.) One of 



SAT. V. 



OF PERSIUS. 



ii:\ 



Ciuain rota posterior curras et in axe secunclo. 

Libertatc ojnis est, non hac, qua, ut quisque Velina 
Publius emeruit, scabiosum tesserula far 
75 Possidet. Heu steriles veri, quibus una Quiritem 
Vertigo facit ! Hic Dama est non tressis agaso, 
Vappa ct lippus et in tenui farragine raendax : 
Verterit hunc dorainus, momento turbinis exit 
Marcus Dama. Papte ! Marco six»ndente, recusas 



those words, in all probability, wbich 
were domesticated in Spain, cwing to 
its Inng subjecticn to Carthage : as we 
tind in tbe modern language many 
remains of the Arabic, which were en- 
grafted on it during the dominion of 
the Moors : s. Weston's Treatise on this 
subject. ED. im/uccnda rola est, das 
nobis titile mitnus. iste trochns pueris, 
at mi/ii cantfius erit ; Mart. xiv, 168. 
PRA. ILtTi^- Hom. E 728. KG. ' the 
tire of the wheel.' LUB. The Greek 
word has probably a common origin. 

72. SeeVirg. M.\, 156 ; (HF.) Hor. 
Ep. i, 2, 41 ff; Ov. M. xv, 179 ff. 
KG. 

It was said of a naval officer, who 
was notorious through life for being 
behind-hand in executing his duties 
and performing his engagements, that 
he had let one hour slip by him when he 
was a midshipman, and had never since 
been able to overtake it. 

73. He proceeds to expatiate on the 
favourite dogma of the Stoics, tibertate 
opiis est ad virtutem, inr/uit Persius, 
non ed qua servi donantur et ascri- 
buntur tini tribunm, puta Velime; Tert. 
de Resur. FRA. s. Hor. Od. ii, 2, 9 ff; 
p/iilosop/tice serrias oporfcf, ut tibi con- 
tingat vera liherfns. nou differlur in 
diem, qui se illi suhjecit et tradidit, sta- 
timque circumagitur . /loc enim ipsum 
p/tilosop/iiee servire libertas est ; Sen. 
Ep. 8; Plin. Ep. vii, 16,4; KG. Juv. 
ii, 77, note. Compare that expression 
in the second mornlDgcollect: " O God, 
whose service is perfect freedum." 

When a slave was manumitted, hc 
was enroUed in one of the tribes, and 
thereupon received a tally. Sch. Juv. 
vii, 174, note; MAD. s. Plin. xvi, 18 ; 
PRA. Sen. Ben. iv, 28. KG. 

74. The prcBnomen (Puh/ius) was 
given after the patron who manumitted 
the slave; this and the add.tion of the 
name of the tribe, Velina (which is in the 



ablative case), designate a free citizen. 
LUB. Velina was one of the country 
tribes. KG. s. Juv. v, 127. 

Emeruit. The metaphor is taken from 
the military, when they had served their 
time ; PRA. and is also applied to 
gladiators; s. Juv. vi, IK^. MAD. By 
the Norban Law (which was passed 
771 y. R.) there were three raodes of ob- 
taining plenary liberty, (1) by the prse- 
tor's wand, (2) by the census, (3) by 
will and testament. KG. s. AD. 

A slur is thrown on the liberty, which 
the enfranchised slave acquires, by the 
terms scabiosmn, (from which our word 
SHABBY is perhaps derived, ED.) 
' smutty' or ' scurvj-,' and tesseru/a 
' paltry ticket.' GTF. 

75. Quirifem is used by poetical li- 
cense : properly it is only a plural noun. 
Sch. Juv. viii, 47. GIF. 

76. ' One twirl:' the master, at the 
same time, addressing him to the fol- 
lowing effect, '■'■ lHier esto, atque ito quo 
vo/esV' Plaut. Men. v, 7, 40. ?RA. 
[ADD, Dial. on Medals t. i, p. 454.] 

Dama was a slave's name : prodise^v 
judice Dama turpis; Hor. S. ii, 7, 54. 
PRA. 

' Not a three-penny groom,' cr ' a 
two-penny halfpenny groom.' 

77. Vappa ' dead wine,' ' one half 
knave and one half fool.' Hor. S. i, 1, 
103 r. PRA. 

Lippus ; ii, 72, note. MAD. 

' No<: to be trusted with a feed of 
beans.' LUB.farrago est^quodex ptu- 
rilms sat is . pnbuli cau.ia ,daturjumentis; 
Festus; Piin. xviii, 16; Virg.G.iii,205 
f. PRA. ' meslin.' MAD. Owing to the 
frequent occurrence of this failing in the 
fraternity ; the name ostler has been 
humorously derived, by syncope, from 

OAT-STEALEK. 

78. Exit; Hor. A. P. 22. KG. 

79. Gaudent prcenomine mo/les auri- 
culee; Hor. S. ii, 5, 32. PRA. 



()4 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V. 



80 Credere tu nuiTios ? Marco sub judice palles. 
Marcus dixit : ita est. Adsigna, Marcc, tabellas. 
Haec mera libertas ; hoc nobis pilea donant. 
" An quisquam est alius liber, nisi ducere vitam 
Cui licet, ut voluit } Licet, ut volo, vivcre : non sum 

85 Liberior Bruto .'"' ' Mendose colligis,' inquit 
Stoicus hic, aurem mordaci lotus aceto : 
' Hoc (reliqua accipio) licet, iit rolo, vivere, toUe.' 
" Vindicta postquam meus a prsetore recessi, 
Cur mihi non liceat, jussit quodcumque voluntas, 

90 Excepto, si quid Masuri rubrica vetavit .?" 

Disce ! sed ira cadat naso rugosaque sanna, 



80. Hence it appears that freedmen 
could sic on a jury. CS. Such a man as 
this would be likelv to spite a person to 
whom he bore a grudge. Hor. S. ii, 1, 
49 ff; Juv. vii, 116,note ; and s. Claud. 
xxiv, 100. KG. 

81. Avres 'iipoi, as was said of Pytha- 
goras. PRA. s. Cic. N. D. i, 5. ' We 
may take the matter upon his ipse 
did'if.' [Juv. i, 62, note.] 

Adsigna. Juv. viii, 142 ff; Mart. ix, 
89, 2 fl'. KG. 

82. VtiU lihertas dici tnera; Hor. 
Ep. i, 18, 8. KG. ' This is liberty in 
the bare, outward, literal sense of the 
word.' MJD. [iii, 106.] 

83. Marcus tliinks to sileucethe Stoic 
by a regular syllogism. CS. For his 
major premiss, he takes thegenuine de- 
finition of 1 i b e r t y : esf pufesfas vivendi 
vt velis; Cic. Par. 5; Off. i, 20; ?<rT/v 
« IXivh^ia, l^ovria avTo-jr^ayias' Laert. 
Zen. iXlvh^os lirTi» o |<a» as (hovXirai' 
Arr. Epii.t. i, 2, 4 ; PRA. Juv. ii, 77, 
note. 

84. Next follows the minor premiss : 
this the Stoic denies. SVL. 

85. See Juv. v, 37, note ; V. Max. v, 
8; Flor. i, 9. PRA. 

86. Vinegar was used as a remedy in 
cases where persons were hard of hear- 
ing; Cels. vi, 7. KG. The Stoics were 
verv acute in argumentand iu detecting 
fallacies. Cic. Fin. iii, 3. PRA. 

87. ' I admit your proposition ; your 
assuniption I deny.' LUB. fii mi/ii qiti 
imperitas, aliis servis miser, afqiie 
diireris, nt nervis alienis mobile ligniim. 
quisnam igifiir liler? sapiens, sibi qiii 
imeriosus; Hor. S. ii, 7, 81 fi"; inipruhus 
non itn dirunf essf servos uf mani-ipia 



qu<B sunt dominorum facta nexu, avt 
aliqiio jure civili: sed, si servitus sit, 
sicuf est, ohedicnfia fracfi animi et 
ahjecti, et arhitrio carentis siio, quis 
neget onines leves, omnes cupidos, 
omnes denique improhos esse servos? an 
ille mi/ii liher videafur, cui miilier im- 
perat, leges imponit, vetaf quod videtur, 
&{C ? Cic. Par. 5 ; PRA. Hor. Od. ii, 2, 
18. 

88. T7«fi?/e^a was the wand which the 
prEetor laid on the head of the manu- 
mitted slave, when he declared him 
free. Sch. AD.^. Liv. ii, 5, [14 ;] PRA. 
Ov. A. A. iii, 615 f ; KG. Hor. S. ii, 
7, 76. MAD. The blow, which the 
slave received at nianumi.«sion, might 
represent the last indignity he was to 
receive : the laying on of the prsptor's 
wand was similar to the mode in which 
the king, at the present day, confers 
knighthood. 

Meus ' mv own master.' LUB. Ter. 
Ph. iv, ], 21. KG. 

90. MasuriusSahinuswas an eminent 
lawyer in the reign of Tiberius, by whom 
he was knighted. Sch. T. He wa^ very 
clever, very honest, and very poor. Gell. 
siv, 19; Ath. xiv. PRA. Amongother 
works,heleftbehind him three books on 
the Civil Law. KG. In his old age, he 
was supported by the liberality of his 
former pupils. As he was passionatelv 
devoted to music ; it would seem that 
he fiddled away his clients. GIF. 

Ruhrica ; Juv. xiv, 192, note ; PRA. 
dicant cur condita sit lex bis sex ?h 
fabvlis, et cur rubrica minetur? Prud. 
V. GIF. 

9) . The metaphor may be taken from 
dogs, whose anger is shown by the 



/ 



SAr. V 



OF FKRSiUS. 



<>5 



Dinn veteres avias tibi de pulnione revello. 
Non practoris crat slultis darc tenvia remni 
OfHcia atque usum rapida^ perniittere vita : 
95 Sanibucani citius caloni aptaveris alto. 

Stat contra ratio et secretani gannit in aurem, 
Ne liceat facere id, quod quis vitiabit agendo. 
Publica lex hominum naturaque continet hoc fas, 
Ut teneat vetitos inscitia debihs aclus. 
100 Dikiis helleborum, certo conipescere puncto 



w 



wrinkling of tbeir nostrils. LUB. ;c«Xa: 
>rirl fm xiitiTai- Theoc. i, 18; retii ^st 
adagiuin ; '■faines et inora bilein in na- 
siini roncient;^ Plaut. Anipli. iv. 3, 40 
f. PRJ. The Hebrew «]N ' anger' is 
derived from ^3S ' heblew through tbe 
nostrils.' MAD. 

Sanna; i, 62. LUB. 

92. r^aaStis fiuhui- I Timothy iv, 7; 
Jabellas auiles; Hor. S. ii, 6, 7" f. 
MAD. 

' From your breast.' Ot. M. ix, 201 
flF. KG. [i, 12;] CS. [The Frog and 
tbe Ox, Phaedr. i, 24.] 

93. Stulti omnes servi, and insaniiint 
omnes proiter sapientem, were Stoical 
tenets. PRA. ' The praetorcannot make 
a man wise ; therefore he cannot make 
him free.' MAD. 

" The nicer shades of duty." GIF. s. 
Arist. Eth. ii, 6;9; r/uiddeceat, r/uidnon; 
(/uo virtus, qnoferat error; Hor. A. P. 
308 : PIIA. »Ti liru, ra a/ia^TKftara' id, 
quod non licet, si iiec iiiajus nec ntinies 
umi/tiam fieri jiotest, quoniam in eo est 
peccatum, si non licuit, quod semper 
unum et idem est ; qucB ex eo peccata 
nascuntur, cequalia sint oporiet ; Cic. 
Par. 3. KG. 

94. ' And to make over to him .such 
experience as may carry him safely 
down the rapid stream of life.' DEN. 

95. The Sambuca was a triaugular 
harp, of four strings originally, invented 
by Ib^cus^of Khegium. Ath. iv, 23 ; 
xiv, 8 T; but it was probably much 
more ancient. Daniel iii, 5; Vitr. vi ; 
Spart. Hadr; PRA. Macr. S. ii, 10; 
(Polyb. V, 37; G.) s. Hor. Ep. i, 18, 
59; ii, 2, 143 f; KG. s. Juv. iii, 63, 
note. 

Calones were porters employed in 
the camp to carry wood («aX«v) and 



water. LUB. xaXatpo^tr Ath. invidet 
usuin lignorinii tibi calo; Hor. Ep. i, 
14, 41 f. PRA. The name was afrer- 
wards applied to other porters : co/iors 
culta servorum, (ectica formosis im- 
posita calonibus ; Sen. Ep \\(). KG. 

The epithet o/^ is emphatic. LUB. 
ttto»} i fiaic^et, was a Greek proverh. 
PLU. 61 ayav (i.iytt.Xoi fi^ahilf Arist. 
Physiog PliA. ingens; 190; a»rig t^iv- 
KaihiKairn^uf Theoc. xv, 17; s. Cat. 
Ixvii, 47; Ixxxvi, 4. KG. 

96. ' Whines :' it is properly the noise 
which a dog or a fox makes. LUB. 
PRA. Cat. Ixxxiii, 4; Ter. Ad. iv, 2, 
17. KG. 

97. Nesntor ultra crepidam : [Plin. 
XXXV, 10 ; V. Max. viii, 12, end ; 
Ammian. xxviii, 1 ;] s. Cic. T. Q. i. 
King Pto!emy,when he was giving his 
opinion very freely on the art of play- 
ing the lyre, was told by Stratonicus / 
the musician that «tXSktjov and «■xSarja» 
were not exactly synonymous : Ath. 
viii, 10. PRA. 

98. ' Thecommonlawof our nature,' 
as opposed to ' the rubric of Masurius;' 
90. PRA. [s. Cic. Or. i, 8, 34. One , 
law is that of nature (jus naturale), ', 
and is defined as the highest reason im- 
planted in nature, whieh commands 
what ought to be done and forbids the 
coDtrary, Cic. L. Another law is that f 
of nations {jus gentium), whieh is akin 
to the former, and received every-where 
on the aathority of all nations. An- 
other law is peculiar, (Jus pro/jrimn), 
which each nation forras for itself. 
There are also other divisions ; (some 
lawyers reckon up nearly forty ;) aniong 
which is (Jus civile) the civil law.] 

99. ' Should hold as forbidden.' CS. 

100. ' Do you attempt to compound 
medicines, who do not understand the 



06 



IHE SAT1R?:S 



SAT. V 



Nescius examen ? Vetat hoc natura medendi. 
Navem si poscat sibi pcronatns arator 
Luciferi rudis, exclamet Melicerta perisse 
Froutem de rebus. Tibi recto vivere talo 
105 Ars dedit? et veri spcciem dignoscere calles, 
Ne qua subserato mendosum tinniat auro? 
Quseque sequenda forent quieque evitanda ^icissim, 
Illa prius creta, mox hajc carbone notasti? 
Es raodicus voti? presso lare? dulcis amicis? 



use of the balance?' LUB. stafera 
' the steelyard.' Sch. Petr. 35; 67; 
Suet. X, 25; Plin. H. N. xxxiii, 
11 ; KG. abfotonum eegro non aitdet^ 
nisi qui didicit, dare : quod medicornm 
esf, promittimt medici; Hor. Ep ii, 
l,114ff. Pii^. 

Certo compescere pimcfo (I think) 
means ' to bring the tongue to a state 
of quiesceDce, between the cheeks of 
the cavity thiough which it -vibrate.s, 
by slippiiJg the weigbt to a certain 
point on the graduated arm.' Thus 
compescere lucum, i. e. lucum suis Jitii- 
bus cohibere ; Festus ; and in like man- 
ner, compescere populos, impetus, do- 
lores, iras, mores dissolutos, sfi/li luxu- 
riantiam, linguam, SfC, s. F. and note 
on i, 6. 

102. Navim agere ignarus navis 
timet; Hor. Ep. ii, l, 114. PRA. 

Poscat implies presuraption. KG. 

Peronatus: Juv. xiv, 18fa", note. 
PRA. The epithet is emphatic, for 
sailors wear thin and pliant shoes to 
give them a firmer footing both on deck 
and among the rigging. 

103. Luciferi ' even of the morning 
star,' and consequently of the starg in 
gfneral. Ov. Tr. i, 10, 13. KG. CS. 
A knowledge of which was esseutial to 
navigation in those days, before the 
invention of the mariner's compass : 
Virg. M. iii, 512 tf ; PRA. and even at 
preseut. In one of our trips from 
Southampton to Guernsey, during a 
fine starlight night, a naval oflftcer, who 
was one of the passengers on deck, ob- 
served that we were making fast for 
the Portland lights. The steersman 
was puzzled, as, according to the com- 
pass, the course of the vessel was quite 
correct. The captain was called up ; 
and, seeing at oncc, that the lights 



a-head were those on the Portland 
rocks, contrary to the indication of the 
compass, he observed the stars and im- 
raediately ascertained that there was 
something wrong. He ordered the 
quarter-deck to be instantly cleared : 
on thcir removing a hirge green parrot 
in its cage,which had been standing to 
the east of the compyss, the needle in- 
stantly righted, veering round to the 
true point. The accident delayed us 
about two hours. 

Melicerta was the child of Ino, who 
to save him from the insane fury of lier 
husband Athamas, king of Thebes, 
leaped with him into the sea ; where 
Neptune, at the request of Venus, took 
them both into his suite, under the 
names of Leucothoe and Paloemon, 
GIF. CS. or Portunus. Ov. M. iv, 
311 S; Virg. G. 1, 437 f ; PRA. ApolL 
i,8, 2. KG. 

104. Frontem. clameut periisse pu- 
dorem cuticfi; Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 80 f; 
PRA. Juv. xiii, 242, note; Mart. xi, 
28, 7; KG. ii, 43, note. 

' To walk uprightly.' T. cadat an 
recfo sfet falo; Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 176; 
PRA. falo for pede, as in Juv. vii, 16 ; 
\^6a/ /S?»ai •TflS/- Eur. Hel. 1405. KG. 
The metaphor is very common in Holy 
Scripture : as in Psalms xv, 2^1xxxiY, 
11 ; Proverbs x, 9, &c. MAU. 

105. Juv xiv, 109, note. KG. 

106 See iii, 21, notes ; LUB. tfiii 
per argentum ces videt ; Petr. 56. KG. 

108. See ii, 1, notes ; PRA. Cat. 
xxxvii, 10 ; (Z)(E.) Mart. xii, 72. KG. 

109. See ii, 3, (fec. si est animus tibi 
modicus, continens, ambitionis expers ; 
Plaut. PRA. 

' Is your establishment kept within 
your incomeP' 

Dulcis ; s. Hor. S. i, 4, 135. MAD. 



S.VT. T. 



OF PERSIITS. 



67 



110 Jam nunc adstringas, jam nunc granaria laxes.^ 
Tn(|ue luto iixuui possis transcendere nuuium, 
Nec glutto sorbere salivam Mercurialera ? 

" Ha?c mea sunt, teneo," quum vere dixeris, esto 
Liberque ac sajiiens, prieloribus ac Jovc dexlro. 

115 Sin tu, quum fueris nostra; paullo ante faiinae, 
Pellieulam vcterem retines et fronte polilus 
Astutam vapido servas sub pcctore vulpem, 
Qua; dederam supra, repeto, funemque reduco. 
Nil tibi concessit ratio : digitum exserc, peccas; 



110. Tbe allusion perhaps is to the 
public granaries at Rome, which were 
periodically opened for the relief of the 
poorer citizens, as well as in titnes of 
dearth and scarcity. MAD. s. Cie. Off. 
i, 14. KQ. iXtviicio; »u iuerii ?ti eu $«7' 
eu yao at iri ir^-zTToi xara. t>i» tXluhoii- 
Ttira' xiti %i( ravra. ataf euira;, »Ik av 
tx" *il a ii7 araXiffxtf Afist. Eth. iv, 
1. 

111. The waggiah boys at Rome 
used to stiek a piece of monty in the 
mud, with a string fastened to it; and 
if any miserly felldw, coming by, stooped 
to pick it up, they jerked it away and 
laughed at him. HOL. in triviis jfixinn 
qui se demittit ob assem ; Hor. Ep. i, 
16,64; s. Od. ii, 2, 2.3 f ; PRA. ab asse 
crevit; et paratus fiiit quadrantem de 
stercore mordicus totlere ; Petr. 43. 
KG. 

112.' Without finding, like a greedy 
glutton, that your mouth waters at the 
sight of such a prize.' GIF. s. ii, 44, 
note. 

113. See Hor. S. ii, 7, 78 ff. KG. 

114. ' With a body enfranchised by 
the praetors, and a mind by Jove.' 
FRA. Prop. iii, 1, 47; quce sif libertas, 
quceris? nnlli rei servire, niilli ne- 
cessitati, niillis casibus ; fortunam in 
eetfiann dediicere ; Sen. Ep. 61 ; noji 
homines timere, non deos ; nec turpia 
velle, nec nimia; in se ipsuni habere 
mcutimam pote.itatem ; ib. 75; s. Claud. 
viii, 257 tf. KG. 

115. " One of our bateh." GIF. A 
metaphor from loaves-. LUB. Suet. 
ii, 4. The Stoics were not so arro- 
gant as to deem themselves fiee and 
wise; a character, which tbey looked 
up to, as elevated almost beyond the 
reach of human attainment. KG. 



1 16. A metaphor from snakes, which 
cast their slough. CS. Ov. M. ix, 266; 
vii, 237; Virg. G. iii, 425 f; /E. ii, 
471 f; or (2) an allnsion to the fable of 
the Fox in a Lion's skin. Hor. S. ii, 
1, 62 f; iii, 186; Ep. i, 16, 44 f; KG. 
or (3) to Blacks who can never be 
washed white. PRA. s. Juv. xiii, 239, 
note. 

Fronte ; s. iv, 14 ; MAV. Juv. ii, 8. 

1 J 7. Numquam tc fallant animi sub 
vulpe latentes ; Hor. A. P. 437 ; PRA. 
Claud. xviii, 146 ; v, 484 ; Pind. 01. xi, 
20 ff; Theoc. i, 48 ; v, 112 f; iXuTn- 
xiZ,uy Ari.st. V. 1233 ; P. 1090. KG. 

Vapido; s. 77. MAD. 

118. Siipra, i. e. in li3. LUB. 

Repeto ' I pronounctd you free, con- 
ditionally ; on failure of these con- 
ditions, I revoke my concession.' LUB. 

The metaphor is taken from animals 
or birds, which are allowed a certain 
degree of liberty, but at the same time 
secured by a string. If they abuse 
their liberty, they are puUed in. PRA. 
s. Juv. xii, 5, note. MAD. " I would 
have thee gone; And yet no further 
than a wanton's bird ; Who lets it hop 
a little from her hand, Like a poor 
prisoner in his t«istedgyves, And with 
a silk thread plucks it back again ;" 
Shaksp. Rom. and Jul. ii, 1. GIF. 

119.' Whatever the pnetor may have 
done, philosophy has done nothirig for 
you.' MAD. Persius (who had the pas- 
sage in the Enchiridion of Epictetu.s 
before hiin, h tpiXoira^ia (priTit, ?ti ouil 
rot oecKTvXo» iKTiitm tixti "r^oaYiKu) 
lal.ourstoprove that thereis no medium 
between absolute wisdom and absolute 
foUy ; from which notable position it ,' 
foUows (amoDg other con.vequences) that 
the fooleanuot peiform themost trivial 



f)8 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V. 



120 Et quid tam parvum est ? Sed nullo thure litabis, 
Haereat in stultis brevis ut semuncia recti. 
Haec raiscere nefas ; nec, quum sis cetera fossor, 
Tres tantum ad nuraeros Satyi*i raoveare Bathylli. 
"Liber ego." Unde datum hoc sumis, tot subdite rebus ? 

125 An dominum ignoras, nisi quem vindicta relaxat ? 
' I, puer, et strigiles Crispini ad balnea defer !' 
Si increpuit : ' Cessas nugator ?' servitium acre 
Te nihil impellit : nec quidquam extrinsecus intrat, 
Quod nervos agitet. Sed si intus et in jecore segro 

130 Nascuntur domini, qui tu impunitior exis 



act without blutidering egregiously. 
GIF. T. PRA. MAD'^ ain-i navem 
evertat giihernator an palccE, i/i re 
aliqitantulxm, in gubernntnris inscitia 
ni/iilintere.tf. lapsa est lihidoin muliere 
ignota, dolur ad pauciores pertinet, 
quam si petulans fuisset in aliqua 
gcnerosa ac nohili virgine ; peccavit 
vero nihilo niinus, siquidem est peccare 
tamquam transsilire lineas ; quam longe 
progrediare, quum semel transsilieris, 
ad augendam ciilpam nihil aftinet ; 
Sen. Ep. 66. This doctrine is attacked 
in Cic. Fin. iii, 27 ; for Mur. 30 ; Hor. 
S. i, 3, 96 ff ; Ep. i, 16, 55 f. KG. 

120. " Yet what so trifling ?" GIF. 
' and apparently so easy ? but it is 
beyond the power of the gods to grant.' 

Litahis ; s. ii, 75, note. FRA. 

121. ' Short' is applied in our own 
language to weight. 

122. Hcec i. e. ' folly and right.' 
KG. " ' 

Cefera a Grecism, ra a,y.Xa- LUB. 
Fossor; s. Juv. xi, 80. MAD. 

123. Histrio, si patilo se movit exfra 
niimerum, aut siversuspronunciafus 
est syllaba una hrevior aitt longior, ex- 
sibilatur et e.vploditur : in vifa, qua 
omni gesfu moderafior, omni versu 
aptior esse dehef, uf in syllaba, te pec- 
care dices f poefam non audio in nugis, 
in vifce societate audiam civem, digifis 
peccata dimetienfem sua? &;c ; Cic. 
Par. 3 ; CS. Virg. E. vi, 27 ; Prop. ii, 
18, 16 ; s. Mart. xi, 85. 3 f ; Ov. Am. 
ii, 4, 29. KG. 

' Of Bathyllus dancing the Satyr.' 
s. Virg. E. V, 73 ; Hor. A. P. 221 ; Ep. 
ii, 2, f25; PRA. S. i, 5, 63. 

Movere ' to dance.' Hor. A. P. 232 ; 



PRA. S. i, 9, 24 ; Od. iii, 6, 21 ; Ov. 
A. A. iii, 350. KG. 

Bathi/llus; s. Juv. vi, 63, note; 
Ath. i,l7. PRA. 

124. £)«»«« maintainshis conclusion, 
notwithstanding the overthrow of his 
preraisses. '■'■ liber, liber sum !" Hor- 
S. ii, 7, 92. PRA. 

Unde dafum sentis? Hor. S. ii, 2, 
3l.(BY.) KG. 

Tof subdife rebus ; s. Hor. S. ii, 7, 
75 ff; KG. iii, 28, note. MAD. 

125. See 88. PRA. 

126. ' A command from your quon- 
dam master, it is true, would not affect 
you.' [s. St Matthew viii, 9.] 

Sfrigiles; Juv. iii,263; Petr. 91 ; 
Apul. Flor. ii, p. 346, 27. R. Those, 
who went to the baths, took their own 
scrapers and soap. Luc. Lexiph. t. ii, 
p. 320 ; KG. Suet. li, 80. PRA. 

Crispinus ; Juv. i, 27, note; iv, 1 ff. 
PRA. 

127. Ter. Eun. iv, 6, 16. KG. 

128. See Juv. xiv, 63. KG. 

129. The metaphor may be taken 
from puppets, which are moved by 
strings. s. Hor. S. ii, 7. 81 f; Anton. 
ii. 3 ; vii, 3.{GK.) CS. qui in ligneolis 
hominuin figiiris gestits movef, quando 
filum memhri, qitod agitari solet, trax- 
erit. forqitebitur cervij', nittabif caput, 
ocitli vibrabunf, manus ad minisferium 
prcBsfo erunt, nec invenusfe fofus vide- 
bitur vivere ; Apul. de Mun. KG. or 
we may understand the words in their 
simple sense. PRA. 

Jecore ; Juv, i, 45, note ; MAD. Plat. 
Tim. t. ix, p. 389. KG. 

130. Qut fu impunitior ? Hor. S. ii, 
7, 105. PRA. 



SAT. V 



OF FERSIUS. 



G9 



Atque hic, quein ad slrigiles scutica et metus egit herilis ? 
Maue jMger stertis : ' .Surge !' inquit Avaritia : ' cja 

Surge !' Negas } instat. ' Surge !' inquit. " Non queo." 
' Surge !' 

" Et quid agam ?" ' Rogitas .? En, saperdam advehe 
Ponto, 
135 Castoreum, stuppas, ebenum, thus, lubrica Coa; 

Tolle recens piimus piper e sitiente camelo : 

Verte aliquid : jura.' " Sed Juppiter audiet." ' Eheu ! 

Baro, regustatum digito terebrare sahnum 

Contentus perages, si vivere cum Jove tendis.' 
140 Jam pueris pellem succinctus et oenophorum aptas: 

" Ocius ad navem !" Nihil obstat, quin trabe vasta 

^gaeum rapias, nisi solers Luxuria ante 

Seductum moneat : ' Quo deinde, insane, ruis ? quo ? 



131. Spectator No. .jo. 

132. The power of idleness and sloth, 
when indulged, is finely described in 
Proverbs v, 9 f ; xxii, 13 ; xxvi, 13 f. 
MAD. 

133. Sitrge; s. Arist.Pl. 539 ; [Hor. 
O. iii, 11, 37 f.] 

134. The snperda was a common 
sort of fish, Ath. iii, 30 ; PRA. of which 
the best were those caught in the 
Maeotic gulf. L UB. 

13.5 Castoreum ; s. Juv. xii, 34 ff. 
PRA. 

[Sfuppas ' hards.'j 



notes ' a soldier's slave.' Sch. Cic. Ep. 
ix, 2« ; L UB. id . Div. ii, 70, v. 1. PRA. 

' You will never earn salt to your 
porridge, if you make a point of keeping 
on good terms with Jove.' 

Salinum; iii, 25; Varro sale pul- 
mcntarii vice usos veteres auctorest: 
esitdsse enim salem cum pane et caseo, 
nt proverhio apparet ; Plin. xxxi, 7 ; 
Plaut. Curc. iv, 4, 6. PRA. [s. tjw- 
/3X;a», St Matthew xxvi, 23.] 

140. ' Equipped for starting, you load 
your servants with your leather port- 
manteauand yourliquor-case.' T.pueri 



Sola Intiia nigrutn fert ebemim^ solis tasanum porfantes wnophorumque ; 



est thnrea virga Sabceis ; Virg. G. 
116 f. PRA. 

" Coan wines," DRY. were of a 
laxative quality. L UB. si dura mora- 
bitur alvus, mytilus et viles pellent 
obstantia conchee et lapathi brevis 
herba^ sed albo non sine Coo ; Hor. S. 
ii, 4, 27 ff ; PRA. Plin. H. N. xxvii, 
27; .El. V. H. xii, 31.-K(?. 

136. Cave ne portus occupet alter^ 
ne Cibtjraticn, ne Bithyna negotia 
perdas ; Hor. Ep. i, 6, 32 f. PRA. 

Sitiente 'just arrived at Alexandria 
from its joumey over the desart.' KG. 
s.Plin. viii, 18. PRA. [ADD, Dial. 
on Medals t. i, p. 503.] 

137. 'Turnapenny: swear through 
thick and thin.' DEN. s. Cic. Off. iii, 
end. PRA. 

Jupiter audiet : s. Juv. xiii, 75. KG. 

138. Baro is a Gallic word and de- 



Hor. S. i, 6, 109 ; PRA.' Suet. ii", 83. 
(CS.) KG. 

Succinctus ; Hor. S. ii, 6, 107; PRA. 
8. Exodus xi, 11 ; i Kings xviii, 46; 
St Luke xii, 35. MAD. 

141 . Trabe Cypria Myrtoum pavidus 
nauta secat tnare ; Hor. Od. i, 1, 13 f; 
Juv. xiv, 276. MAD. 

142. Rapere ' to hurry over.' Ov. F. 
iii, 867 ; (BU.) Sil. i, 569 f ; (R.) Virg. 
JE. vi, 8; (HY.) Ov. Her. 19, 74; 
(HS.) Charit. p. 263; (D'0.) viatn 
vorare ; Cat. xxxv, 7- KG. 

' Wily Luxury.' «utw; h uia^a xai 
TtitTcs xaKDU ^ihaintaXos T^u^ph aXXriv av 
aXKtis voeviis anaif^utTias i^Titoouvx' Luc. 
Am. t. ii, p. 421 ; Claud. xxii, 131 flF. 
KG. 

143. ' Taken aside as a friend and 
wamed of your danger ;' as in Juv. xii, 
57 f. PRA. 



70 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V. 



Quid tibi vis? calido sub pectore mascula bilis 
145 Intumuit, quam non exstinxerit urna cicutte. 
Tun mare transilias ? tibi, torta cannabe fulto, 
Coena sit in transtro ? Veientanumquc rubellum 
Exhalet vapida lagsum pice sessilis obba ? 
Quid petis, ut numi, quos hic quincunce modesto 
150 Nutrieras, pergant avidos sudare deunces ? 

Indulge Genio ; carpamus dulcia : nostrum est, 
Quod vivis : cinis et manes et fabula fies. 



Dei/ide; Virp. JE. v, 7-41 ; (HY.) 
Liv. iv, 49. {G. D.) KG. 

144. Mascula bi/is ' potent rage.' 

145. Qno' poteiiint umquam satisex- 
jturgare cicvtce ? Hor. Ep. i!,2, 53. CS. 
The lafhyris is here ineant, which is 
called cici/ta from its hollowstalk. SM. 
T. s. riin. H. N xxv, 94. KG. 

146. Cato the censor is said to have 
repented of three thingi : (1 ) having told 

;,. his wife a secret, (2) having spent a day 

\\, improfitably, and (3) having gone to a 

* place by sea, when he could have gone 

thither by land : Plut. according to the 

Greek adage: ^aX/i<rtni. xa) tuj, xai ymh 

xaKa TPia. PRA. 

' Hemp.' s. Plin. H. N. xix, 8 ; KG. 
Her. iv, i55. PRA. 

147. ' Eed Veientan wine.' LUB. 
Mart. i, 104, 9 ; KG. s. Juv. vii, 121, 
note. 

148. "And while a broken plank 
supports your meat, And a coil'd cable 
proves your softest seat, Suck from 
squab jugs, that pitchy scents exhale, 
The seaman's beverage, sour at once 
andstale!" GIF. 

Pice. s. Plin. xiv, 1, 20 ; Plut. M. 
1, 5, 3 ; resinata bibis vina, Faterjia 
fugis\ Mart. iii, 77, 8. PRA. 

149. The highest usury was called 
centesima, or ' twelve per cent;' being 

i. at the rate of one sesterce monthl)- for 
every hundred : the next highest was 
deutid', ' eleven per cent;' and so on 
down to the unciaria or ' one per cent.' 
Tac. An. v, 16; PRA. Juv i, 40, note. 

150. Pascerc numos ; Hor. Ep.i, 18, 
35. PRA. nutrieras is a very appro- 
priate metaphor, if we look to the de- 
rivation of t»»os from TiKruv ' to bring 
forth.' 

151. Geiiio; ii, 3; PRA. Ter. Ph. 
i, 1, 10. KG. 



Dum lofjuimur, fugerif invida afas : 
carpe diem; Hor. Od. i, 11, 7 f. Sch. 
The language of the Epicureans was ; 
volw fatibHS, fuoffuo modo possumus, 
serviamus : brevi cnim iempore nulli 
erimiis omnino. ergo nullinn diem, nul- 
lum temporis punctum fluere nobis sine 
voluptafe patiamur, ne, ijuia ipsi quan- 
doque perituri stimus, id ipsum quod 
vixerimiis pereat ; Lact. PRA. 

' That alone can be dtemed 1 i fe, 
which is devoted to me.' CS. T. s. Sil. 
XV, 64 ff. KG. ^ias ^iov ^iifisvos ou» irri 
liios is a Gi eek proverb. F RA. or ' If you 
ever reaily iive, it is allovfing to me.' 
quod spiro et ilaceo, si placeo, tiium est; 
Hor. Od. iv, 3, 24. MAD. 

1 52. VitfS summa brevis spem nos vetat 
inclioare longam.jam te preinef nojc/a- 
buleeque manes ; Hor. Od. i, 4, 15 f. 
L UI3. Stoici usuram nobis largiuntvr 
tamquam cornicibus : diti 7nansuros 
aiunt aniinos, semper negant; Cic. T. 
Q. i, 77) aiunt manere animos, e corpore 
qutim crcesscrint, sed non semper; ib. 
78. Therefore, if this line he delivered 
in accordance with the Stoical notions, 
it will mean ' You will soon die, and 
when your body has been reduced to 
ashes, your spirit will abide for a time 
among the shades, and at last you will 
be utterly annihilated, soul as well as 
body, so that you wi!l live only in 
raemory and in name.' s. Macr. S. i, 3 ; 
Virg. JE. vi, 743; Varro v. PRA. 
" Soon wilt thou glide a ghost for 
gossip's chat." BWS. Prop. iii, 13, 

45. KG. iv oXiyu ji^oTav to Tl»<r»o» 
av^STai' ouToi ?J Kai ■riTyiT ^'/./iai. a-ne- 
T^ira yvuifji,a, (na^iifffit.c ov. i^a/Li.s^oi t/ 51 
Ti; ; ri o oil tis ; irxias ota^, oitf^oaTti' 
Pind. P. viii, 131 fl'. GIF. 

Fabula. [" We speud our years as a 
tale that is told ;" Psalm xcj 9.] 



SAT. V. 



OF PERSIIS. 



71 



Vive memor leti, lugit hora : hoc, quod loquor, inde est.' 
Eu quid agis .'' Duplici in diversum scinderis hamo ; 
155 Hunccine an lumc sequeris ? Subeas alteruus oportet 

Ancipiti obsequio doniinos, alternus oberres. 

Nec tu, (|uum obstiteris semel instautique iiegaris 

Parere iniperio, *' Rupi jam vincula," dicas. 

Nam et hictata canis nodum abripit : attamen illi, 
160 Quum iugit, a collo trahitur pars longa catenaj. 
" Dave, cito, lioc credasjubeo, finire dolores 

Praeteiitos meditor." (Crudum Chaerestratus unguem 



153. Dum licet^ iii rebusjucundis vive 
beatus, vive niemor, f/nam siseevibrevis ; 
Hor. S. ii, 6, 9(j f ; CS. T. currit eniin 

ferox cstas ; Od. ii, 5, 13 f; sed fugit 
interea.1 fugit irreparabile tempus ; 
Viro;. G. iii, 284. PRA. 

Breve est vitee istius cnrriculum : /loc 
ipsttm quod toquor, quod scribo, f/uod re- 
tego, ftetempoi-e iiieo milii nut crescit aut 
deperit ; S. Hier. on Ep. Gal. iii, 6. 
PRA. Eur. Alc. 7S5 if ; Bion. Id. v, 9 fiF; 
Petr. 72; Sen. H. F. 177 If; Juv. ix, 
126 ft", notes. KG. [' And every beating 
pulse we tell, Leaves but the number 
less."] The late Lord Hervey, in a 
poetical epistle to a friend applies tbis 
very beautifuUy: " Even now, while 
I write, time steals on our j-outh And 
a moment's cut off from thy friendship 
and truth." The whole of Luxury^s 
argament amounts to this : " Let us 
eat and drink, for to-morrow we die ;" 
I Corinthians xv, .32 ; Isaiah xxii, 13. 
MAD. 

154. Plutarch, inhis treatiseonenvy 
andhatred,calls vicearaXt/aj/Js/o-Taev: [M. 
xliii.] Daina had swallowed two baits, 
that of Avarice, and that of Luxury. 
PRA. Prop. iv, 1 , 141 ; KG. s. i Kings 
xviii, 21. rFeyjoo's Discourses ii, 2, 9.] 

1.55. Understand fiominuin. MAD. 

l.)6. Obsef/iiium denotes ' servile c-om- 
pliance,' ' indulgence,' ' flattery.' i, 107, 
note. molesta veritas est, siffuitiem ex ea 
nftscitur odiuin, quod est venenum ami- 
cilife: sed obsequium iimlto molestius, 
qu<,d peccatis indulgens prfxcipitein 
amifum ferri sinit ; and in obsequio 
comitfu adsit; asscntatio vitioruin adju- 
trix proculamoveatur ; Cic. de Am.9I. 
PRA. 8. i, 107, note ; St Luke xvi, 13. 

157. Semel. " One swallow does not 
makt a summer;" neither can one or 



two actions constitute a habit. Arist. 
Eth. PRA. 

1 5S. Sciiicet asseruijam me,fugique 
catenus; Ov. Am. iii, 11, 3; o toties 
servus .' f/uee bellua ruptis, cum semel 
effugit, rcfidit sc pra va catenis ; Hor . S. 
ii, 7, 19 f. PRA. 

1 59. This illustration is pleasantly ap- 
plied by Butler : " For though tbe dame 
has been my bail To free me from en- 
ehanted jail, Yet as a dog, committed 
close For some offence, by chance breaks 
loose And quits his clog, but all in vain, 
He still drags after him his chain ; So, 
though my ancle she has quitted, My 
heart continues still committed ;" Hud. 
ii, 3, 65 ff. BWS. 

160. ' You carry that about with you, 
which will enable Avarice or Luxury, 
your old masters, at any time to drag 
you again into their power and to re- 
sumetheir influeace over your actions.' 
KG. 

KJl. This lively little dialogue is 
taken from the Eunuch of Menander : 
Terence has changed the dramatis per- 
sonae. Sch. s. Hor. S. ii,3, 259 ff. KG. 
It may confidently be opposed io any 
similar scene of equal length in the 
dramatic and satiric writers, whose 
works have rtaciied us. GIF. 

162. Amorem /teec cuncta vitia sec- 
tari solcnt, cura, eegritudo, nimiaque 
elegantia, 8fC. sed amori acceduttt etiam 
heec quee dixi minits, insomnia,eerumna, 
error, terror, et fuga, ineptiee, stul- 
titinque, adeo et temeritas, incogitantia 
excors, immodestia, petulantia, cupidi- 
tas, et malevolentia, inliaeret etiain 
avifiitas, desifiia, injuria, inopia, con- 
tuinelia, et dispendium, muttiloquium, 
pauciloquium; Plaut. Merc. pr. 18 flf; 
quisf/uis amores aut metuet du/ces, nut 



72 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V, 



Abrodens ait haec.) " An siccis dedecus obstem 
Cognatis .'' an rera patriam rumorc sinistro 
165 Limen ad obscoenum frangam, dum Chrysidis udas 
Ebrius ante fores exstincta cum face canto .?" 
* Euge, puer, sapias: dis depellentibus agnam 
Percute.' " Sed censen plorabit, Dave, relicta ?" 



experiefur aniaros ; Virg. E. iii, 109 
f; indignum faciiiHs! nunc ego et 
illam scelestam esse, et me miserum 
sentio; et tcedet, et amore ardeo ; et 
prudens, sciens, vivus, vidensquepereo; 
nec qnid agam scio; Ter. Euii. i, 1, 25 
ff; s. Hor. Od. i, 8, 2 ff; S. ii, 3, 263. 
PRA. 

C/ieerestrafus is the Phffidria of Te- 
renee : Davus the Parmeno : Chrysis 
the Thais. PRA. Common names of 
, slaves among the Romans were Statius, 
Dionysius, Stichus, Hera ; at Athens, 
Davus (from Dacia), Geta ; among 
the Syrians, Dama; in Paphlagonia, 
Tybius ; in Phrygia, Manes, Mida; 
amongthe Spartans, Helota ; at Argos, 
Gymneta; among the Cretans, Ephar- 
miota, Clarota, Minota ; in Thessaly, 
Penesta ; at Syracuse, Eustatonus ; 
at Sicyon, Corynephorus ; among the 
Mariandyni, Doryphorus; »fec. AX. 
Some of these names denote classes 
rather than individuals. 

This is the action of a person annoyed 
with himself. Prop. ii, 3, 1 ; iii, 23, 
24 ; KG. s. i, 106. PRA. 

163. ' Sober.' ego preeter alios ineum 
virmn fni rata siccum, frugi, con- 
tinentem; Plaut. As. v, 2, 6 f; scito 
iltum ante omnes madidum, nihHl, 
incontinentem ; ib. 8 f; s. Hor. Ep. i, 
19, 9; Od. i, 18, 3; Cic. for Quint. 
93; Eosc. 75; PR^, Hor. Od. iV, 5, 
38..40. MylD. 

164. Sinistra liberalitas : parum 
expatravif. quidest? ait,an parnm 
hetluatus est ? paterna priinuin lanci- 
nata sunt bona ; ^-c ; Cat. sxix, 16 ff; 
bonam deperdere fainam, rem patris 
oblimare malum est, ^-c; Hor. S. i, 2, 
61 ff; PRA. s. Juv. xiv, 1. UAD. 

Turpis amor surdis auribus esse 
solet; Ov. PRA. 

165. Frangam; a metaphor from a 
ship splitting on a rock. VRA. s. Plaut. 
Trin. ii, 1, 19 ff. CS. 

' Wet,' not only with the scents 
sprinkled thereon by the lovers who 



came to serenade her, Sch. and with 
wine, but with tears. CS. s. Plaut. 
Curc. i, 1 f; l^B-A. at lacrumans ex- 
clusus amator limina seepe florilms et 
sertis operit postesque superbos ungit 
amaracino et foribus miser osculafigit; 
Lucr. iv; 1171 ff. MRC. It may also 
mean ' frequented by those in their 
cups.' ebrius ad durum formusce limen 
amiccB cantat : habent unctce mollia 
serta comce; Ov. F. v, 339 f. (flS.) 
KG. 

166. The torch was extinguisbed, 
that the serenader might uot be recog- 
nised by those who passed by. CS. 
tac.e : occultemus lumen et vocem ; 
Plaut. Curc. i, 1,95; ebrius, et {mag- 
num quod dedecus) ambulet ante 
noctem cum facibus ; Hor. S. i, 4, 51 
f. PRA. "When the fair one proved in- 
exorable, they dashed their torch on 
the ground. semper et exclusi signa ja- 
cere faces; Prop. i, 16, 8. MRC. [It 
might be also when the day was break- 
ing.] 

Noetu occentabunt ostium ; Plaut. 
Pers. iv, 4, 20 ; qui si adeam ad fores 
atque occentem; id. Cu. i, 2, 57. For 
further information respecting these 
serenades, s. Hor. Od. iii, 10; PRA. 
Od. i, 25; iii, 7, 30 f; S. ii, 7, 89 ff; 
(JC. MI.) Prop. i, 16, 5 ff; iii, 2, 4 7 
ff. {BA.) KG. 

167. Puer; Hor. i, 9, 16; Sil. xv, 
33. KG. 

Understand si befpre sapias: Hor. 
Od. i, 11, 6; Ov. Am. 1, 4, 29. {BU. 
HS.) CS. 

Averruncantibus is the more techni- ff 
cal word ; a.>.i^ix,aKoti xa) x^roT^tiraiois , 1 1 , 
These deities were Castor and PoUux. 
T. 

Nos humilem feriemus agnam ; Hor. 
Od. ii, 17, 31. PRA. 

168. ' Sacrifice.' T. Ov. F. i, 347 ; 
Tr. iv, 2, 5 ; M. xv, 126. KG. 

Hcec verba una mehercle falsa lacru- 
vtula, quam, oculos terendo misere, vix 
vi expresserit, restingvet; Ter. Eun. 



SAT. V. 



OF PKRSIUS. 



73 



' Xugaris. Solea, ])iK'r, ob^jurfjjabcre rubra; 

170 Ne trepidare velis aUjue arctos roderc casses. 

Nunc, ferus et violens; at si vocct, haud mora, dicas — 
" Quidnam ij^itur laciam .? nec nunc, quum aicessor et 

ultro 
" Supplicat, acccdam ?" — Si totus et integer illinc 
Exieras, nec nunc' Hic, hic, quem qmerimus, bic est: 

175 Non in festuca, lictor quam jactat ine])tus. 
Jus habct ille sui j:>al])o, quem ducit hiantem 
Cretata Ambitio.? ' Vigila et cicer ingero large 



Juv. 



271 ff, 



i, 1. 22 ff; PR.4. 
notes. 

Ceiiseu ; [Ter. Eu. ii, 1, 11.] 

169. The solen was ' the slipper' 
wom by ladies, anrl sometimes by effe- 
minate men: Geil. xiii, 20; ^, v, 18; 
Cic. Verr. vii, 85; Pis. 13. Clodius is 
accuseil of wearing cyocotani, mitmtn, 
muliebres solens \ id.H.Resp.44. It was 
used by the fair tyrants for the chas- 
tisement of their humble admirers. s. 
Juv. vi, 612, note; Chiysost. Hom. 14; 
PRA. T. BU, Anth. L. t. i, p. 618. 
KG. 

170. The metnphor is taVen from 
beasts caught in ' the toils.' LUB. ac 
veluti priiiio tniiriis detractnt aratra, 
inox venit nssiieto inotlis a<( arvajngo : 
sic priiiio Jifvenes trepii/ant in ainore 
feroces, dehinc doiniti post hcBC cKqua 
et iniqua feriint; Prop. ii, 3, 47 tf; 
{BU.) sic laqueos fera, dum Jactat, 
astriiigit : sic aves, dum viscHin trepi- 
dantes excutiunt, plnmis omniljus illi- 
nunt; Sen. Ira iii, 16. CS. s. Virg. M. 
iv, 121; ix, 114; MAD. x\, 453. KG. 

172. See Hor. S. ii, 3, 262. (BY.) 
KG. 

173. Intcger ' heart-whole,' MAD. 
' without the loss of your hea.rt.' Ji.rus 
hic apud nos est aniinus tuus clavo 
cupidinis; Plaut. As. i, 3, 4; aniina 
magis est vbi amat, quam ubi aniinat. 
PRA. 

175. Festucaia used contemptuously 
for vindicta. qvid? ea ingenua, nnfes- 
tuca facta f serva, nii lihera esf '' 
Pldut. M. G. iv, 1, 15. ( TB.) But Plu- 
tarch says that ' stubble' was thrown 
on the person of the m;inumitted slave 
by one of the lictors : M. xlv. PRA. 

Oneof thesixl ic tor s, who attended 
the praetor, L UB. probably carried his 
wand. ' A stalk fiourished by a foolish 



beadle' must have been incompetent to 
confer real liberty and wisdom. PRA. 

1 7G. Arari non hnbcnt divitias sed a 
diviliis habcntur ; Sen. PRA. 

Palpo ' a coaxer,' ' a demagogue;' 
xiXa^ Tsv ^r,fisv Plato. CS. 

Sedjulgente trah itconstrictos Gloria 
curru; Hor. S. i, 6, 23. DBN. [Arist. 
Eth. i, 5; Feyjoo, Disc. p. 31.] 

Hiinc plausus hiante m,per cuiieos 
geminatus eniin plcbisque patrumque, 
corripuit; Virg. G. ii, 508 tf. 

177. Those who canvassed for an 
ofJice used always to have their white 
gown fresh from the fuller's hands ; and 
to add to its brilliancy, it was rubbed 
with chalk._^^ toga addito quodnm cretee 
genere candidior; Isid. xiv, 24. L. 
Polybius calls the gown Xafc-rok, not 
XivxYi. DBN. [St Mark ix, 3 ; ^ADD, 
Dial. on Medals t. i, p. 438.] 

Ambitio ' the going nbout to solicit 
the vote and interest of each elector.' 
MAD. Now follows the command of 
Ambition to her slave. PRA. 

Vigila : they commenced their morn- 
ing calls, on these occasions, before 
daybreak. CS. s. Mart. iv, 78; Sen. Br. 
V, 24. or ' 13e on thewatch,' ' be always 
on the look-out for an opportunity of 
ingratiating yourself with the people.' 
MAD. KG. 

The candidates for popularity used to 
throw among tho mob a number of 
tajlies eutitling the bearer to a certain 
quantity of some sort of grain. in cicerc 
ntquejhba bona tii pcrdnsque lupinis; 
Hor. S. ii, 3, 182. This was the method , 
pursued by the Dpdiles at ' the games of // 
Flora.' The sums squandered in these ' . 
largesses, under the republic, far sar- 
passed the niost lavish cost of our con- 
tested elections, and were frequently 
ruinous to the parties, et populare sa- 



74 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V. 



Hixanti pojMilo, nostva ut Floralia ])ossint 

Apiici nieniinisse sones. Quid puklirius ?' At quuni 

180 Herodis venere dies unctaque fenestra 

Disposita3 pinfineni nobnlaui vonuiore lucornie 
Portantes violas rubrunique anqjlexa catinuin 
Cauda natat thynni, tuniet alba fidelia vino : 
Labra moves tacitus rccutitaque sabbata palles. 

185 Tunc nigri lemures ovoque pericula rupto : 



\ 



crum bis miUin dena tulisset ; Mart. x, 
41, 7. even wheii the emperors had en- 
grosseJ the whole power, and the only 
subject of contentioii was, to be a slave 
w i t h the title of an office, or w i t h o u t 
it. AX, vi, 8. PRA. GIF. s. Suet. 
often. cicer was a very plebeian food. 
Hor. A. P. 249; S. i, 6, J 15 ; s. Mart. 
viii, 69, 7 ff; Stat. S. i, 6, 9 ff; {BA.) 
KG. s. vi, 50, notP. 

178. ' Scrambling.' PRA. 
Floralia ; Macr. S. i, 4 ; Aug. Civ. D. 

vi, 7; PRA. Juv. vi,249, note. KG. 

179. Juv. xi, 203. This basking in 
the sun is chnracteristic of old age. 
" Together they tottor about, Or sit in 
the sun at the door ;"' Darby and Joan. 
MAD. Cic. Sen. 16 KG. [" Meiti 
Stab soll >nich Greisen vor die Schrrelle 
meiner Hiitte fUhren, da witl ich mich 
der kommenden Sonne gegeniiberset- 
zen ;" Geszner Palemon.] 

180. "VVe now come to the tyranny of 
Superstitinn. J he Herodians were a 
considerab'e party among the Jew.s. 
Under Herod the Great, the government 
attained a pitch of pow-r, whichit had 
not reached since the captivity. He 
was greatly favoured by Dolab lla and 
Antony, and, subsequenfy, by Augus- 
tus ; who, like the two former, extended 
his empire, and,athis request, conferred 
privilegesand immunitiesupon the Jews 
then risidentin i\onie: to this, must be 
added tbat he restored the temple, the 
idol of Jewish vanity, with surpassing 
magnificence. This was enough for that 
factious and se!fi>h people : many of 
them honourcd his memory, (execrable 
as it was,) and kept the df.y of his acces- 
sion as a festival. Persius, like all the 
writers o{ his time, speaks of the Jews 
with equal ignorance and contempt ; and , 
in this place, confounds a simple festival 
with tbeir solemn sabbaths. GlF. Seh. 
CS. PRA. s. Juv. xiv, 96 ff, notes. St 



Matthew xiv, 6; St Markvi, 21. ilf^D. 
[HAR, Obs. i, 9.] 

181. Juv.xii,90 — 92, Tiotes. 7no7-af.ur 
Dei atici/ln in laribus alienis, et inter 
illos omnibus honoribus dcemonHm, om- 
nibussolennibusregum,irtcipientean)io, 
incipiente viense, nidore thuris agitabi- 
tur : et procedat de janua laureata et 
lucernnta, ut de novo consistorio libidi- 
num publicarum ; Tert. ad Ux.xi. PRA. 

Vomuere; Virg. JE. v, 682. MAD. 

182. Cumano rubicioidam pulvere 
testam; Mart. xiv, 114, 1; paropsis 
rubra ; xi, 27, 5. PRA. 'This is put by 
hypallage for ' the disb embracing the 
tail of the fish.' L UB. ' The red earthen- 
ware,' 'the large coarsc- fish,' and ' the 
tail,' wbich was cot the prime part of 
it, ' the vrhitejug,' and ' thefrothy wiue,' 
are all mentioned contemptuously and 
with reference to the meanness and 
poverty of the Jews. MAD. 

183. Pneci/ na magnitudine thynni: 
inveninms talenta xv pependisse : ejus- 
dem caudce latitudinem quinque cubita 
et palmum: Plin. ix, 15 or 17 and 20. 
PRA. 

Tumet may simply mean ' is filled to 
the brim.' CS. or '' The crude must 
foams o'er the pitcher's brims." GIF. 
s. Virg. G. ii, 6. 

184. Cf. ii, 6. note. PRA. 

' The sabbaths of the circumcised.' 
Sch. Mart. vii, 29, 5, KG. 

185. Understand tinienttcr. CS. som- 
nia, terrores magicos, miracula, sagas, 
nocturnos lemnres. portentaque T/ies- 
sala rides? Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 208 f. ani- 
m7ts virtute per/ectus genius vocatur. 
aninmm humannm emeritis vita stipen- 
diis corpore suo abjurantem vetere 
Latina lingua I e m u r e yn dictitatum re- 
pevio. ew hisce lemuribus (ju i posteroruni 
suonnn ctiram sortitus, placato et qiiieto 
numine domum possidet, Larfamiliaris 
dicitur : qvivero ob adversa vitce merita. 



SAT. V. 



OF PERSIUS. 



75 



Tunc grandfs Galli et cum sistro lusca sacerdos 
Incussere deos intlantes corjjora, si non 
PraKlictuni ter niane caput gustaveris alli. 
Dixeris hvcc inler varieosos centuriones, 
190 Continuo crassum ridet Volfenius ingens, 
Et centum Graecos curto ccntusse licetur. 



\ 



\ 



tiii//is bonis sedibi/s, iiirer/a vaga/ioiie, 
sei/ (/i/oilam exsi/io pi/ni/i/r, inane/erri- 
rii/anien/i/in bonis /loniinibus, ce/eri/in 
noj'ium ma/is, ii/genusp/erif/ue Larvas 
perhiben/ . cum vero incer/um es/, (jUfe 
cuique eori/ni sor/i/io eveiieri/, u/rnin 
Lar si/, an Larva, noiuine Manein 
deiiin nuncupan/; Apul. deD. Soer. dita/ 
/ibi Deus obvias spevies mor/uorum, 
(/uidquid Uinbraruin es/ usf/i/am, qi/i//- 
i/uid Lemuri/in,(/uid(/uidMaiiiuin, qi/id- 
q//id Larvariim, ocu/is /uis aggera/, 
omiiia tioc/ium occursacu/a, oiniiia bus- 
/oruinforinidamina, oninia sepu/rroruiu 
/erricu/amen/a ; id. Apol. s. Varr. de 
V. P. K. i ; Ov. F. V, 419 ff. PRA. 

E g g s were much used iu lustrations 
and expiations. Ov. A. A. ii, 329 f; 
Hor. Ep.v, 19f. JCG. If an egabroke 
when put on the fire, it portended jeo- 
pardy to the person or propertj- of the 
individual. Sch. There was another su- 
perstition relative to an egg : /iiic jjer- 
/ine/ uvoruin, /// exsorbueri/ qnisf/ue, 
ca/ices cochlearumque /iro/inus frangi 
aii/ eosdein corh/earibiis /jerforari ; Plin. 
xxviii,2or4. Thedangerwasincasethe 
shells should be pricked with a needle. 
T. Many persons even at the present 
day, after eating an egg, always break 
the bottom of the shell ; some from su- 
perstiiious motives, and others without 
knowing why. 

186. See Juv. vi, 513, note. PRA. 

Ga//i ' priests of Cybele' said to be so 
called after Gallus a river of Phrygia, 
whose water drove them mad ; Piiu. xi, 
49. Varro. in/er viridein Cybe/en al/as- 
que Ce/cenas amnis i/ insana, nomine 
Ga//i/s,aqua : quibibi/ iiide,furit; Ov. 
F. iv, 363 ff. PRA. 

Sis/ro; Juv. xiii, 93, note. Apuleius 
calls it anreum crepi/acu/um ; 1. c. KG. 
it was also made of silver or brass. 
PRA. 

This one-eyedlady,having never had 
a matrimonial offer, devoted herself to 
the serviceof Isis, Sch. where her defect 
might be turned to gond account, for she 



might represent it as the act of the of- 
fended goddess : if the ministers of that 
deity were so exposed to her wrath, 
what must other mortalsbe.^ s. Juv. 
xiii, 93; Ov. Pont. i, 1, 51 ff. PRA. 
MAD. 

187. ' Have inculcated the dread of 
the gods:' LUB.\.e. ofVenusand her 
son. SM. T, Ulcers and tumours are . 
very common in Syria and Egypt. ' 
Aret. ^lorb. Ac. 6. t»i» "Susiat het 01 
oiiffioaifAayis yo/iiQovrit, a* fixiiidec tis fi 
a(pvas (pdyfi To, avri»tr,fiia eitT^liit, sXxi^i 
Tc ffafiu TifiirXdtai, ffutrriKtit r» nTap' 
Plut. M. xiv, 9; CS. Jlart. iv, 43, 2. 
PRA. 

188. ' Namedbeforeyoueatit.'iC75. 
^perhaps the same as jjnesrrip/um.] 

' A head of garlick eaten fasting' was 
reckoned a sp-cific again.^t magical 
fascination. LUB. T. 

189. "Zr^ariuTixti aXayia was pro- 
verbial among the Geeeks. PRA. Surely 
Persius has shown little judgement in 
propounding his Stoical paradoxes to 
such an audience: but he seemsto bear 
a rooted dislike to the soldiery; and 
whenever he has occasion for a more 
illiterate and worthless character than 
ordinary, he coramonly repairs to the 
camp for him. His conduct, in this 
instance, willperhaps remind the reader 
of Fielding and SmoUett, who, in com- 
pliance with the wretched cant of the 
times, manifested apatrioticabhorrence 
of the military, and seldom went further 
for a blockhead, a parasitc, or an adept 
in low villainy, tban the Army List. 
\Ve have outlived this stupid piece of 
injustice ; and a " led-captain" is no 
longer considered as the indispensable 
V i c e of every novel. GIF. 

Varicosos; Juv.vi, 397, note; Sol. p. 
363. (SM.) KG. 

190. ' Sets up a horse-laugh.' PRA. 
Ingens ; 95, note. 

191. ' And, for a hundred of your 
Greeks, bids short of a hundred pence.' 
LUB. s. Petr. 46. (BU.) KG. 



e .7 



S A T I R E VI. 



ARGUMENT. 

Tliis is one of tlie most pleasing and original of these Satires. Its primary 
object is to poiut out the proper use of riches: and the author (after a 
beautiful exordium, in vrhich the genius and learning of his frieud 
Bassus are complimented with all the warmth of friendship, 1..6;) 
exhibits his own conduct iu the regulation of his desires, as explanatory 
of his views, 6. . 24. 

A kind and liberal attcution to the necessities of ot-ers is then recom- 
mended ; and the various artifices of avarice to disguise its sordid and 
selfish feelings under the specious names of prudence, aucient simplicity, 
a regard for the welfare of successors, &c ; are detected and exposed 
vrith marked severity, 25. .40. 

The poem concludes vvith some sarcastic reproof of thc greediness of heirs 
in expectation, 41.. 74; aud a striking description of the nature of 
cupidity, which strengthens with indulgence, and becomes more craving 
in proportion as it is more abuudantly supplied, 75. .80. 

Tliis Satire is not only the most agreeable and original, but the most in- 
teresting of our author's works. It was evidently written by him, under 
the consciousness of irrecoverable disease, while yet in the flower of 
youth, possessed of an independent fortime, of estimable friends, of 
dear connectious, and of a cultivated mind ; a situation in itself suffici- 
ently aflecting, aud which is rendered still more so, by the placid, and 
even cheerful spirit which pervades every part of the poem. GIF. 



isAT. M. 



THE SATIHES OE PEUSIUS. 



77 



Admovit jain hniuia foco te, Basse, Sabino ? 
Jannic lyra et telrico vivunt tibi pectiuc chorda^ ? 
Mirc opifex. nunieris veterum priniordia vocuni 
Atque mareui strepitum fidis intendisse Latina-, 
5 Mox juvenes agitare jocos et pollice liouesto 
Egregios lusisse seues ? Milii uunc Ligus ora 
lutepet hiberuatque meum mare, qua latus ingens 
Dant scopuli et multa litus se valle receptat. 



1. From this it appears that the 
wealthy Komaus chaiiged their resi- 
dence with the seasons; and that they 
not only resorted to their villas in the 
spring, but at other times, when they 
were disposed for studv aud retirement. 
Cic. Att. Suet. ii, 72; Hor. Ep. i, 
7, 15; PRJ. Ep. ii, 2, 6.5 ff; 77 f; 
Plin. Ep. i, 9. KG. Literary eharac- 
ters, like our poets, were glad of any 
pretence to escape from the riotous 
excesses and thc anarchy of the Satur- 
nalia. GIF. 

Briima novi prima est veterisfjve 
7iovissima so/is; Ox. F. i, 168; with 
us ' St. Thomas's day.' Festus. PRA. 

Fociis is used for prcediiim, on ac- 
count of the time of the year. KG. 

Ceesiiis Bassus, an eminent lyric 
poet ; who was destroyed, together with 
his country house, in that great eruption 
of Vesuvius, Sch. in wlnch Pliny the 
elder is also said tohaveperished. GIF. 
He is mentloned as approaching most 
nearlv to Horace: Quint. Inst. x, 1, 
96 ; PRA. Prop. i, 4, 1 ; (BKH.) WF. 
P. L. M. t. iii, p. xxxiii ; ff; KG. and 
p. 19. DBN. 

2. " While the strings quicken to thy 
manly quill." G/F.Ov. A. A. i, 721; 
Sen. fl. F. 679 f ; li/ru et chordce for 
* strings of the lyre.' On this instrument, 
s.Hor. Od.i, 10,6; iii, 2, 3.(JC.) ^G. 

3. ' Of wondrous skill in adapting to 
minstrelsy the early forms of ancient 
words, and the masculine strain of the 
Latin lute.' It would appear froni this, 
that Bas.sus was an imtiquary and had 
successfully transferrecTfoTiis odes some 
of tlie nerrous words of the oMer dialects 
of his countiy. WB. " Great workman ! 
whose blest muse sweet lines atfordes, 
Full of the native beauty of old wordes." 
HOL. 

4. Intendisse nittnerisis thesamea 
uumeris eondere; Ov. F. vi, 24; or 



ninneris coercere; id. Pont. iv, 8, 
73 ; s. Virg. JE. ix, 776 ; Hor. Ep. i, 
3, 12 f. KG. 

5. JiivenesioTJuveniles; LUB.Ov. 
Tr. V, 1, 7. KG. 

Agitarejocos; Ov. M. iii, 319; the 
same asjocari. KG. 

Jocos; Ov. Tr. ii, 494 ; iii, 2, 4.KG. 
' Amatory and playful themes.' LUB. 
Miisa didit Jidibus Jnvciiiim curas et 
lihera vina rejcrrc ; Hor. A. P. 83 ff. 
CS. 

" With moral touch." GIF. 

6. Liidere for canere; as in Virg. 
E. i, 10; PRA. Hor. Od. iv, 9, 9. or 
' to play the gond old man' by assum- 
ing an air of authority and senten- 
tiousness : honuni civem liidere ; Cic. 
Ep. viii, 9. KG. |s. BY, on H. O. i, 
1 , 5. K. Egregius v. 1.] 

He was staying with his mother j 
Fulvia Sisennia, who, after his father's S 
death, married again ; her second hus- ) 
band was a Ligurian. Sch. 

Ligus is here a feminine adjective. 
LUB. 

7. Maria agitata ventis ita tepescunt, 
iit infclligi Jarile possit in tantis iliis 
Imnioribus iiicliisum esse calorem: nec 
eniiii illc ejitcrnus et adventitius /la- 
bendus est tepor, sed ex intimis maris 
partibus agitation.e excitatus: Cic. N. 
D. ii, 10or2(>;Pi?y^.Plut. M.lxiii,8; 
s. Prop. iv, 1, 124. {PA.) KG. 

Dcfendens pisccs hyemat inare; 
Hor.S. ii, 2, 17. PRA. vernat; Sen, 
Ep. 114. KG. 

8. Danf- present.' <!r%^ix,\uiTa.ihXiu,r,t 
o^iffiv u^riXeTs, a(^ uv to, ■niXu.yn kxto- 
•rTiiitTuf Strab. v ; PRA. Sil. viii, 480 ; 
{R.) s. Virg. .-E. i, 10.5; iii, 6.53 ff; 
V. Flac. i, 619; Claud. xlix, 37. KG. 
Luna where the villa stood was one of 
the niaiiy convenient and beautiful 
situations in which the gulf of Spezia 
abounded. The town itself has lain iri 



'f. 



78 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



/ 



Lunai porhd/i esl opertB co<jno>icere, cives! 

10 Cor jubet lioc Enni, po.stquani destcrtuit essc 
Maeonides, Quintus pavone ex Pythagoreo. 
Hic ego securus vulgi et quid pra;paret Auster 
Infelix pecori ; securus et, angulus ille 
Vicini nostro quia pinguior. Etsi adeo omnes 

15 Ditescanl orti pejorihu.s, usqne recusera 

Curvus ob id minui senio aut ccenare sine uncto 
Et signura in vapida naso tetigisse lagena. 



ruins for ages; what now occupies a 
part of its site is called Larice. GIF. 

9. A verse of 'EnnmsTBch.' prinutm 
oppidirm Hetrurice, Luna,portn nobile; 
Piin. iii, 5 ; xiv, 6; xxxvi. Pi?^. Ennius 
mu.<t have known ' the port of Luna' 
well. It was there that the Romans 
\jsually took sliipping for Corsica and 
Sardinia; the latter of which islands 
the poet often visited, in company with 
the elder Cato. GIF. 

Oper<e^ understand pretium. LUB. 
[Liv. xxi, 9, 4. PLR, " prefium.''] 

10. Cor is ofteii used for ' sense.' 
PRA. Hence the adjectives cordatus, 
excors, vecors, ^-c ; Cic. T. Q. i, 9 ; /toc 
est non modo cor non liahere, sed ne 
palatum (juidem; Fin. ii, 28. KG. cor 
Enni will be a periphrasis, like those 
so frequent in Juvenal, and will mean 
' Ennius in his senses.' LUB. s. Juv. 
iv, 39, note. 

' He ceased to dream.' LUB. s. pr. 
2. PRJ. 

11. Homer was called Mceonides, 
PRA. as a native of Smyrna in Lydia, 
which was ancientlv calied Mseonia. 
MAD. [Hor. O. i,"6, 2 ; iv, 9, 5 f.J 

" When.allhisdreams oftransmigra- 
tion past, He found Himself plain Q u i n- 
tus at the last!"G'/F. Q. Ennius 
born at Eudii in Campania, about 514 
Y. R. the most ancient Latin poet after 
Livius Andronicus, wrote tlie Annals 
of the Roraan People and other poems, 
of vvhich only fragments remain. s. Gell. 
xvii, 17; Cic. 'r. Q. i, 34. Ennius et 
sapiens et fortis et alter Homerus, tit 
critici dicu/it, leviter curare videtiir 
f/uu promissa cadant ct somnia Piftha- 
gorea; Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 50 tf. PRA. 
For further particulars see A. [Phsed. 
i, 1.] 

Our poet here ridicules the Pytha- 
goreau doctrine of the metempsvchosis. 
s. Ov. M. XV, 160 ff; Terr. de" An. 24 



f ; pavum se meminit Homerus Ennio 
somniante : sed poetis nec vigitantibus 
credam; ib. 33 f; de IJes. Carn. i, 7; 
S. H ier. Ap. adv. Ruf. iii, end ; Lact. iii, 
18 ; vii, 23 ; PRA. Cic. S. Sc. 1 ; Lucr. 
1,1 18.. 127; Hve. F. 112; s. Prop.iv, 
1, 64; Hor. Ep! ii, 2 100. KG. 

12. " Careless of what the vulgar 
think or say." GIF. Virg. JE. i, 350 ; 
X, 325; Hor. Od. ii. 16, end ; S. i, 1, 
110 f. KG. 

Quid cogitet humidus Auster; Virg. 
G. i, 462; quid ftamine captet Aiister; 
Prop. iii, 3, b-l! KG. 

13. Arboribusque satisque Notus 
pecorique sinister; Virg. G. i, 444; 
PRA. Hor. Od. ii, 14, 15 f ; S. ii, 6, 
18 f; Plin. H. N. ii, 48. KG. The 
Italians call this wind Sirocco. MAD. 

si angulus ille proximus accedat, 
qui nunc denormat agelluml Hor. S. 
ii, 6, 8 f. PRA. 

1 5. Ne pl usfrumenti dotalibtis emetat 
agris Mucius : indignum, qtiodsit pejo- 
ribus ortus; Hor. Ep. i, 6, 21 f. PRA. 

16. Jam vigor et quasso languent in 
corpore viresl . . . conjiteor facere lioc 
annos ; sed et altera causa est, anxietas 
animi continuusque labor; Ov. Pont. 
i, 4, 3 &c; PRA. M. ii, 760 ; Hor. Ep. 
i, 18, 47; Sen. Hip. 1127 ff; ai-^a. 

yaj :» KaxcTnri (i^oTo) KaTayri^dirKevrif' 
Hom. Od. T 360 ; Hes. O. D. 93. KG. 
' Without good cheer.' MAD. s. Hor. 
A. P. 422; PRA. iv, 17; KG. [Hor. 
E. i, 14,21.] 

17. It was the custom of the Romans 
to pour melted pitch over the mouth of 
their wine vessels, on wbich, when suf- 
ticiently cooled for the purpose, they 
impressed their siguets. Suspicious of 
his slaves, themiseris ludicrouslj-repre- 
sented as bending over the jar, and 
prying so narrowlj' into the state of the 
seal as to touch it with his uose; the 
wine too, for which all this solicitude 



SAT. VI. 



C)F PEIISIUS. 



7i) 



Discrcpet liis alius. Geniino.s, hoioscopo, vaio 
Procluci.s gciiio! Solis natalibns est qui 
20 Tingat olus siccum niuria vafcr in calicc emta, 

Ipse sacrum irrorans patinte pipcr. Hic bona dente 
Grandia magnanimus peragit puer. Utar ego, utar, 
Nec rhombos ideo libcrtis ponere lautus, 
Nec tenuem solers turdarum uosse salivam. 



Ls manifested, is not unworthy of the rest 
of the picture, it is good for nothini?. 
GIF. CS. T. s. Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 134. 
na/n id dentiim /epii/itm es/ /riparcos 
homines ve/ii/os, avidos, arii/os hene 
admordere, i/iii sa/inu/n seruo obsignan/ 
cum sa/e; Pkiut. Pers. ii, 2, 14 fi"; 
sicii/ o/im ma/rem meam facere memini, 
qucB /agenos e/iam inanes obsignaba/, 
ne diceren/ur inanes a/iff uee J uisse , qnce 
fitrtim essen/ exsicca/(e; Cie. Ep. xvi, 
26. He niight also apply his nose to 
ascertain whether it w as evaporating. 
PRA. s. Juv. X1V, 126 ff, notes. KG. 

18. ' The star, " 1 hat beams, ascen- 
dant, on the natal hour," GIF. pro- 
duces twins of widely differeut charac- 
ters.' L UB. Cas/or gauile/ ei/uis, ovo 
progna/iis eoi/em pugnis ; Hor. S. ii, 1 , 
26 f. It was impossihle for two per- 
sons to be more unlike than Comniodus 
and Antoninus, the twin snns of the 
emperor Marcus; who, accordingtothe 
predictions of the astrologers, were to 
be in all respects alike : Lampr. s. 
Gell. xiv, 1; PRA. Prop. iv, 1, 89. 
(VP.BU.) KG. 

Horoscope; on the prosopopceia, s. 
Quint. In.st. viii, 5. KG. 

Varo i. e. vario ; L UB. iv, 12. PRA. 

19. Producis; Juv. vi, 241, note. 
Nata/i/jus; Juv. xi, 83 ff, notes ; 

MAD.y, 151, note. KG. 

20. Every word in this description is 
expressive of meanness. 

Tingat; Hor. S. ii, 2, 60 ff; o/us; 
ib. i, 74 ; Juv. x, 78 f. siccnm. opposed 
to unc/um, 16. muria ' the brine in 
which tunny was pickled ;' v. 183 ; Mart. 
xiii, ) 03 ; Plin. xxxi, 8. and though this 
pickle was so cheap, he merely bought 
a little of it ' in a cup.' LUB. PRA. 
MAD. KG. 

21. Ipse, not trustiiig his servant : 
sacrum ' prcserved most religiously ;' 
Hor. S. i, 1, 71 f; S. ii, 3, 1 10 ; ' as 
though it were sacrilege to waste one 
grain.' s. Mart. xiii, 13. LUB. PRA. 
KG. 



Dente peragit ' eats his way through.' 
Juv. xi, 38 f; Hor. S. ii, 3, 206 ff; 
Ep. i, 1.5, 37 ff. KG. The story of 
the prodigal runs gaily off the tongue 
in dactyls, and is dcspatched almost as 
quickly as his patrimony was. GTF. 
[Unrec/i/ Gu/ kiimm/ nicld anf dcn 
drit/en Krhen; German Pro\erb.] 

22. Magnanimns ; s. Arist. Eth. iii, 6. 
Puer ; not in age, but in eharacter. 

CS.^ Hor. S. i, 2, 16 f; KG. tI ^ai 

a\.Xa iia, ro Kara, Ta.9oi l^nf Anst, lltn. 
i, 3. 

U/nr : as Persius here twice declares 
his determination to use his goods ; so, 
in the two following lines, he twice 
declares his resolution not to abuse 
them. 

23. Rhombos; Juv. xi, 121; iv, 39, 
note ; Plin. ix, 20 ; num esuriensfastidis 
omnia prce/cr pavonem rliomhumque ? 
Hor. S. i, 2, 115 f; S. ii, 2, 48 f; 
PRA. Ep. ii, 49 f. KG. 

Libertis; Juv. v, 28, note ; Petr. 38. 
{HS.) KG. 

Lau/us; Juv. xiv, 257. KG. a fid- 
vauffos TM fa^a ri oiov avaXirxiiv uirjo- 
^d,XXii. iv ya^ roii fiin^oTs roav ^aTavv- 
fiaTuv "roXXa avuXiaxu xai > a/u,T^vHTai 
va^oi fiiXos oiov i^av:irTa,s yafiixu; irriuv' 
Arist. Ltn. iv, 2. 

24. The feminine /urdarum is here 
used by catachresis; Sch. perhaps 
because the hen-thrushes were con- 
sidered the more delicious. MAD. For 
tbe cognosceuti of Italy " sajicvano dire 
gus/ando /i tordi, serano domestici 6 
pur se/vnggi, e se maschi opurfemine.'^ 
SUl. '1 hese bii ds were accounted such 
great delicacies by the Ilomans, that 
they had particular buiklings attached 
to their houses for breeding and fatten- 
ing them for tlie table. GIF. s. Plin. 
X, 24; Ath. ii, 24. oheso ni/ me/ius 
/urdo; Hor. Ep. i, 15, 41 f; S. ii, 5, 
10; S. i, 5, 72; in/cr aves /iirdus, si 
f/uis me judice cer/et; in/er guadru- 
pedes g/oria prima /e/rus; Mar . xiii, 



80 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



25 Messe tenus pvopria vive: et granaria (fas est) 

Emole. Quid mctuas ? Occa, et seges altera in herba est. 
" Ast vQcat officium : trabe rupta, Bruttia saxa 
Prendit amicus inops remque omnera surdaquc vota 
Condidit lonio : jacet ipse in litore et una 

30 Ingentes de puppe dei jamque obvia mergis 
Costa ratis lacerae." Nunc et de cespite vivo 
Frange aliquid ; largire inopi, ne pictus oberret 
Cffirulea in tabula. Sed coenam funeris heres 
Negliget iratus, quod rem curtaveris : urnae 

35 Ossa inodora dabit, seu spirent cinnama surdum 
Seu ceraso peccent cas , nescire paratus. 



92; 51. PRA. KG. Juniper berries 
were an important article in their food. 
LUB. 

Salivam ' the flavour.' Sch. Varro L. 
L. viii ; Plin . x xiii. Methymncei grata 
saliva meri ; Prop. iv, 8, 38. PRA. 

25. ' Harvest is here putfor ' income.' 
LUB. 

26. Quidmetiias? St Matthewvi,34 
MAD. 

Occa; ' eultivate your land.' MAD. 
Ov. F, iv.645. KG.' 

" Firstthe blade, then the ear, tben 
the fuU corn in the ear;' St Mark 
iv, 28 ; MAD. s. Ov. Her. xvii, 263. 
{HS.) KG. 

27. By ' the Bruttian rocks' is here 
meant the rugged southern coast of 
Italy to the westward of the Straits of 
Messina. KG. 

28. Pre nsant e m q it e nncis mani- 
hus capita ardua montis; Virg. M. vi, 
360 ; CS. Hom. Od. E 426 ff. KG. 

Surdus is sometimes taken in a pas- 
sive sense, ' unheard ;' LUB. as ccecus 
is for ' imseen.' 

30. The tutelary gods were placed at 
thc stern : these the pious merchant had 
by his exertionsrescueJ from the wreck. 
T. s. Virg. /E. X, 171 ; Hor. Od. i, 14, 
10; Pii^. Petr- l(i5; Virg. ^. viii, 
93 ; V, 60 ; Ov. Tr. i, 10, 1 ; {HS.) ib. 
43 f. KG . His piety was rewarded by 
the preservation of hislife, when all else 
perished. \ADD,T>. on M. t. i,p. 459. 
If Juvenal had said this, we might con- 
sider it as a sneer.] 

Mergis ; Piin. x, 32 &c ; PRA. Hor. 
Ep. 10, 21 f. KG. 

31. Costa; Virg. M. ii, 16. PRA. 
The wreck, probab'y, might be thrown 
up on the shore: its ribs would ho!d 



together, long after the planks had 
started. [This was the case with the 
Fanny wrecked at Jersev, January Ist, 
1828.] 

Nunc 4'C. Aware thatthe miser's ex- 
cuse is a mere pretext for indutging his 
avariciouspropensities, Persius sharply 
answers ' In that case, sell a little of 
your land.' GIF. LUB. ' Land, with 
the crop growing on it.' MAD. s. Ov. 
M. iv. 300 f ; KG. 

32. See Juv. xiv, 302, note. PRA. 

33. Ccerulea. [" With the blue above, 
and the blue below ;" B. Cornwall, 
TheSea.] 

' But perhaps you will object &c.' 
MAD. 

Ccenamfuneris. s. Virg. JSi. vi, 222 
ff ; Apul. Flor. 4 or 19 ; Cic. Leg. ii, 63 ; 
Juv. v, 85, note; S. Aug. Serm. xv ; 
Plin. X, 10; Ath. viii, 7; AX, iii, 7; 
PRA. KI, vi, 5 f; Luc. Cont. 22, t. 
i, p. 519. KG. 

34. Nec metuam quid de me judicet 
heres, quod non plura datis invenerit; 
Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 191 f; PRA. Ep. 1, 
6, 13 f ; Od. ii, 14, 25 ff. KG. 

Curtaveris refers iofrange aliquid ; 
32. KG. 

35. See Plin. xiii, 1 ... 3 ; Juv. iv, 109, 
note ; Dionj^s. H. ii ; Prop. ii, 10, 20 ff; 
iv, 7, 32; Tib. iii, 2, 17; i, 3, 7 
ff; (ifr.)S. Hier. to Pamm.Calp.iv, 
19; Ov. Tr iii, 3, 89. PRA. KG. 

Cinnama; Plin. xii, 19 or42; PRA. 
id. xiii, 2 ; Mart. iv, 13. KG. 

Surdum is here put for ' scentle.ss.' 
L UB. The metaphor is still more harsh 
in tlie foUowingline: fervida quod suh- 
tile exsurdant vina palatum; Hor. S. 
ii, 8, 38. PRA. 

36. ' Or the casia be adulterated with 



/ 



A 



»:at. VI. 



OF Fi:iiSlUS. 



81 



" Tunc l»una inci)lniius uiiuuus .?" Sotl Ik-stius ur^cl 
DocUncs (Jraios: " Ita lit, j)uslquiuu saj)urc Urbi 
Cum pipere ct pahnis veuit uostrum lioc maris expcrs, 
40 FoDnisecae crasso vitiarunt unguine j)ultes." 

Ha3c cinere ulterior nietuas t At tu, meus hcres 
Quisquis evis, paullum a turha seductior audi : — 

O hone, num ignoras ? niissa est a Caesare laurus 
Insignem ob chidem Germana) pubis et aris 



cheny bark.' LUB. s. Plin. H. N. xii, 
9; reinsi ante victoriam Mitliridaticam 
L. LuckIH non fitere in llalia ad urbis 
iinnum dclxxx; /'* primiuu vexit e 
Punto: annis(fiie cxx trans oceanum 
in Britanniam usque pervenere; id. 
XV, 25. Pi?^. This adulteration would 
be easily deteeted by auy one who made 
use of his senses. KG. 

Casift ; ii, 64 ; Plin. H. N. xii, 19 or 
4:? ; PRA. Virg. G. ii, 46(5 ; ( VO.) S3I, 
p. 919 ff; Theoph. H. Pl. ix, 5; Mart. 
X, 97 ; xi, 55 ; Stat. S. ii, 1 , 160 ; Claud. 
Phoen. 79 ff; (BU.) Ov. M. xv, 397 ff. 
KG. 

' Having made up his mind fraj' 
fKtoair/iitos' Arist. Pl. 77;) to wink at 
it and be utterly ignorant.' PRA. The 
worse the spiees, the less the cost . MAD. 

37. This is the petulantremonstranee 
of the indignantheir: ' What ? Uo you 
dare toimpairyourproperty during your 
life-time, instead of hoarding it for your 
heirs to spend ?' CS. or ' If you are 
wasteful during your life, you shall smart 
for it now you are dead.' iucolumis ' with 
impunity.' KG. DEN. 

The poet has shown no great adroit- 
ness in allowing this third speaker 
(Bestius) to break in rudely upon the 
dialogue, when he might, with better 
effect, have put all that was about to be 
said into the mouth of his opponent.G JJ?'. 
This illiterate fellow, (Hor. Ep. i, 15, 
37 f ;) however, ' commenees an attaek 
on the philosophers' as having caused 
all the mischief by incnlcating the doc- 
trine of libesality and other expensive 
habits. PRA. The many corruptions 
introduced at Rome, after the conquest 
of Greeee, brought the natives of that 
/ country into great odium with the 
sterner Romans. In the indiscriminate 
antipalhy towards allthat was Grecian, 
philosopiiv and letters were often in- 
volved.e.Juv.vi, 16, 291 ff; iii, 60, ff; 



XV, llOff. iCG. [s. J5r,onH. E.i,15, 

38. K.] 

38. ' Thus 'tis! since thisemasculate 
wisdom of ourscameto Romewith dates 
and spices, our very haymakers have be- 
come luxurious, and iearnt to vitiate 
their homely pottage with gross un- 
guents.' GIF. s. Lact. iii, 16. PRA. 

Sapere nostrum for sapientia nostra. 
LUB. i, 9, note. PRA. sapere is an 
ambiguous word. KG. 

39. See Juv. iii, 83. PRA. 
Palmis; Plin. xiii, 4. LUB. 
Maris expers ' void of manliness.' s. 

i, 103. In Horace the phrase has a 
different meaning; ' manufaetured at 
home;' S. ii, 8, 15; CS. 4. MAD. 

40. See Juv. xi, 79 f. PRA. 
Crdsso unguine : s. Hor. A. P. 375. 

KG. 

Pultes: Ath. xiv, 15 f; (C-S.) PRA. 
Juv. xi, 58, note. 

41. Bestius is dismissed without eere- 
mony : the poet deigns not to notice his 
impertinent interruption, but, after 
hastily concluding the speech which 
had been broken off, drops the subject 
aud turns to a new speaker. GIF. 

Ciiiere uUerior ' beyond the grave.' 
MAD. 

At fu, Sfc. s. Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 190 ff. 
KG. 

42. Seductior: s. v, 96; PRA. ii, 4. 
KG. 

43. ' By Caligula,' LUB. This was 
when Persius was about seven years 
old ; it might have made an impression 
upon his meinory, because such exhibi- 
tions were then rare. GIF. 

Laurus for laiireata epistola. L UB. 
Plin. XV, 30; Liv. v. Amm. xv ; Mart. 
vii, 4f; 7; ^X, i,27; PRA.KT,^. 
223 ; DEN. Ov. Am. i, 11, 25; Juv. iv, 
149, note; GIF. and vi, 205, note. 

44. Drusus ac Nero et Gcrmanicus 
in suis eos (i. e. Germaiios) scdihus 



M 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI, 



45 rrigidus (.'xcutitiir (.'inis : ac jam ])c)stibus ariDa, 
Jani clilauiydcs rcgum, jaui lutca gausapa captis 
Essedaque ingentcsque locat Caesonia Rhenos. 
Dis igitur Genioque ducis centum paria ob rcs 
Egregie gcstas induco. (^uis velat .'' audc ! 

50 Vae ! nisi connives ! oleuui artocreasque popello 



/ 



pcrculcruut. pasf ingentes C. Ccesarls 
minee in ludibrium vcrsce. inde otium, 
donec occasione discordice nostrai et ci- 
vilium arnioru7n, expugnatis legionum 
/tifjcrnis, etiam Gatlias affec.tavere, ac 
rirrsus putsi inde, proximis temporibus 
triumpliatimagisquam victi snnt ; Tac. 
G. 37. KG. Tbis mock expeditioii vvas 
altogetlier amost conteniptible afiair : s. 
Suet.iv,43.. .49. PR/1. andthetriumpb, 
or ratber ovation, was also a -very poor 
thing, notvrithstanding all the parade 
which this deplorable maniac made 
about it. GIF. 

45. Frigidifs is a sarcastic allusion to 
the rarity of tbese rejoicings. LUB. 

Muttaque preeterea sacris inpostihus 
arma, captivi pendent currus curvceque 
secures et cristcB capitum et portarum 
ingentia clausfra spiculaque cft/peique 
ereptaque rostra carinis; Virg. JE. vii, 
18.3 ff; sigria 7iostro rcstifuit Jovi dcrepta 
Part/ioru7u superbis postibus ; Hor. Od. 
iv, 15, 6 ff; PRA. s. Claud. xxiv, 67 
ff; Prop.iii, 7, 26; (BKH.) BU, Anth. 
L. t. i, p. 206 f. KG. 

46. See AX. v, 18; Virg. M. viii, 
688; MAD. Hor. Od. ii, 12, 12 ff; 
Prop. ii, 1, 33 ft'. KG. 

Gausapa: s. Mart. xiv, 27; 145; 
138; 152. PRA. Here it is to be 
taken in the same sense as in iv, 37; for 
' false bair.'s. Juv. xiii, 164 ff; vi, 120. 
They bad also the art of turning the 
hair ' red :' s. Plin. H. N. xxviii, 12 ; 
Mart. viii, 33, 20; xiv, 26; KG. Ov. 
Am. i, 14, 45 f ; A. A. iii, 163 fl'. 

47. Esseda; Virg.G.iii,204; {HY.) 
Caes. B. G. 4 f; PRA. Prop. ii, 1, 85. 
{BU.) KG. 

Locaf ' engages with contractors to 
supply tbese materials of the triumph ;' 
CS. as, in fact, there were no captives 
and no spoils. KG. 

Ceesonia ; Juv. vi, 616, note ; Joseph. 
A. J. xix. PRA. lu thus labouringto 
swell her ccnsort's triurnph, the empress 
was taking the surest means to secure 
his attacbment .and to rule in his name. 
GIF. 



'Psiva/' iVnoy rrapDiaovn tm 'Pwi/a/ t» 
^oTaf/iM xai «t' ciVTov xuXov/^ivoi' Stepb. 
conversus /ti7icadciiram triunip/ii,prce- 
ter captivos et tra^isfugas barba7'0s, 
Galtoru7/i quoque p/werisxi/UHm quem- 
que et, rtt ipse dicebat, a.^i<i^^idfifiivTov, ac 
7io7inuftos ea'pri7icipibus iegitacseposuH 
adpompa/n coegifque no/i ta/ifu/n rntilare 
i;t sitbntiffere coma/n sed et ser77t07iem 
Ge7-7/ianicu7n addiscere et no/ni/ta bar- 
baricaferre: Suet. iv, 47; CS. Dio lix, 
p. 659, E. Domitian was guilty of a like 
foUy : i/ierat conscienfia, derisui fuisse 
7tvper fatsu/ti e Ger//iania triu//tplm//i, 
e//itis per co7/i7ne7'cia, quoru/n /labittts 
et cri/ies in captivorm/i specie//i for/na- 
re/itur ; Tac. Ag. 39. KG. 

48. Ge/iio ducis ; s. ii, 3, note : citius 
pero7/i/tes deos , quam per tt/t.U7/t Geniu//i 
Ccesaris pejeratur; Tert. s. Suet. iv, 
27; PRA. Ov. F.v, 145 ff; Plin. Pan. 
52. (SZ.) KG. 

Ni sic fecissenf, gladiatoru//i dare 
ce/ifrt/ti da/n/iati populo paria atque 
epulu//i; Hor. S. ii, 3, 85 f; PRA. s. 
Suet. V, 34; 28; Juv. iii, 36, note ; 
Mart. iii, 16. KG. Such an exhibition 
was hardly witbin the means of any 
private person ; therefore tbis must be 
looked upon as a threat to his beir, that 
be would do just as be pleased with his 
^state. MAD. 

49. " Who blames, who ventures to 
control me ? You ? Woe to your future 
prospects, if you do !" GK. 

50. He tbreatens to ' give a largess to 
the people.' These gratuities were sel- 
dom given except bj' tbe emperors, or in 
honour of tbem. co/tg iaritt/ti populo 
7iu/noru/n trecenoru/n fcr dedit, atque 
i/iter specfacufa //iti/ieris largissimutn. 
epuhi/n : sepfi/nonfiali sac/'o quide/ti 
se/tatui equitiqite panariis, plebei spor- 
tulis cutii opsonio distributis, i/iiiiu7/i 
vescendi pri//i7ts fecit ; dieque proximo 
otttne getiits rerutti /nissifia sparsit : ^-c; 
Suet. xii, 4 ; adjecit epufu/n ac viscera- 
tio7ie7/i et post Hispa/iie/ise//i victoria/n 
duo pra/tdia; i, 38; PRA. s. AD. 
prodigi cpiifis ef viscerationibus, ludo- 



11 



SAT. VI. 



OF PEKSIUS. 



88 



Largior. An proliibcs ? dic clare ! " Non adco," in(iiii.s. 
Exossatus ager juxta ost. Age, si milii nnlla 
Jam reliqiia cx aniitis, patruelis nulla, pronejjtis 
Nulla manct patrui, stcrilis niatertera vixit, 

55 Deque avia nihilum superest, accedo Bovillas 

Clivumque ad Virbi ; priesto est mihi Manius heres. 
" Progenies terne r" Qutre ex me, quis mihi quartus 
Sit pater; haud promtc, dicam tamen. Addc etiam unum, 
Unum eliam : Terraj est jam fihus et mihi ritu 

60 Manius hic generis prope major avunculus exit. 

Qui prior es, cur me in decursu lampada poscis ? 



rnjii venafiiinnqiie apparatn peoinias 
profiindunt ; Cic. Olf. ii, 16 ; PLU. s. 
CiV, p. 92 ff; V, 177, note. 

'OiJ;' Suet. i, 38; vi, 12; Tac. A. 
xiv, 47. KG. 

' Meat-pies.' Mart. viii, 79. KG. 

51. ' What are you muttering about ? 
speak out !' LUB. 

' Not exactly so.' The avaricious 
heir is afraid to give a straight-ibruard 
answer. PersiusisofFendedat this. WB. 

62. ' Suppose my estate so reduced, 
that I have but a single field in the out- 
skirts of the city, and that field worn 
. out by constaut croppiiig ; I shall have 
//. little difficulty, I apprehend, in finding 
some one to do me the favcur of stand- 
ing rny heir, eveii should you decline 
to honour me.' C'S, 

Ejeossatiis literally ' deprived of 
bones:' Plaut. Amph. i, 1, 163; PEA. 
Ter. Ad. iii, 4, 14 ; MAD. s. Juv. viii, 
,' 90. CS. 

I Jiixtn: being ' ncar town,' it would 
Lie the last field parted with. CS. 

53. See HEI, A. R. iii, 2, 5 f. KG. 

55. BovillcB (i. e. bovis villa, Sch.) 

/was a poor village about eieveu niiles 
frome Kome, in the AppiaiTroa^, near 
// Aricia. PRA. LUB. Prop. iv, J, .^3; 
JBKH.) KG. Mart. ii, 6, 15. 

56. ' The hill of Vir/jiiis' was four 
[or fourteen, CV, I. A. iii, 4, 930; 
Liv. i, 48, g;] miles from the city, on 
the same road, near the grove of Diana, 

/, ■»vhere Hippolytus was worshipped as a 
hero under the name of Virhius. s. Virg, 
yE. vii, 761 .. . 7S2 ; {HY, exc.) Scli. Ov. 
F. iii, 6; M. xv, 543. This road was 
notorious for thc swarins of beggars 
that infested it : Juv. iv, 1 1 7,note. VRA. 
The original Mnnijis is said to have 



consecrated theprovetoDiana; Festus. 
His descendants were very numerous 
and very poor. 2'. PRA. 

57. See Juv. iv, 98, note; PBA. 
Petr. 43. KG. 

' Inquire into my pedigree, aud you 
will tind that tliis Maiiius is no very 
distant relation of mine.' PRA. 

59. Terr(e filiiis. Enipedocles and 
some other philosophers held thal all 
meu originally spruug from earth : from 
this notion perhaps arose the nominal 
definition,/iow<> — quiex liumo. s. Cic. 
Att. dictiis Saturnus Terrce Cceliqnc 

Ji/ius, qnia ignoti vel ex inopinato ap- 
jiarentes de cwlo supervenire dicuntur, 
sicut Terree Jilios vulgus vocat,f/uorum 
geiius incertum est : gigantesque hac 
ratione Terrce filii appellantur ; Tert. 
Apol. ROD, XX, 28. PRA. 

60. ' If one of my grandsires is a 
son of earth and Manius has the same 
ixiother, he must be a distant uncle of 
mine.' s. Juv. viii, 272 ff, notes. KG. 

61. Qui prior es. From this it ap- 
pears that Persius's heir was more ad- 
vanced in life than the poet himself ; he 
therefore did wrong in asking for ' the 
torch' at all, as well as in asking for it 
bcfore Persius had completed his course. 
PRA. ' You are in fuil health, and have 
every prospect of outstripping me in the 
career of life; do iiot then prcmaturely 
take from me the chance of extending 
my days a little : do not call for my 
torch before I have giveri up the race,' 
nor snatch (in the beautiful language 
of Shakspeare) " at half an hour of 
niy frail life;" [2d pt of K. H. 4th, iv, 
4.] Our author's pathetic cxpostulation 
conveys the conviction of his own mind, 
that the fatal tiTinination of the confcst 



S4 



TIIE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Snm tibi Mercarius : venio clens huc cgo, ut ille 
Pingitur. An rcnuis ? vin tu gaiidcre relictis? 
" Dest aliquicl summse." Minui milii: sed tibi totum est, 
65 Quidquid id est. Ubi sit, fuge quserere, quod milii 
quondam 
Legarat Stadius ; neu dicta repoue paterna, — 
' Feneris accedat merces ; hinc exime sumtns !' 



was inevitable and not very remotc. 
GIF. 

Lnnipnda. This is an allusion to the 
toreh-races at Athens. Sch. Plat. Leg. 
vi ; KG. To Tjjj ajST^; (piyyos y-ai^fa- 
'Sivi/iivov WaXXriXoi; iia^o^^aJs iffox^tiiov 
yttr.riTai Kovi^cf Philo ; CS. Varr. E. 
E.. iii, 16, 9; m palcestra qui tcedas 
ardentes accipit, celerior est in cursu 
continuo, (piam ille qui tradit : . . .pro- 
pterea quod defatigaius cursor dat in- 
tegro facem; Cor. Heren. 4; Lucr. ii, 
77 f. According (o Suidas, there were 
three festivals of this kind, the Pana- 
// thensean, the HephEcstian, and the 
■/ Promethean. In the latter they lan 
from the aUar of Prometheus in the 
Academe to the city, AX, v, 8 ; PllA. 
through the Ceramicus. The candidate 
who ran the course without extinguish- 
ing the to ch, which he carried in his 
hand, claimed the victory. MIT. Ac- 
cording to Pausanias, i, 30; the com- 
petitors were limited to three. s. Her. 
vi, 105; and viii, 98, notes. " Sur le 
soir, Je me laissai entrainer d PAca- 
demie, pour voir la course dtt flamheau. 
La carritre n^a que six d sept stades de 
longueur. Elle s'ctend depuis Pautel de 
Promethce, qui est d la porte de ce 
jardin, jusq-aux niurs de la ville. 
' Plusieursjeunes gens sont places, dans 
cet intervalle, d des distances egales. 
Quand les cris de la multitude ont 
donne le signal, le premier allume le 
flamheau sur Vautel, et le porte en 
courant au second, qui le transmet, de 
la meme maniere, au troisihne, et ainsi 
successivement. Ceux qui le laissent 
s'eteindre, ne peuvent plus concourir. 
Ceux qui ralentissent leur 7narche, sont 
livres anx railleries et meme au coups 
de la populace. Ilfaut, pour remporter 
le prix, avoir parcouru les differentes 
stations. Cette espece de comhat se 
renouvela plusieursfois. II se diversifie 
suivant la nature dcs fetes;"' Barthe- 
lemy, V^ du J. A. c. xxiv. The wags 



in the Ceramicus were very liberal of 
tbeir practical jokes towards any poor , 
wight who engaged in the race without ,/■'• 
diie quahlications both of wind and 
limb : i-xatpavi.tiTtv Tlava^fivaioiiTi yiXuv, 
0T£ S»j /S^aSy; (fioa^^vs?} av^/oiavo'; ti; 'ihi 
xv^a;, Xivxo; , iricav, WoXiiVjf^ivo;, xai 
isiva ■roiav xaf oi Ki^afin; \v ralffi ■^vXcui 
'galova auTOU yaati^a, "TrXiv^a;, Xayova; , 
vrvyAv' Se TVTTo/atvos Taiai vXaTiiai;, 
^vffaiv Tnv Xaf/.taS , 'i^pivyiv' Arist. K. 
1087 £F; s. 1085; 129... 133; V. 1203; 
Plat. Rep. i, p. 4 ; [(nn ) Y, 843.] 

62. ' Mercury' (ii, 44, note,) was 
' painted' with a full pur=e in his hand. 
LJJB. Suid. Macr. PRA. ' Do not 
look upon ray estate as necessarily de- 
volving upon you, but rather regard 
me as the god of gam, holding out to 
you unlooked for aad fortuitous ad- 
vantages :' alluding still to his de- 
clining health, which afforded an un- 
expected chance to the heir; who was 
evidently his senior. G TF. 

63. An magis excors rejecta prceda, 
quam prcesens Mercurius fert; Hor. S. 
ii, 3, 67 f. PRA. 

' To accept with thankfulness what- 
ever I may leave, be it more or less.' 
PRA. [ayara-i.] 

64. ' Whatever I subtraet is taken 
from my estate, not from yours: the 
property which I leave, willbe you rs; 
of this you will have the w h o I e.' PRA. 

65. ' You have no right to call me to 
account for the itemsof my expenditure, 
and to euquire what became of this and 
that legacy.' LUB. 

Fuge (jucEi-ere; Hor. Od. i, 9, 13. 

66. ' Repeat.' PRA. [Juv. i, 1.] 
Paterna; s. Juv. xiv, 119 fif. PRA. 

' Which fathers are wont to inculcate.' 
CS. 

67. " Live on the interest of your 
fortune." GIF. Sch. s. Hor. S. i, 2, 
14; iii, 88. KG. 

Hinc; i. e. 'and not on the nrincipal,' 
Sch. 



».\V. VI. 



OF PERSIUS. 



85 



" (iuid i\'li(iuuin est r" Uc'li{|uuin ? nuiu-, uuuc ini- 

])cnsius uuf^e, 
Ungc, ))ucr, caulcs. Mihi festa lucc coqualur 

70 l^rtica ct fissa fuinosuin siuciput aurc, 

l'i tuus istc nc])os olini satur anscris cxtis, 
Quum inorosa vago siugultict iuguine vcna, 
Patricia) imraejat vulvir! .? Mihi trama figura; 
Sit reliqua, ast illi trcmat omcnto po])a venter ? 

75 Venilc aniinam lucro : mercarc alquc cxcute solers 
Omnc lalus muncli : ne sit praostantior altcr 
Cappadocas rigida pingucs plausisse catasta : 



6S. Niiiic Sf-c. Hor. S, ii, 3, 125.; 
PRA. ii, 61. KG. 

69. ' Am I tostint myself of comforts, 
that your scapegrace of a son may revel 
in luxuries ?' CS. 

See Juv. xiv, 136 ; Hor. Ep. i, 5, 12 
ff. PRA. 

70. Urtica: s. Plin. xvi, 24; Cat. 
xliv, 15. PRA. 

' A pig's cheek or chopper.' Ath. ix, 
8; Plin. PRA. Juv. xiii, 85; MAD. 
id. xi, 82 f, note. KG. 

71. Nepo.i, an equivoque. LUB. 
Anseris; Juv. v, 114, note ; PRA. 

Petr. 137. (//S.) KG. 

72. ' That, whcn his vvay ward humour 
(Hor. S. i, 2, 33;) is cloyed with the 
roviiig (Prop. i, 5, 7 ;) wanton, he may 
corrupt some patrician dauie,' by means 
of my gold. CS. KG. 

73. Pusidoniiis diim viilt describere, 
primiim qncinadmodum atia torijueantur 
Jila, alia ex molli soliitoque ducantur, 
deinde quemadmodum tela snspensis 
ponderibus rectum stamen exlcndat, 
({uemadmodnui suhtemen (i. e. xgoxu) in- 
sertum, quod duritiam utrim<iue com- 
priinentis tramae remolliat, spatlia 
coire cocjatur et jungi: textricum quo- 
qtte artem a sapientibus di.vit invcnfniii ; 
Sen. Ep. 90 ; T(i(iiii>ti ixXiiTotrts t>'i^i»riei 
x^oKar Eur. Aut. fr. iii, 12. The 
' warp' (stamen) was well twisted, the 
' woof' (subfemen) was left loose, to 
enable the fuller to give the cloth the 
requisite softness. CS. In the contest 
between Minerva and Arachne, gracili 
geminas intendunt sfamine telas. tela 
Jugo vincta est : stameii secernit arundo : 
inseritur mediiiin radiis subtemen acii- 
tis; qiiod digiti expediunt, atque inter 
sfamina ductum percusso/eriunf insecfi 



pcctine dentes ; Ov. M. vi, 54 flf; s. Lncr. 
V, 1352. ED. While the cloth is fresh 
and has the nap on, the threads do not 
appear, but when it loses the nap, it 
becomes what we call thread-bare. 
MAD. s. Serv. on M. iii, 483. KG. 
Metaphore hardie, et toutefois par- 
faitement exacfe. La trame est la 
fil que la navetfe entrelace d diverses 
rcprises dans la cliaine ; c'est lapremier 
tissti de la toile. Lorsque la toile est 
nsee, la traine paroit. RAO. It here 
means a person whose bones may be 
seen through his skin. DEN. 

74. " That he may strut with more 
tlian priestly pride, And swag his portly 
paunch from side to side.'' GIF. 

Popa, which is here an epithet of 
venfer, is properly a substantive, sig- 
nifying ' the minister who slew the 
victims.' These priests generally grevv 
fat from the ample share of the sacri- 
fices which fell to their lot. LUB. 
MAD. 

75. ' Pawn thy very soul for lucre.' 
DEN. Persius now tums again to the 
miser. MAD. s. Juv. viii, 192. KG. 

Mercare; s. v, 134 flf; PRA. Juv. 
xiv, 275 tf. KG. 

76. Latus tnundi ; Hor. Od. i, 22, 19. 

77. Mancijjiis locuples eget ceris 
Cappadocum rex; Hor. Ep. i, 6,39; 
Cappndocem modo ahreptum de grege 
venalium diceres ; Cic. post Red. AX, 
ii, 27; PRA. Luc. Asin, t. ii, p. 604 ; 
Mart. vi, 77, 4 ; Petr. 29 ; 63 ; Juv. vii, 
15, note ; KG. and i, 104, note. 

Plausisse. The slave-merchants used 
' to slap with their open hamls' the 
slaves thej' ofFered for sale, to show 
purchasers the good condition they were 
in. CS. T. 



86 



THK SATIRES OF PERSIUS. 



S!AT. VI. 



Rem duplica. " Feci: jam tiiplex,jam mihi quarto, 
Jam decies vedit in rugiun. Depunge, ubi sistam." 
80 Invcntus, Chrysippc, tui fiuitor acervi. 



The entasta was a kind of moveahle 
inachiue, in which the slaves wcre 
raiiged on differcnt platforms aecording 
to their age or stature. It appears to 
have been appropiiated to the more 
select and valuable ones: inspexit mvl- 
les pi/eros, uculisque comedit noii /los 
fjuos primce prostituere casce, sed f/uos 
arcance servant tahulata catastce, et 
(jiios non popu/i(s, nec mea tiirla videt ; 
Mart. ix, 60. This is said of Mamurra, 
(s. Juv. vii, 133, note,) who wonld 
never have condescended to look at 
common ware. From the epithets ri- 
gida and arcaiia, it maj' be surmised 
that the catasta was secured by some 
kind of screen or lattice-work ; especially 
as the slaves were stripped for inspec- 
tion. s. Juv. i, 111, note ; Prop. iv, 5, 
51 f; Plin. xxxv, 17 f; Claud. xviii, 
35 f; Suet. III. Gr. 13; CS. GIF. 
PRA. KG. U, on Livy xxviii, 21, g. 

78. Mille talenta rotundentur, totidem 
altera : porro tertia succedant, et (juce 
pars (juadret acervum; Hor. Ep. i, 6, 
34 f; CS. s. Od. iii, 24, 59 ff; Juv. 
xiv, 139 ff; 323 ff; Claud, iii, 183 ff; 
196 ft'. PRA. KG. 

79. This is a metaphor taken from 

/folds in a garment, which are numerous 
, in proportion to che quantity of the stuft". 
Hence the expressions duplicare, miif- 
tiplicare, §-c. LUB. MAD. Ov. A. A. 



iii, 454; KG. Juv. xiv. 229. 

Depiinije: tlie metaphor is taken 
from the graduated aim of the steel- / 
yard : s. v, 100; CS. or from a master ■ 
marking the place to which his pupil 
was to learn. GES. 

80. ' Shonld I assign this point, in 
me would be found the person who 
could also assign a limit to the heap of 
Chrysippus ; who could also alitirm with 
precision how many grains of corn just 
constitute a heap, so that but one 
grain being taken awaj-, the remainder 
would be no hea)).' rernm natura nvl- 
lam nobis dedit cognitionem finium, ut 
ulla in re statuere possim iis qiiate n u s : 
nec hoc in acervo tritici solum, unde 
nomen est, sed iiulla omnino in re vii- 
niitatim interroganti : dives, pauper? 
clari/s, obscurus sitf multa, pauca? 
magna, parva? longa, hrevia? lata, 
angusta ? (juanto aut addito aut demto 
certum (/iiod respondeamus, non hahe- 
mus; Cic. Ac. Q. ii, 28 f; 92; CS. 
Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 36. . .49 ; (GES.) PRA. 
Laert. ii, 108; (MEN.) s. Arist. Pl. 
134 ff. KG. 

C/iri/sij)/ius : V, 64 ; LUB. Laert.vii ; 
Cic. N. D. i. ¥RA. Of the seven 



hundred and fifty books which he wrote, , 
not one is extant. GIF. 

With the conclusion of t.his Satire, 
compare that of Juv. xiv. CS. 



y^s 



THE 

STXTEEN SATIRES 

OF 

DECIMUS JUNIUS JUVENALIS. 



The Satires of Juvenal are sometimes divided into five books: of which Book 1 
contains Satires i — v; Book II, Satirevi; Book III, Satires vii. . .ix ; Book 
IV, Satires x. . .xii ; and Book V, Satires xiii. . .xvi. 



« A Ti KE i, 



ARGU31ENT. 

This S.itire was probably composetl subsequently to most ut' the others, 
iind as a kiud of I nt roduct i on; it was, apparently, written at that 
period of life, when the dignity derived from years and the intrepidity of 
conscious rectitude entitled the Poet to assume a tone of authority. 

He breaks silence with an impassioned complaint of the clamorous impor- 
tunity of bad poets, and with the humorous resohition of paying them off 
in their own coin by turuing writer himself, 1 ff. After ridiculing the 
frivolous taste of liis contemporaries in the choice of such hackneyed 
suhjects, 7; 52; he intimates his owu determination to devote himself 
wholly to Satire; to which he declares, with all the warmth of virtuous 
indignation, that he is driven by the vices of the age, 19 ; 30; 52; 63; 79. 

He then exposes the profligacy of the women, 22; 69; the luxury of up- 
starts, 24 ; the baseness of informers, 32 ; and fortunc-hunters, 37 ; the 
treachery of guardians, 45; the peculation of public officers, 47; and the 
general corruption of manners, 55 ; 73. 

Kindling with his theme, he censures the general avidity for gaming, 87 ; 
the selfish gluttony of the patricians, 94; 135 ; their sordid avarice, 100; 
117 ; and the abject state of poverty and dependence in which they kept 
their clients and retainers, 132. .146. 

Finally, he makes some bitter reflections on the danger of satirizing liviug 
villainy, 150; and concludes with a pretended deterinination to elude its 
vengeance by attacking it under the names of the dead, 1 70. 

In this as in every other Satire, Juvenal's great aim is to expose and 
reprove vice, however sanctionod by custom or countenanced by the great. 
GJF. R. 



90 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Semper ego auditor tantuin ? nurnquamne reponam, 
Vexatus toties rauci Theseide Codri r 
Impune ergo mihi recitaverit ille togatas, 
Hic elegos ? impune diem consumserit ingens 
5 Telephus ? aut summi plena jam margine libri 



1. [Virg. G. iii, 1 ff; Lord Byron, 
English Bards and Scotch Kevievi ers.j 

The Bomans were in the habit of 
reciting their literary productions either 
in private circles^or in public assemblies. 
The latter were held sometimes in the 
temple of Apollo, sometimes in spacious 
mausions, either hired, or lent for the 
purpose by a wealthy patron, who ex- 
pected the attendance of his clients and 
dependents to swell the audience aud 
applaud the author. s. vii, 40; Pers. 
prol. 7; Hor. S. 1, 4, 73; MAD. S. i, 
3, 86; E. ii, 2, 67. A very picturesque 
passage of Pliny describe* the listless- 
ness which pervaded such meetings : 
le^ite cuncfanterq}ie veniinit, nec tanien 
permanent, sed ante Jinem recedunt ; 
alii dissimulanter etfurtim^alii sintpli- 
citer et libere ; E. i, 13; GIF. PRA. 
E. ii, 14. R. 

Reponere is a metaphor taken from 
repayment of a debt incurred : possum 
jam repetere recessuin, et scribere ali- 
qnid, quod noti recitem ; ne videar, 
quorum recitationibus adfui, non audi- 
ior fuisse, sed creditor : nam nt in 
ceteris rebus, ita in audiendi officio, 
perit gratia si reposcatur ; Plin. E. i. 
GRA. It is equiva!ent to par pari 
referre, [Cic. A. xvi, 7 ;] PRA. as iy-a 
est cupiditas doloris reponendi; Sen. de 
I. i, 3. HEI. [Pers. vi, 66.] 

2. Horace amusingly describes the 
pertinacity of these declaimers, A. P. 
474 £F. PRA. 

' The Theseid' was an epic poem, of 
which Theseus was the hero. In like 
manner we have the Odysseis oil^omnr, 
the jiEneis of Virgil, the Achilleis of 
Statius, Arc. 

Of this Codrus little is known; he 
is probably different from the Codrus 
mentioned iii, 203. G IF. He is ' hoarse' 
from constant recitation (FAR. s. vi, 
515; Mart. iv, 8, 2; x, 5, 4 R.) and 
pompous declamation. Pra/egaf uf tu- 
midus rauca te voce magisifr ; Alart. 
viii, 3, 15; s. Pers. i, 14. HEI. 

3. Impune. [Her. iii, 29, 47.] 
According to Lydus (de Mag. i, 40;) 



the lAZhi (or Fabuta) was divided into 
(1) l^aycJhia, and (II) KufiuVia: Tg«- 
ytaVia. wa-; subdivided iuto (i) K«»it<- 
'hu.ra,^, and (ii) Xl^aiTi^TaTct^, according 
as the stories weie (Jreik or Eoman : 
Kufiifiia into (i) Tla.X\ia,Tei^ (Greek, as 
in Terence after ]Mcnander),(ii) Teydra.^ 
(Roman, as in Afranius, Sch.), (iii) 
' AriXXdf» "^ (farce, acted by amateurs), 
vi, 71 ; (i^) Ta/3«j»aj/a " (low comedy), 
(v) 'Piv^aiyiKh'' (bu)lesque tragedy), (vi) 
nXawTsSafl/a ' (ihe actors wore the re- 
ciniuiii, see F.) viii, 191 ; and (vii) 
Miuixh (low farce, acted by miimmers). 
(^) From the actors wearing Xiuxai 
xpTrxT&at. ('') From the respective dresses, 
ptretedta, pallium, and toga. SCA. 
(*=) From Atella, a town of the Osci, 
in Campania. F. C) Because ' shop- 
keepers, &c.' were the classes repre- 
sented. C^) From R/iinfho, one of the 
authors. (0 From being acted not ou 
a raised stage. REU. Prtstextce and 
Togatce are sometimes used as the 
generic terms for ' Tragedy' and 
' Comedy;' Hor. A. P. 287; s. Virg. 
iE. i, 286. PRA. R. [viii, 228.] 

4. These poems consisted of hexa- 
meter and pentameter verses alternately , 
which metre is hence called ' elegiac' 
s. Hor. A. P. 75 ff; MAD. s. Pers. i, 
51. HNR. 

Consumserit. Livy xxvii, 13, 3. 

Auditur toto sape poeta die ; Mart. 
viii, 70, 10. PRA. Ingens, ' bulky, 
lengthy, pompous ;' s.Hor. A. P.96 f. R. 

5. Telephus, son of Hercules aud 
Auge, the bero of this tedious tragedy, 
was a king of Mysia, who was mortally 
wounded by the spear of Achilles, but 
afterwards healed by the rust of the 
same weapon. Ov. Tr. v, 2, 15. PRA. 
Vulnus et auxilium Pelias hasta tulit ; 
Ov. R A. 47 f. LUB. [" Well tem- 
per'd weapons, like Pelides' blade, 
Whose humour heal'd the wounds their 
sharpness made! ' G. Cox, Oxford in 
1834, pt. i, 15 f.] 

It was usual to leave ' a margiu,' and 
not to write ou the outside or ' back' of 
the parchment. LUB. s. Mart. viii, 62 ; 



SAT. 1. 



OF JUVENAL. 



Ul 



Scriptus et in lergo, nec duni finitus Orestes ? 

Nota niagis nulli donius est sua, quam mihi lucus 
Marlis et .Koliis vicinum rupibus antruni 
Vulcani. Qnu\ agant venti, quas torqueat umbras 
10 .Eacu.s, unde alius iurtiva; devehat aurum 
Pelliculaj, quantas jaculelur Monychus onios, 
Frontonis phitani convulscique marmora clainanl 
Semper et assiduo rupta; lectore column;c. 



PRA. Sidon. Ap. viii, IG; GRA. 
riiargo, in OviJ, is masculine. Sch. 
Liber primarily mean.s ' the inner bark 
of a tree ;' hence it wa.s secondarily 
applied to ' a book made of that rind,' 
and afterwards to ' any book,' whatever 
the materials of it might be. MAD. 
Foliinn experienccd a corresp^nding 
succe.«sioDofsignifications. F. [Ezckiel 
ii, 10; (nn, Bp Mant.)] 

6. Sceuis agit-afus Ore.s/e*, Virg. /E. 
iv, 4/1 ; son of Agamemnon and Clj-- 
tffmnes-tra, figures eonspicuously in 
many an extant tragedy ; the Choi'- 
phoroe and Eumenides of yEschyius, 
the Electra of Sophocles, the Orestcs, 
the Iphigenia in Tauris, and the Elec- 
tra of Euripides. I'RA. s. Hor. /. . P. 
124; S. ii, 3, 132 flf. 

7. Hall has imitated this passage; 
*' No man his threshold better knovrs, 
than I Brute's first arrival and his vic- 
*ory, St. George"s sorrel and his cross 
of blood, Arthur's round board, or Ca'e- 
donianwood; But so to fill up books, 
both back and side^What boots it, drc." 
GIF. Ti-neo melius istn f/intm nirxiii 
nomen ; Mirt. iv, 2/, 7 ; (a.TTiii rov^.oiji.a. 
iKxrrti avTUf ( tuv miiw ) i-rsXdhiTa 
Tou TaT^ii r, Td,; 'O^irTou Kai TluXdiou 
ir^a^ii; aytonom Luc. Tox. 6. Ji. 

' The grove of Mars' might be that 
[at AlbaJ in whieh Ilia gave birth to 
Komulus and Remus, the twin sons of 
Mars: Sch. or any one of the numerous 
groves of this deity ; EG. as /ucus 
Diance is used, Hor. A. P. 16; s. 
Per8. i, 70. PRA. 

8. ' The iEolian rocks,'or Vulean'an 
i.«lands, were seven in number, and are 
now called the Lipari isles. GRA. s. 
Virg. M. i, 66 ff ; MAD. Luc. v, 609. 
R. 

9. ' The cave of Vulcan' and the 
Cyclops, in Mount .^tna ; s. xiii, 45 ; 
Virg. JV.. viii, 416 ff. GRA. 



Tedious descriptions of the natural 
agency of ' the Winds' may be alluded 
to ; or fables of the loves of Boreas and 
Orithyia, Ov. M. vi, 238; MAD. R. of 
Zephyrus and Chloris, &c. [" Zephyr 
with Aurora playing, &c." Milton L'A. 
19 ff; s. also Lucr. i, 272... 298.] 

10. The ghosts were tortured into 
confession : Virg. JE. vi, 566 ff. MAD. 
Some divide the duties of the three 
judges of hell, making the office of 
Rhadamanthus inquisitorial, that of 
Minos judicial, and that of .^acus 
executive. PRA. Others supposed that 
^acu*, as an European, was the judge 
of Europfan shades ; but that Minos 
and Rhadamanthus, who were natives 
of Asia, judged the Asiatics. Plato in 
the end of Gorg. and Min. R. 

Jason eloped from Colchis with 
Medea, and carried off ' the golden 
fleece' unknown to ^etes. GRA. 
Argonauties were coraposed by 
Orpheus and Apollonius among the 
Greeks, and Valerius Flaccus among 
the Latins. PRA. Our author, who 
hated the Flavian family, niight be 
prcjudiced against Flaccus, vvho paid 
liiern couit. GIF. 

11. Monychus, (ftovos ' single' ttu^ 
'hoof f /M.)theCent;iur, distingui-;hed 
himself in combat with the Lapithjp ; s. 
Ov. Met. xii, 499 ff; V. Flac. i, 145 
ff. GV. Aspera ie Pholoesffangentem, 
Monyche^ saxa; teque suh QStceo tor- 
quentem vertice vu/sas, Rhcece ferox, 
guas vix Boreas inverteret, ornos; 
Luc. vi, 388 ff. R. 

12. ju/iiis Fronto, a munificent 
patron of literature, LUB. was thrice 
consul, and a colleague of Trajan. 
His mansion and grouiids were throvvn 
open to the public. PRA. GIF. We 
find the liouse of Macu/onus, vii, 40; 
and that of Stc//a, Mart. iv, 6, .0 ; lent 
for sirnilar rehearsals. Tlie nnine of 



92 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Exspectes eackni a sumiiio niinimoque poetal 
15 Et nos ergo manum ferulic subduxinuis, et nos 
Consiliura dcdimus Sullae, privatus ut altum 
Dormiret. Stnlla est clemenlia, qunm tot ubique 
Vatibu« occurras, peritura) parcere chartre. 
Cur tamen hoc potius libeat decurrere campo, 
20 Per queni magnus eq';os Anmnca^ flexit alumnus, 
Si vacat et placidi rationem admittllis, edam. 
Quum tener uxorem ducat spado, Maivia Tuscum 
Figat aprum et nuda teneat venabula mamma ; 



Fronto was ccmmon to manj- Romans. 
R. 

' Plane-trees,' on aceount of their 
luxuriant shade, were frreat favourites 
with the ancients. s. Plat. Phrcdr. p. 
388, A ; Cic. de Or. i, 7, 28 ; Prop. ii, 
32, 1 1 flf. HNR. R. 

The ' marbles' were either W-v-e with 
which the walls were built, or inlaid ; 
Btil.oT the marble pavements, cohimns, 
and statues of Fronto's villa. MAD. 
[s. vii, 79. OTr.] Convulsa, c/an/anf, 
and rupt(B must be taken hyperbolically, 
as cantii (jiieruJcE rumpent arhusta 
cicadce; Virg. G. iii, 328. GV. 

14. Scribimus ini/orti doctique poe- 
mata passim ; Hor. E. ii, 1, 117- BRI. 
Martial appears to have entertained an 
equally mean opinion of the-je haekneyed 
subjects : iv, 49 ; x, 4. GIF. [This line 
is consideied spurious by DB.] 

la. [' I too have fiinched under the 
ferule ;' et nos ergo in potestate 7nagistri 
fuimus, Epist. Sod. Socrat. p. 24. DB.] 
Juvenal m.cans thnt he had known 
what it was to be a school-boy. Ferula 
tristes, sceptra peedagogorum,'lsla.rt. x, 
62, 10 ; were used as ' the cane' to 
punish scholars by striking them ncross 
the palm. PRA. It was natural for 
boys to withdraw their hand when the 
hlow was coming. MAD. [Ov. Am. i, 
13, 17 f; A. A.^^i, 15 f.] 

Ergo, ' with that objtct in view.' R. 

16. Boys were taught Rhetoric by 
having a thesis proposed cm which they 
were to take the opposite sides of the 
question. s. vii, 1,50 fi'; Senec. Suas. 
iii ; V ; vi ; vii ; Ciceroni dahimus consi- 
lium, ?it Antoniiim roget, vel Philip- 
picas crurnt ; Quint. iii. 8, 46. R. The 
subject which Juvenal liad to handle 
was of the delibprative kind, advi^ing 



L. Cornelius Sulia to retire from public 
life. Sulla did resign the perpetual 
dictatorship ; and died the following 
year. For his character, see Sall. B. J. 
and Val. Maxim. ix, 2. L UB. PRA. 
Prince Henry thus apostrophises his 
father's crown : " Golden care ! That 
keep"st theportsofslumberopenwideTo 
many a watchful night ! — Sleep with 
it now ! Yet no so sound, and half so 
deeply sweet, As he, whose brow, 
with homely biggin hound, Snores out 
the v^atch of nieht;" K. H. 4th, pt. ii. 
A. iv, sc. 4. [vii, 161... 164; r., 167.'] 

19. The metaphor is taken from the 
chariot races in the Campus Martius, 
MAD. or in the Circensian games. s. 
Ov. Fast. ii, 360; iv, 10; vi, 586, <lfee. 
R. 

20. ' Lucilius,' a native of Suessa, 
(which was afterwards called .S. Au- 
runca, from the Aurunci migrating 
thither when pressed by a war witb the 
Sidicini,) was the first regular satirist. 
SCA. LUB. GIF. He wrote thirty 
books. R. 

22. Roman ladies ' married eunuchs' 
to avoid having a family. vi, 368. BRI. 

Spectacula ntagn ijioa assiiiue etsump- 
tuosa edidit (Domifianus);.. .venationes 
gladiatoresque ;. . .ncc virorum modo 
pugnas, sed et feminarum; Suet. xii, 
4 ; s. vi, 246 ff ; INIart. Spect. ep. vi ; 
Tae. An. xv, 33 : Stat. Sylv. i, 6, 53. 
Severus put a stop to this disgraceful 
practice: Xiphil. Sev. Ixxv, 16. BRI. 
L. Micvia denotes ro individual in 
particular. 7?. ' The Tuscan boars' 
were said to be peculiarly fierce. GV. 
The epithet, however, may be orna- 
mental, as Marsus aj/er; Hor. Od. i, 
1, 28. R. 

23. Surh was thc rostumc both of 



8AT. 



ov jijvi-:nal. 



U3 



l*atricios onincs opibus qiunn provocct unns, 
25 Quo tondcnle gravis juveni niilii barba sonabat; 
Quuni pars Niliacae plcbis, quum vcrua Canopi 
Crispinus, Tyrias huincro rcvocante laceruas, 
Vcntilet lestivum digitis sudanlibus aurum, 



the Amazons and of huntresses; as of 
Penthesilea, Virp. JE. i, 492; of Camilla, 
ib. xi, 649; of Asbyte, Sil. ii, 7i<; aiid 
of Diana; ib. xii, 715. R. 

24. The person here meant is either 
Licinos the freedman and barber of Au- 
gustu.s; (Hor. A. P. 301;) or rather 
Cinnamus, (x, 225 ;) tji/i toiisor fucrat 
tota notissimus i/rbe, etpost licec domince 
muiiere factus eqi/es; Mart. vii, 64. 
G V. PRA. 

25. This line recurs x, 226. GV. It 
is a parodj on catidi/lior posfqi/ani ton- 
denti barba cadehat ; Virg. E. i, 29. 
PRA. The term jiivenis extended to 
the raiddle period of life, which the 
words^rar/«andso;/ai(7^seem todenote. 
The satirist is pointing out the rapid 
rise of his quondam tonsor. GIF. 

26. The condition of verna was lower 
than that oi servus, as being born to 
servitude. Thelatter name is derived 
firom servare, because generals used to 
gi ve qu arter to their enemies, and ' save' 
prisoners in ord^-r to sell them : Florent. 
Dig. i, 5, 4. The former name was 
originaliy given to those born during 
ver sacri/tn; Nonn. i, 206: it having 
been a custom among the people of 
Italy in great emergencies to devote to 
the gods whatever should be born during 
the next spring. Paul. ex Fest; F. 
Livy xxii, 10; 9, 11. Such victims 
resembled the C/ierem of the Hebrews. 
s. Judges xi. 

Canopus [twelve miles] from Alex- 
andria, was notorious for a temple of 
Serapis, and the scene of every grossness 
and debauchery. FAR. vi, 84; R. xv, 
46. PRA. This city was bui't by 
ftl enelaus and named after his pilot. Sch. 

27. Crispinus rose, under Nero, from 
the condition of a slave, to riclies and 
honours. His connexion with that 
raonster recommended him to Domitian, 
with whom he seems to have been in 
high favour : he shared his connsels, 
ministered to his amuscments, and was 
the ready instrument of his cruelties. 
For these, and other cause«, Juvenal 
regarded him with perfect dctest:itinn : 



and wheneverheintroduces him,(which 
he does on all occasions,) it is with 
mingled contempt and iiorror. Here he 
is not only a ' Niliacan,' (an expression 
whicii conveyed more to Juvenal's mind 
than it does to ours,) but a ' Canopian,' 
a native of tbe most profligate «pot in 
Egypt : not ouly one of the dregs of the 
people, but a slave; and not only a 
slave, but a slave born of a slave ! 
Hence the poefs indignation at his 
effeminate luxury. GIF. 

The ' Tyrian' purple was a very ex- 
pensive dye: x, 3S; G. iii, 81 : the most 
costly dresses were twice dipt ; induerat 
Tyrio his tinctatn tnurice pallam ; Ov. 
F. ii, 107. Lacerna, 62 ; ix, 28 ; 
signifies a ' loose upper mantle,' also 
called aholla ; G V. ncscit ciii dederit 
Tyriam Crispinus ahollam, dum mutat 
cn//us, S,-c; Martial viii, 48 GIF. 

Revocante has been variously inter- 
preted. It may mean that the cloak was 
looped up and fastened on the shoulder 
by a clasp : G. fihu/a mor//aci refugas 
a pectore vestes dente capit; Sidon. 
ii, 396; revocat fu/vtis in pectore 
pe//es; Claudian. v, 79 ; xx, 183 ; Pru- 
dent. Psych. 186 ff. jR. Or that, the 
weather being liot, the mantle was not 
fastened ; therefore the shoulder ever 
and anon endeavoured by shrugging to 
hoist up and replace the robe ; which 
was as constantiy slipping off from 
it, and the more so from the waving 
of the arm to and fro, 28; MAD. 
as well as from the awkwardness of a 
wearer but ncwly accustomed to such 
finery. R. The most simple interpre- 
tation, liowever, seems to be that the 
delicate slioulder, which in winter had 
laid aside its summer mantle for a 
warmer cloak, now, with the change of 
weather, ' resumed' its thinner robes: 
revocare being opposed to omittere; 
Suet. X, 16; JIEI. to intermittere ; 
Cic. T. Q. i, 1 ; to amittere; Id. E. vii, 
26 cnd ; and signifying in vsutn rc/lu- 
cerr: s. ii, 30 ; Hor. Od. iv, 15, 12; 
Suet. v, 22 ; Tac. An. i, 20. F. 

28. The Romans were sn effeniinatp 



94 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Nec suflerre queat niajoris ])onclera geninut : 
30 Difficilu esl Satiraiu non sciibere. Nam quis iniquac 
Tam patiens Urbis, tam ferreus, ut teneat se, 
Causidici nova quum veniat lectica Mathonis 
Plena ipso ? post hunc magni delator amici, 
Et cito rapturus de nobilitate comesa, 
35 Quod superest; quem Massa timet, quem niunere palpat 



as to wear a lighter ring in warm wea- 
ther: T. Plin. xxxiii, 1: PRA. and 
even this ' .«umtner ring' {levisanmilus ; 
Mart. V, 61, 5 ; GV.) was oppressively 
hot: s. vi, 259 ff; qKod tener iligitKS 
ferre recKset, onns ; Ov. Am. ii, 16, 
22 ; R. s. BCE, p. 412. Servants wore 
an iron ring, plebeians one of silver, 
and those of equestrian rank a golden 
one. Freedmeu were allowed to wear 
the latter, if they had an equestrian 
estate, but were not considored actual 
knights. PLA. yentilare may mean 
' totakeotFfrom the fingerand fanback- 
wards and forwards in order to-cool it ;' 
BRI. or ' to wave the hand aftectedly, 
to and fro in the air, in order to show off 
the rinff :' yiXoloi ei TXovrouvns, xbl) ras 
vo^ipu^iiat VQofa.ivtMTii, xcci rev; Sa«T(/- 
>.oy,- T^oriivoMrn' Luc. ISigr. 21. R. [s. 
GIF, on xi, 43. This '' was not 
anciently so great an hyperbole as it is 
now, for I have seen old Roman rings 
so very thick about, and with such 
large stones in them, that 't isno won- 
der a lop shouid reckon them a little 
cumbersome in the summer season of 
so hot a climate;" ADD, R. p. 101.] 

30. See lior. S. ii, 1. R. 

31. Ovid. Ain. ii, 6, 11; [and re- 
peatedly ;J Tib. ii, 3, 2. viiTi^oip^uv: 
ferrea pertora; vii, 150; illi robnr et 
ees triplex circa pectus erat ; Hor. Od. 
i, 3, 9; R. Mart. xi, 27, 1. 

32. These ' litters resembled oriental 
palanquins : they were fitted up with 
couches on which grandees or ladies 
reclined, and were carried by six or 
eight slaves: 64. PRA. MAD. Re- 
cens sella lintei.sque lorisf/Me; Mart. 
i),67,6.jF'^i?. MwMo, vii,129;xi,34; 
was starving as a ' lawyer,' and there- 
upon turned informer, which he found 
a moie profitable trade; he has now 
set up his sedan, and is grown so im- 
moderateiy fat as to ' fill it himself.' s. 
136. Sch. BRI. GIF. Martial oftcn 



attacks him : iv, 80; 81; viii, 42; x, 
46 ; xi, 68. PRA. 

33. [' Fu.l of my Lord.' Here and 
in many other places, ipse may be 
rendered ' the great man ;' s. 60; 136; 
ii, 100; 147.] 

Either (1) Heliodorus the Stoic, 
who laid an information against his 
pupil L. Junius Silanus : or (2) Eg- 
natius Celer the philosopher who 
denouneed his pupil Barea Soranus to 
Nero, iii, 116; and was afterwards 
himself condemned under Vespasian 
on the accusation of Musonius Kutus: 
or (3) Deraetrius the lawyer, who laid 
informations against several in Nero's 
reign : Sch. or (4) M. Regulas, who 
became formidable to ' the emperor's 
friends' as well as his own ; BRI. om- 
nium hipedum neijuissimus ; see Pliny 
i, 5, 20; ii, 5, 20; iv,2, 7; vi,2; Tac. 
Hist. iv, 42 ; s. magna amicitia; iv, 
74; vi, 559; 313. PRA. R. The dif- 
ficulty of fixing on any particularname 
afiords matter for melancholy reflection. 
That so many should at the same period 
be giiilty of the complicated ciimes of 
treachery and iiigratitude, gives a 
dreadful picture of the depravity tben 
prevalent in Rome. GIF. 

34. The nobility were ruined by pro- 
scriptions aud confiscations ; L UB. and 
the informers came in for their share of 
the spoil. PRA. 

35. Hi sunt, f/uos timent etiam qui 
timentur; Sidon. Ep. v, 7. R. 

Massa, Carus, and Latinus were 
freedmen of Nero and notorions in- 
formeis. Tlie two former were put to 
death on the information of Heliodorus, 
although they had given him hnsh- 
money. The latter was executed on 
su«picion of having intrigued with 
Messalina. Sch. (Bul these particulars 
are questionable.) Bsebius Massa was 
prosccuted for malepractices in his 
government of Bcctica, and condemned 



SAT. I. 



OF JUVF.NAL. 



95 



Cariis et a trepido Th\ nielu subiuissa Latino ? 
Quum te subnioveant, qui tcstamenta nieicntur 
Noctibns, in ccelum quos evehit optima summi 
Nunc via processus, vetulaB vesica beat;e ? 
40 Unciolam Proculejus habet, sed Gillo deuncem, 
Partes quisque suas ad mensuram inguinis heres. 
Accipiat sane mercedem sanguinis et sic 
Palleat, ut nudis pressit qui calcibus anguem, 
Aut Lugdunenscm rhetor diclurus ad aram. 



to refund his peculations. Tliough he 
contrived to elude the sentence, he 
ceased to be powerful, and is stigma- 
tized as a thief by Martial, xii, 29. 
Mettius Carus started later in t e same 
line, and outlived his success, falling 
into poverty and contempt. Tac. Hist. 
iv, 50 ; Ag. 45 ; Plin.i, 5; iii, 4; vi, 
29; vii, 19; 27; 33; <fec; Mart. xii, 25, 
5. PRA. R. GIF. 

Palpareis properly applied to horses. 
Horace uses the same metaphor in 
speaking of Augustus ; cui niale si pal- 
pere^ recalcitrat vndique tutus; S. ii, 
1, 20. R. 

36. Thymele (fivfiiXn ' the raised 
platforra of the staire') was an actress 
and ceiebrated dancer, and, some say, 
the wife of Latinus. vi, 66 ; viii, 197 ; 
Mart. i, 5, 5; ix, 29; Suet. xii, 15. 
She was ' sent privately' to propitiate 
the informer either by presents, or by 
artifices, or by more disreputable means. 
Even Latinus the emperor's favourite 
was obliged to resort to such an expe- 
dient for deprecating ruin. BRI. GV. 
PRA. R, Tliere is an aliu^iion to the 
plot of some well-known piece in which 
Latinus, who acted the gallant, deputes 
Thymele, who personified the lady with 
whom he had intrigued, to extricate 
him from the scrape with her jealous 
and incensed spouse. T. If so, we 
should read ut for et. Ovid gives the 
ordinary dramnlis personcB of these 
mimes (1) cultus ailulter, (2) callida 
nupta^ (3) stultns vir, and reprobates 
the immorality of piece?, in which, 
cum fefetlit atiians aliqua novitate 
maritum, p/aitditur; Tr. ii, 497 if. 
(See the note on vi, 42. . .44.) ScencB 
sa/es inverecunf/os, agentium strop/ias, 
adu/tfrorum fal/acias,. . .ipsos quoque 
patresfami/ias togatos, mndo stupidos. 



modo ohsceenos; Cvpr. de Spect. p. 4; 
s. viii, 192; 197; v, 171. Ii>iR. 

37. ' Supplant thee, the heir at law.' 
LUB. 

38. Noctibus i. e. ' by administering 
to the guilty pleasuresof the testatrix.* 
MAD. 

In cce/uni ' to the height of their 
ambition ;' thus sunt quos pa/ma nobi- 
/is terrarum dominos eve/iit ad deos, 
and me doctarum liedcrce praemiafron- 
tium dis miscent superis, and quod si 
me /yricis vatibus inseris, sub/imi fe- 
riam sidera vertice; Hor. Od.i, 1. [Ov. 
M. vii, 61.] 

39. ' The pruriency of some wealthy 
beldame;' iv, 4. beatus occurs in the 
same sense; 67; vi, 204; Ov. Am. i, 
15,34; Sil. i, 609. R. 

40. 1 he Romans divided property 
as they did the as, the iugerum, &c; 
into tw-elve parts or uncice; which were 
computed thus, J^ uncia, ■— (=^) 
sejctans, -/j (=ij quadruns, -f^ (=g) 
triens, -^ quinfumv, ^ (=4; semis, 
■J^ scptuii.v, ^5 (=fO Liessis, -j.^ (=f) 
i/ndrans, i-g f=f) dejctans, -J^ (=1 — 
y^j) deunx, 4§ (=1) ««• T. Hence 
/leres ex asse was ' one to wbom an 
entire estate fell,' (Mart. vii, 66 ;) Ixeres 
ex deunce ' one who had all but one 
twelfth,' /leres ex uncia ' one who in- 
herited one twelfth ouly,' /leres ex un- 
cio/a ' one who had even less' thau that. 
7^ s. Hor. A. P. 325 tf ; [Liv. vii, 16, 

!•] 

Procu/ejus and Gi//o were two noted 
paramours of these old ladies. MAD. 

41. ' In proportion to his powers.' 

42. Sanguinis i. e. ' of the ruin of his 
health and constitution.' MAD. 

43. Virg. yE. ii, 379 ff; MAD. Ov. 
Fast. ii, 341 ; Hom. II. r 33 ff. R. 

44. Cn/igulninstituit in Ga//in, Lug- 



9ii 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



-15 Quid rereram, quaiitu .siccuni jecur ardeat ira, 

Quuni populuni grcgibus coniituni premit hic spoliator 
Pupilli prostanlis ? et hic damnatus inani 
Judicio (quid enim salvis infaniia numis?) * 
Exsul ab octava Marius bibit et iruitur dis 

50 Iralis ; at tu victrix provincia ploras ? 

Ha)c ego non credam Vcnusina digna lucerua? 
Hccc ego non agitem ? Sed quid uiagis Heracleas 



diini, certamen Grceece Latlnceque fa- 
cundice, quo ferunt victoribtis prceniia 
victos contu/isse, eorundem et laudes 
componere coactos : eos autem, qui 
maxime displicuissent, scripta sua 
spongia linguave delere jussos, )iisi 
feruiis ohjurgari aut flumine proximo 
mergi inalnissent; Suet. iv, 20. LUB. 
' The altar at Lyons' was at the con- 
fluence of the Soane and the Ehone, 
where the ahbey of Asnay iiow stanJs. 
This has been looked upon as a sacred 
spot from the earliest ages. After the 
subjection of the country, the natives 
built a temple and altar here to Augus- 
tus, and renewed the ancient festival, 
to whieh there was annually a great 
resort. s. Dio liv ; lix, 19; Strab. iv; 
Suet. V, 2. R. GIF. 

45. The ancients eonsidered the 
' liver' as the seat of the passions: 

fervens difficili bile tumetjecur ; Hor. 
Od. i, 13, 4; [(JJV.)] torrere jecur; 
Od. iv, 1, 12 ; MAD. facit ira nocen- 
tem hunc sexum, et rabie jecur incen- 
dente feruntur prcecipites ; vi,647f; s. 
vii, 117; xiii, 14; 181; Pers. i, 12; 25; 
ii, 13; V, 129; Claud. viii, 240 ff; 
Hom. II. A 81 ; I 550. CS. R. ' 

46. Quem grex togatus seqnitur; 
Mart. ii, 57, 5. Comifes (119;) de- 
notes ' retainers, dependents, clients, 
<fec;' R. whereas socii are ' equals.' s. 
Hor. Od. i, 7, 26. 

47. Kather pupil/cc: s. iii, 65; vi, 
123; ix, 24. R. ' Reduced to seek a 
wretched livelihood by prostitution.' 
PRA. 

Marius Priscus, proconsul of Afriea, 
was tried in the third yearofTrajan 
for extortion, condemncd lo disgorge 
into the treasury about £6000, and 
banished from Italy. The penalty was 
a mere trifle out of the vast sums he 
had accumulated by hisrapaeity; and 



the province was not [oiily not] reim- 
bursed, [but had to pay the costs of the 
prosecution: s. ROB, Charles 5th p. 
2 ;] Plin. ii, 11 f ; PRA. GIF. s. viii, 
94 ff; 119 ff. R. 

48. Understand nocet. G. [Hor. S. 
i, 1, 65 ff.] 

49. It was the custoin at Rome to 
take a bath at the eighth hour (2 o'elock 
in the afternoon), and to go to dinner 
at the ninth. AX. s. xi, 204; MAD. 
Mart. iv, 8; Hor. Ep. i, 7, 71 ; and 
see notes on vi, 419 ; R. and on Pera. 
iii, 4. [Ecclesiastes x, 16 f ; Acts ii, 
15.] 

' Reaps the fruits of divioe wrath,' 
being better off than he was before 
his condemnation. Thus Juno says of 
Heicules, " superat et crescit malis, 
iraqne nostra frvitur ; in laudes suas 
mea vertit odia;'^ Sen. H. F. 34; G. 
whence his name "Hjaj xXios. PRA. 
Peccat : vitio tamen utitur; Pers. ii, 
68. R. 

50. See v, 158; ix, 77; inveniet nil 
sibi, prceter plorare, siiisque; Hor. 
S. ii, 5, 68 ; R. [iS^iirxo* ev^iv trXiit 
dvia.irfat ■^a^ov Soph. Ph. 286.] Vincere 
was a forensic term. GRA. victrix is 
an insance of oxymoron. 

51. ' The lucubrations of a Horace;' 
who was born at Venusia, LUB. oa 
the confines of Lucania and Apulia: 
hence he speaks of himself as Lucanus 
an Appulus, anceps : nam Yenusinus 
arat finem sub utrmnque colmius; S. ii, 
1, 34. PRA. 

52. Quid for cur, as ri for ^itnri; 
understand fabulas scribam : ' on the 
labours of Hercules,' and ' the adven- 
tures of Diomede,' either the Thracian 
[Ov. Ib. 383 f ;] who fed his stud on 
human flesh, or the ^Etolian. Plin. x, 
44; Ov. M. xiv, 540 ff; Virg. ^. xi, 
324 ff. T. PRA. R. 



SAT. I. 



OV JUV.ENAL. 



!>7 



Aut Dionu'(U'as aiit imigitinn liabyrinthi 

Et inaio pcrcussnm puoro labnnncjui' volanttni ? 

■'io Quuni lom) acoipiat mccchi liona, si capiondi 
Jus nullnm uxori, doctns spoctare lacunar, 
Doctus et ad calicem vigilanli stortorc naso ; 
Quum fas csse putet curam s])erare cohortis, 
Qni hona donavit priosopibns ct caret omni 

(>0 Majorum censn, dum pervolat axe citato 



63. ' The bellowing of the' Minotaur 
in the Cretan ' labyrinth ;' which was 
bu'lt by Diriiiiius on tlu? plunof tliat in 
Efiypt, ouly a hundred times smaller. 
Tliere was a third iu Lemnos, aml a 
fourth in Italy. Plin. xxxvi, 13. The 
fxTi^t is describod by Herodotus, ii, 148. 
See Virg. ^E. vi, 14.. 33; Ovid. Met. 
viii, 155 ff. PRA. 

54. Plin. iv, 11; vii, 56. lcariis 
Icariis nomina fecit arjiiis; Ovid. Tr. 
i, 1, 90; ceraiis ope Dci:<lalea iiititur 
pennis, vitreu datiirus nomina ponto ; 
Hor. Od. iv, 2, 2; expertiis vacuum 
Dcedalus aera ppiinis non homini 
datis; Od. i, 3, 34 ; Ov. Met. viii, 183 
ff. This fable had its orisrin from tlie 
invention of niasts and sails by Da^da- 
lus. PRA. 

bo, By a law of Domitian, an adul- 
teress was precluded from recei vini? any 
legacy or inheritance: Suet. xii, 8. 
To evade this law the fortune of the 
gallant wa.<? settled on the husband, 
who for this consideration turned pan- 
der to his wife's dishonour. BRI. s. ix, 
82 ff; and particularly 87 f. HNR. 

5G. As though absorbed in thought, 
or at any rate quite unobservant of 
what was going on. MAD. 

67. Ipse miser vidi, ciim me dormire 
putares, sobriiis apposito crimina ves- 
tra mero; Ov. Am. ii, 5, 13. GRA, 
Quceritadulteros inter mnriti vina ;. .. 
71071 sinc conscio siirgit marito ; Hor. 
Od. iii, 6, 25; 29. PRA. Avtu ri; 
y^fixs trit)utiiv ru yliTovi piyx^h "■"■' ''?'* 
(fiTtti' TOVT n» tvxoXoi i^ya.(na, f/,v\ ^XsfV, 
ftn ffnaTriiv, aXX' ivoto/hux'^' aro^iy- 
^tit, aXXjrpitj' %a.ira,vri 'TrXoviria. ^oiry.oiJi.i^ot' 
Parmenio. \{, KaXfices iio-Tia li\aix.nfa.y, 
lira o^Zi ^iarXnKTi^oftiyov ato vivf/.d.ruv 
irgoj TO yvvaioi, efrinXinv hffvxn rnv 
Kt^aXh'» oi; S» KaHviiaV Iv rovTca oi ruv 
ttKirut Tivof T^otr^vivTOf i^uhv rri roaTiXn, 
Ko) rov oivov v^ai^ov/iivou oiafiXiy^/ai , ' ku- 
xooeufiov,^ UTtv, ' ovK oiffSa, ori f/.ov!o 



MaiKVva xa^suSiw;' Plut. Erot. t. 
IX. p. 45. IJi<j.V. There was one Cepius 
of wliom a similar story waa told ; whence 
came the Latin proverb ' non omnibus 
dormio.' [Cic. E. vii, 24.] ER. IWD. 
There is a double meaning in the word 
vigilanti; though the man appeared to 
bo fast asleep, yet bis nosejseemed to 
be wi(?e awake, if you might judge by 
the noise it made. So an dormit Src- 
ledriis intus? Non naso fiuidem, jiam 
eo magno magnum clamat; Plaut. Mil. 
[iii, 2, 9 f.] Farqubar makes Mrs. 
Sulien give a similar account of her 
drutiken husband: " My whole Dight's 
conifort is the tunable serenade of that 
wakeful nightingale — his nose." MAD. 

58. ' A militarj" tribuneship.' Sch 
' A prefectship of the pra^torian band.' 
G Y. A cohort consisted of 550 infantry 
and 66 cavalry. Tn legione snnt cen- 
turice scraginta, 7iianipnli triginta, co- 
hortcs dcccm; Gell. xvi, 4. AX, PRA, 
When the allies were admitted into 
the legions, the number of military 
tribunes was probably increased to ten, 
one to command each cohort. s. x, 94 ; 
Cses. B. C. ii, 20; Plin. iii, 9; 18. L. 
R, 

59. Either (1) Cornelius Fuscus is 
inteuded, who, when a boy, had driven 
Nero's chariot; he afterwards ' squan- 
dered his patrimony' in charioteering, 
and at last was niade prefect of the 
prffltorian bands by Domitian, and fell 
in the Dacian war: iv, 112; Suet. T. 
or (2) Tigelliinis, a nian of obscure 
origin, MNC. and a depraved minister 
to Nero's pleasures, who also was pro- 
moted to a prefectship: 67; 156; Tac. 
An. xiv ff; Hist. i, 72 ; or (3) Dama- 
sippus: viii, 147. PHA. 

PrcEscpia is aii ambiguous lerm, 
meaning either ' maTigers' or ' bro- 
thels.' PLA. 

60. The construction may be this : 
ffuum (i.s),f/ui. ..censu, /as. . .co/iortis, 



98 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Elaininiain ; (puer Automcdon narn lora tcnehat, 
Ipse laccrnata) quum sc jactaret amica;) 
Nonnc libet medio ccras implere capaces 
Quadrivio ? quum jam sexta ccrvice feratur 
05 Ilinc atque indc patens ac nuda pjEne cathedra 



dum 8fC\ (g.Tae. An.i, 7;) i. e.because 
he has been Nero's charioteer. HK. 
Illi instant verbere torto, et proni daiit 
lora; rolat vi fervidus axis; 
Virg. G. iii, lOG. R. 

Cl. ' The Flaminian Way,' the most 
aneient and celebrated of all the Roman 
roads, led to the emperor's villa. It was 
made by the censor C. Flaminiusi (y. 
R. 533) through Tuscany to Ariminum. 
Strab. V, p. 333. s, Suet. ii, 30 ; PRA. 
R. [viii, 145; AW.p.dS.] 

This ' boy' was the charioteer of 
Nero, as ' Automedon' was of Achilles. 
GF.Ham.Il.nl45ff;P429ff;459... 
537 ; T 395 ff ; Virg. .E.ii, 477 ; Suet. 
vi, 22 ; viii, 148. Cicero, also, uses 
Automedon as the name of any cha- 
rioteer; Eosc. Am. 35. PRA. R. [Ov. 
A. A. i,5...8.] 

62. By ipse we are to understand 
Nero: MAD. for ipse, [33; Theoc. 
xxiv, 50; (nn.)] as well as ille (97), 
avris, [St Mark siv, 15; 44;] and 
tKSives, often convey a notion of au- 
thority and respect; hence a teacher 
isthusspokenofbyhisdisciple,(as in the 
Pythagorean expression auTos i(pa, 
[whence niilliiis addictns jurare in 
verha magistri, Hor. E. i, 1, 14; (nn.) 
Liv. xxii, 53, 10 ; is as much as tosay 
' I am not the man to take matters on 
any one's ipse dixit; or to pin my 
faith on any one's sleeve :' s. .Ter. Eu. 
ii, 2, 32 ;]) a master bj' his servant, 
[Hom. II. Z 18 ;] a general by his 
soldiers, [Cic. C. ii, 2, 4 ; Liv. vi_, 25, 
3; vii,14,3;] apatronasdistinguished 
from his clients,the mind as contrasted 
with the body, [men as opposed to 
brutes, Hom. II. A 51 ;] ctc. in which 
cases the opposition shows what is 
meant. v, 30 ; Flac. iii, l.^iO; Ov. Tr. v, 
3, 45; Calp. i, 46; R. Liv. xxii, \,i; 
xxvii, 32, b. 

Jactare se is ' to play the agreeable' 
or ' to show off before.' It may be a 
metaphor from a peacock spreading his 
tail; s. Pers. iv, 15; Zl. [Liv. iii, 1, 4.] 

Though spokea of in the feminine 



gender, Sporus the eunuch is here 
meant ; BR/. whom this monster c?<;m 
dote et Jlameo, miptiarum cclcherrimo 
officio, dediictum ad se, pro uxore ha- 
huit ; qucmrjue, Augustarnm orna- 
mentis excultian lecticaque vectum, et 
circa convetitus inercatusque GrcBcicB 
ac mox RomcB circa Sigillaria comi- 
tatus est identidem exosculans ; Suet. 
vi, 28. PRA. s. sponsce turpes ; 78. 
R. A few years afterwards this Sporus 
was ordered by the emperor Vitellius to 
personate a nymph in a pantomime, but 
committed suicide to avoid appearing 
on the stage in a female dress ! GIF. 
The epithet laccrnata implies that this 
was not a woman, lacerna being a man'3 
cloak. FE. It was worn by soldiers 
in the camp, Plin. xviii, 25; Ov. Fast. 
ii, 74G ; andby spectatorsin the amphi- 
theatre ; in the latter case it was white, 
AX. Mart. xiv, 137 : iv, 2. See also 
Suet. ii, 40 ; v, 6 ; FRA. Mart. v, 8. 

63. Ceree are the same as ceratee 
tabellce. The pocket-books of the E.o- 
mans consisted of thin pieces 'of wood, 
covered over with wax, on which they 
wrute with the point of an instrument 
called sti/lus, the other end of which 
was blunt for the purpose of erasure. 
Hor. S. i, 10, 72. MJD. 

64. ' In the very cross-ways ;' fjuch 
is the impudence of these miscreants, 
and the depravity of these times ! L UB. 

The litters of the rich were called 
hexaphori, Mart. ii, 81 ; iv, 51 ; or 
octophori, vii, 141 ; from thenumber of 
bearers or lecticarii; persons of inferior 
fortune used sella gestatoria ' a sedan,' 
carried by two chairmen. ix, 142 ; L. 
MAD. R. s. BCE, c. 8, 427 f ; 443 f. 

65. Here ' the litter' is left ' open on 
both sides' out of effrontery, a.s opposed 
to lectica tuta pelle veloque and sella 
clausa; 124; Mart. xi, 98, 11 ff; 
L UB. clausa lectica fcnestra ; iii, 242 ; 
clausum latis specularihus antrmn ; 
iv, 21. This latter was also called 
cnbicuhan viatorium ; Plin. xxxvii, 2 ; 
Suet. ii, 78; xi, 10; Ov. A. A. i, 



SAT. I. 



OF JUVENAL. 



90 



Et nuiltum refercns de Ma?cenate suj^ino 
Signator, falso qui se lautum atque beatuin 
Exiguis tabulis ct gcninia fcccrat uda .'' 
Occurrit raatrona potens, qua3, niolle Calemmi 
70 Pon-ectura, viro miscct sitiente rubetaiu 

Instituitque rudcs melior Locusta propinquas 



487 f.X,. It was fitted up with cushions 
and pillows, stood on four short legs, 
and was carried by means of poles ; iii, 
245 ; vii, 132. The cathedra or ' chair' 
belouged properlv to ladies ; vi,91; ix, 
52 ; Mart. iv, 79, 3 ; Pha;d. iii, 8, 
4 ; Prop. iv, 5, 3" ; hence called fe- 
mineacathedra; Mart. iii,(i3, 7; Calp. 
vii, 27. BCE. Only vestals and em- 
presses used pilenta and carpenta. R. 

66. Referre ' tobrinjj back to mind,' 
therefore ' to resemble.' Virg. M. iv, 
329 ; X, 766 ; Tac. Germ. 43. R. 

Mcecenas, though a very active man 
of business, was otherwise most ' in- 
dolent and luxurious ;' xii, 39 ; Sen. Ep. 
19; 101; 114; 120; otioet mollitiispceiie 
ultra feminam jlnens ; Vell. Pat. i, 88 ; 
Quint. X, 4 ; Plin. xiv, 6. BO. PRA. 
R. He was at once a beau and a 
sloven. GIF. For the above scnse of 
supiniis s. Mart. ii, 6, 13 ; PRA. 
Quint. V, 12,10; x, 2, 17; &c ; Plin. 
xvi, 37 ; Suet. ii, 16. R. 

67. Either (1) Af/'(i(iiis Regulus, 
Plin. ii, 20 ; or (2) Sophonius Titjellinus, 
who poisoned his three uncles and in- 
herited all their property ' by forgery' 
of their wills. LUB. Acccrding to 
Paedianus the subscription of seven 
witnesses was requisite. PRA. s. x, 
336. MAD. Fafsuiii was a technical 
term, a.s fa/si reus, [Papi. 1. 12 ;] G. 
Lex Cornelia defalsis, <fec. R. 

68. ' A brief testameut,' making him 
sole heir. BRI. Oinnia soli breviler 
datnt ; xii, 125; PRA. ii, 58. 

Ut arcanas possiin signare tahellns, 
neve tenajc ceramsiccave gcminatrahat , 
humida tangain prius ora ; Ov. Am. ii, 
15, 15 ff ; Trist. v, 4, 5 f ; Pont. ii, 9, 
69; GRA. s. xiii, 139; xiv, 132. R. 

69. Nulla aconitabibuiiturfictHibus ; 
X, 25 f. L UB. The commencement of 
this horrible practice is mentioned by 
Livy, viii, 18. PRA. Agrippina poi- 
soned her husband Claudius by a mush- 
room; Tac. An. xii, 67; Suet. v, 
44. R. The allusiou therefore is pro- 



bably to someothernoblematron, GIF. 
who will mcet you inthe public streets. 
MAD. [Eur. M. 385.] 

Ca/es was in Campania. LUB. The 
choicest wines of Italy are named by 
Horace, Od. i, 20, 9 ff: of these the 
Calenian and Caecubian had gone out 
of fashicn in Pliny's time ; xiv, 6. R. 

Mo//e ' mellow' from age ; Hor. Od. 
i, 7, 19 ; Virg. G. i, 341 ; as opposed to 
durum ' rough ;' G. iv, 102. /{. 

70. ' A poison' supposed to be ex- 
tracted ' from the toad,' called rubeta 
from its frequenting brakes. GV. tur- 
gentis raiKB portenta ruheta; ; Prop. iii, 
6, 27; PRA. nunc res agitur temei 
pu/mone rubetee ; vi, 659 ; s. iii, 44. R. 

71. CcEsareas so/jo/es horrenda Lo- 
custa occidit, curans seevi venenata 
Ncronis; Turnus. Sch. Thishagseems 
to have reduced the art of poisoning to 
a science; Claudius spared her life in 
order to avail himself of her diabolical 
skill, aud at last was taken off by her 
agency. " 'Tis the sport," as Shaks- 
peare beautifully obser\-es, " to have 
the engineer Hoist with his own petar ;" 
Ham. iii, 4; [so laer. " As a wood- 
cock to my own springe, I am justly 
kilPd with mine owu treachery. . . . 
Hamlet, the treacherous instrument is 
in thy hand, Unbated, and envenom'd: 
the foul practice hath turn'd itself on 
me :" and " He is justly scrved : It is 
a poison temper'd by himself :" again 
'' Purposes mistook FaUn on the in- 
ventors' heads :" ib. v, 2 ; s. Ov. A. A. 
i, 647... 656; Psahn ix, 15 f. The 
regentMortonintroduced"TheMaiden" 
into Scotland, from a model which he 
took when at Halifax ; and the in- 
strument was used in his own execu- 
tion. The arcbitect of a county and 
citygaolin one of our southern counties 
was its first inmate. And, recentiy, 
a silversmith at Chelmsford, received 
his death- wound from a pistol, which he 
had ingeniously attached to his shop- 
door for the protcction of his prophecy.] 



100 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Per faniam ol })opuluin nigros elierre maritos. 

Aude aliquid brevibus Gyaiis et earcerc dignuui, 
Si vis esse aliquis : probitas laudatur et alget. 
75 Criminibus debent hortos, pra^toria, niensas, 

xArgentum vetus et stantem extra pocula eaprum. 
Ciuem patitur dormire nurus corruptor avara; ? 
Quera sponsa) turpes et praitextatus adulter ? 
Si natura negat, facit indignatio versum. 



Nero employed her to destroy Germa- 
iiicus, and perliaps Burrhus : but on 
the accession of Galba, she was dragged 
to exeeution amid the shouts and exe- 
crations of the populace. GIF. Tac. 
An. xii, G6; xiii, 15 ; Suet. v, 44; vi, 
33 ; 47. PRA. R. 

Melior ' more knowing and daring;' 
insdluit ' instructs ;' rudes ' ignorant.' 
LUB. 

12 "E» ha. 'huoTiioT per famam popuU. 

G V. per ' iu defiance of,' ' rurming the 

gantelope' as it were. 

' Livid' from the effects of poison, 

GV. whichis hQ-acecaWnA poculanigra ; 

Prop. ii, 27, 10. R. [nigri cnm lacte 

veneni^ Vir. M. iv, 514 ; atrum vene- 

nmn, Hor. O. i, 37, 27 f.] 

Efferre is peeuliarly applied to fune- 

rals", PRA. as cjjertiir, imus, ad seput- 

crum venimus; Ter. And. i, 1, 90; 

MAD. Livy xxiv, 22, r ; [Acts v, 6 ; 

10; ^sch. Th. 1026;] ED. vi, 175; 

567; xiv, 220. It is here the conse- 

quentput for the antecedent. R. 

s. Her. vii, 117, 70. 

73. Gyarus, now Jura, one of the 
Cyclades, was the Botany Bay of Rome. 
vi,563f; x,l70; Plin.iv, 12; viii,29; 
57; Tac. An. iii, 68 f; iv, 30. Other 
rocky islands were used for the same 
purpose. LUB. PRA. R. [xiii, 246. 
W.} 

74. Sese aliqnem credens; Pers. i, 
129 ; ' soraebody ;' PRA. Cic. ad Att. 
iii, io; ^oxwv //,)v t)s litai, uv S' auSs/f 
Arr. Ep. ii, 24. R. 

'' In thispartial avaricious age "What 
price bears honour P v i r tu e ? long ago 
It was but praised, andfreezed? 
but now-a days 'Tis coUler far, and has 
nor love nor praise ;" Massinger, Fatal 
Dowry, ii, 1. GIF. 

75. Such ' gardens' contaiued villas. 



summerhouses, terraces, gheets of water, 
fountains, grottos, statues, &c. Smaller 
gardens were called viridaria [Pli. 
xviii, 2 ;] or nemora, [iv, 6.] R. 

' Palaces ;' ad lajndem Torquatus 
habet prcetoria quartum ; Mart. x, 79, 
1 ; Suet. xi, 8 ; PRA. x, 161. R. 

The Romans were very extravagant 
in their ' tables,' which were made of 
citron-wood, marble, ivor}', &c. GV. 
137 f; ie. Mart. xiv, 89 ; 90; &c. 

76. Argentum, mensce, vmrrhina, 
rura, domus; Mart. xi, 70,8. ' The 
goat,' as dcstructive to vines, was 
sacrificed to Bacchus, and was a usual 
device on embossed goblets : or it might 
be a bass-relief of Phryxus and Helle 
riding on the goat ; stat caper jEolio 
Thciani vellnre Phryxi cultus ; Mart. 
viii, 51 ; (' de phiala Rufi,'') 9; Sch. 
PRA. nltis exstantetn signis cratera ; 
Ov, Met. V, 81 ; antiquus crater signis 
exstantibus asper; Id. xii, 235. s. v, 
38. R. 

77. The avarice of the daaghter-in- 
law is her ruin. ' Who can tamely 
witness such flagitiousness ?' LUB. 

78. ' Unnatural brides.' GJF.62; ii, 
117,134; Mart.xii,42; Suet.vi,29; 
Ov. A. A.i,5-24; Tac. An. xv,37. K. 

The preetexta was a white gown 
{toga) with a purple border, and vvas 
worn by [curule] magistrates and [cer- 
tain] priests, and by noble boys till they 
completed their lifteenth year, when 
they exchanged it for the manly govrn. 
Pers. V, 30; PRA. R. [Livy xxii, 57, 
10; purpura viri utemur, prcctextati 
in magistratihus, sacerdotiis, liberinos- 
tri pratc.rtis purpura togis utentur, 
id. xxxiv, 7.] 

79. Ceterarum rerutn studia et doc- 
Irinu et jrrceceptis ct arte constant; 
poefa naittra ipsa valet et mciitis viribus 



SAT. I. 



OF JUVEXAL. 



101 



80 Qiialcincuinquc polcst, quales cgo vd Cluvicmis. 
Kx quo Dcucalion, nimbi.s tollcutibus ;c(iuor, 
Navigio montcni ascendit sortesque poposcit, 
Paulaliniqjic anima calucrunt nioUia saxa 
Et maribus nudas ostcndit Pyrrha pucllas, 

85 Quidquid agunt homines, votum, timor, ira, voluptas, 
Gaudia, discursus, nostri cst farrago libclli. 
Et quando ubcrior vitiorum copia ? quando 
Major avaritiic patuit sinus.'' alea quaudo 
IIos aniraos .'' Ncque cnim locuhs comitantibus itur 



excitcUttr et quasi divifio quodam spiritu 
iti/latur; Cic. pro Arch. 8. e. Hor. A. 
P. 408 ff. PRA. 

80. CluvieiiHs wa3 a miserable versi- 
fier, of whom nothing further is knowD. 

81. Thisproemcontains the sum and 
substauce of the poet's future Satires. 
s. CSj on Pers. i, 1. 

Kv quo\ [vi, 294;] Hor. Od. iii, 
3, 21 ; i| ««■ Hom. 11. A 6 : [Soph. Tr. 
38; CE. R. 1202;'^ isoTow Aristoph. N. 
620. Q«o teinport: priiuum Deucalion 
vacuuni lapidesjactavit iii orLeiu, uiule 
homines iiati, duruin genus; Virg. G. 
i, 61 ff. ' From the earliest ages :' a 
Pi/rr/ia; xv, 30. [£D.] Amphicfyonis 
temporibus ariuaruiii iituvies majorein 
populorum Grcecice partein atjsumpsif. 
superfuerunt^quos refuyia monti/tin re- 
ceperunt, aut qui atl regem Thessatice 
Deucalionem ratitjusevecfisunf : a quo 
propterea geiius humani/m condittiin 
dicitur; Just. ii, 6; PRA. Ov. Met. i, 
264 ff. He was son of Prometheus and 
Clymene. GV. 

82. Parva rate; Ov. xijiar^, Xz^vaxi, 
' in the ark.' HNN. Thc Uible is a 
corrruption of sacred history. PRA. 

' The mountain' is Lycorea, one of 
the two peaks of Parnassas. li. 

' The answers of the Delphian oracle' 
were anciently ' given by lots :' oracula 
veriiis tlicuntur, quce vaticiiiafione fun- 
duntitr, seil et sortes, quce tlucuntur. 
Cic. de Div. ii, 33. Soinetimes sortes 
signified ' oracular answers' in general, 
ilictce pcr carmina sortcs; Hor. A. P. 
403 ; auxiliuin placuit per sacras quce- 
rere sortes ; Ov. precilms oracula po- 
scas; Virg. &. iii, 45G ; poscens re- 
sponsa; Sil. i, 121. PRA. MAD. E. 



Livy [i, 56,5;] xxi, 62, 6. ED. The 

responses at this time were given by 
Themis ; Ov. Sch. 

83. [Animas three Mss. pr. HS, on 
O. M. vi,312. perhapsPa«to<»«, i«yj<e 
aniinns. DB, A.j 

Saxa poncre duritiem cupere, su- 
uinque rigorem, mollirique mora, 
m o 1 1 i t aque tlucereformam: Ov. MAD. 
This story is supposed to have been 
suggested by the fanciful derivation of 
Xaes from Xaa;. R. 

84 The lapides Pyrrhee jacti (Virg. 
E, vi, 41 ;) produced women. Pyrrha 
was the daughter of Epimctheus anJ 
Asia. GV. 

86. Discursus * their different pur- 
suits.' But see v, 21. R. 

Farrago (see note on Pers. v, 77;) ' a 
mixture, hudge-podge, olio.' MAD. 
[Livyvii,2, 14.] 

87. Cottecta vitia post tof cetates (Iju 
in ntjs redantlanf, sceculo premimur 
gravi: Scnec. Oct. GRA. The pre- 
dictions of Horace were verified, cefas 
parenfum, pcjor avis, tutit nos uequi- 
ores, mox tiaturos progcniem vifiosio- 
rem; Od. iii, 6, 46 tl': see 147 ff; vi, 
292. R. [Livy iii, 67, 1.] 

88. Some take sinns to signify ' the 
lap' of the gowu ; others ' the bellying' 
of, the sail, [Shakspe:ire, Tr. and Cr. 
ii 2 ;] or ' a spread of canvas.' PRA. 
R. [' guif,' « goujre.' DX.] s. 149 f. 

Atca; s. Pers'. v, 57; PRA.vctita 
tcgitjus alcfi; Hor. Od. iii, 24, 58. 
Understand habuit : hos may meati tot, 
or Roinanos ; R. or hos niiimos is 
pcrhapsequivalentto/a«^a«i7>t'5, 'sucJi 
spirit and vigour.' MAD. 

89. Lociitus ' a purse ;' arca ' the 
money-chest itsclf.' PRA. 



102 



TIIE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



90 Ad casum tabulae, posita sed luditur arca. 
Prcelia quanta illic dispensatorc videbis 
Armigero ! Simplexne furor, scstertia centum 
Perdere et hon-enti tunicam noii redderc scrvo ? 
Quis totidem ercxit villas ? quis fcrcula septem 

95 Secreto ccenavit avus ? Nunc sjiortula primo 
Limine parva scdct, turba; rapienda togatae. 
Ille tamen faciem prius inspicit et trepidat, ne 
Suppositus venias ac falso nomine poscas. 



90. A sarcastic reflection on his 
fellow-countrymen as no longer strenu- 
ous in otber battles. LUB. 

91. ' Witb his steward for armour- 
bearer,' as carrying money, dice, dice- 
box, and tables. Sch. vii, 219 ; xiv, 4 f. 
R. 

92. ' A bundred sestertia.' Tbe ses- 
iertii(s=a.hont l|r/. Tbe sestertiiim= 
1000 *e'sto-///=about £8. 1*. 6«'. (1) 
If a numeral agrees witb sestertii, it 
denotes so many sestertii, as decem ses- 
tertii. (2) If the genitive plural of 
sestertii is joined with a numeral in 
anotber case, it denotes so many t b o u- 
sand, as decem serterfiihn=lO, 000 
sestertii. (3) If joined with a numeral 
adverb, it denotes so many bundred 
thousand, as decies sestertium= 
1,000,000 sestertii. (4) The numeral 
adverb by itself has the same meaning, 
as ^/ee/e^^l^OOO^OOO sestertii=i,000 
sestertia. KT. AD. Sestertium is 
always the contracted genitive, with 
wbicb mille or millia is generally 
understood; sestertia occur& only in 
poets. F. [but s. Pli. xxxiii, 2 ; in note 
105 below.] Livy xxviii, 9, 8. 

93. Scis comitem Iwrridiihnn trita 
donare lacerna; Pers. i, 54. PRA. 
' Shivering witb cold,' as in Ov. A. A. 
ii, 213. Reddere for dare. R. 

94. See xiv, 86 fl'. R. 

Pa t inas cwnalat omasi : Hor. Ep. 
i, 15, 34. In atrio, et dttol/i/sjerculis, 
epnlabantur antiqui; Cato. Ferculum, 
according to Nonius, was ' a course.' 
vii, 184 ; xi, 64. R. 

95. Fuit illa simplicitas antiquorum 
in cibo capiendo, vt rnaximis viris 
prandcre et cwnare in propatulo vere- 
cundicE non esset : nec sane ullas cpttlas 
habchant, f/uas populi ocidis subjicere 



erubescerent ; Val. Max. ii, 5, 5. 
PRA. 

Quis avus ' wbo of our ancestors ?' 
LUB. 

The old repoblicans used to admit to 
supper tbe clients, who attended them 
from the forum. Under the emperors 
this laudable custom was abolished, and 
' a little basket' of meat given to each 
of them to carry home. Nero ordered 
a small sum of money to be distributed 
iustead of meat, and Domitian brougbt 
back tbe former practice; Suet. vi, 
16; xii, 4 ; 7- Perbaps it was subse- 
quently left optional, for bere we find 
that money was again distributed. The 
sum was a hundred quadrantcs, about 
20^/. sterling. GIF. 120; iii, 127 fi"; 
249 fi"; Mart. i, 61; iii, 7; 14, 3; 
viii, 50, 10; x, 27, 3; 75, 11. AX. 
T. PRA. R. 

96. Vestibulum ante ipsum primoque 
in limine; Virg. JE. ii, 469; -si, 427. 
R. 

Sedet ; ii, 120; R. kiTtcci, see Herod. 
vii, 198, 18. 

' Tbe dole's being snatcbed' or 
' scrambled-for' denotes their half- 
starved condition. Togatce may mean 
' Eoman' emphatically ; s. 100 ; Prop. 
iv, 2, 56 ; Virg. JE. i, 282 ; but more 
probably is used contemptuously, as 
tbe toga was no longer wom by re- 
spectable persons. See note on 3 ; 
ii, 70; iii, 127; vii, 136; 142; viii,49; 
Hor. S. i, 2, 63 ; 82 ; Mart. ii, 57,5 ; &c. 
R. [Clients were always obliged to 
wear tbeir gowns, wben tbey attended 
on their patron ; iii, lll.j 

97. See note on 62. The mean- 
ness of the patron is strongly marked 
by his superintending the distribution 
' in person.' 



S.VT. I. 



OF JITVENAL. 



103 



Agnitus accipifs. Ju1)ct a jinvconc vocari 
100 Ip.sos Trojugcnas: nani vcxant limcn cl ipsi 
Nobiscura. " Da Prajtori, da deinde Tribuno ! 
Scd libcrtinus prior cst." " Prior" inquit " cgo adsum. 
Cur timcani dubitemve locum defcndcre, quamvis 
Natus ad Euphraten, mollcs quod in aure fenestrae 
105 Arguerint, licct i])sc ncgcm ? Scd quinque tabcrna; 
Quatb-ingenta paraut. Quid confcrt purpura major 
Optandum, si Laurenti custodit in agro 
Conductas Corvinus oves ? Ego possideo plus 
Pallante ct Licinis." Exspcctent ergo tribmii; 



99. Agnoscerc^ to recognise' is said 
of one known before; cognoscere [Cic. 
E. V, 12 ;] ' to beeome acquainted with,' 
of a stranger. R. 

' The crier' was properly called no- 
menclafor; [Cic. A. iv, 1 ;] it was his 
office to announce the names of morn- 
ing vrsitors, arrange them in order of 
precedence, <fec. PLA. 

100. ' The patricians of the greater 
clans,' Sch. who claimed descent from 
iEneas and the Trojans: s. viii, 41 £F; 
181; xi, 95; so Troiades; Pers. i, 4. 
R, 

Limen terere; Mart. x, 10, 2 ; ' to 
wear.' R. furesque fereBf/ue suetce 
hunc vexare locum; Hor. S. i, 8, 17. 
MAD. ' to pester.' 

101. ' With us poor folk.' s iii, 128 
ff; R. Mart. x, 10, 1 ff. PR.l. 

Da SfC. These are either the orders 
of the patron to his steward, or the 
importunities of the needy patricians. 
PRA. R. 

PrcEfor (lictus quod exerciful prceeat : 
est et magistrafus juredicundo preeyo- 
situs; Varro. ' The tribune' might be 
either ' military' or ' plebeian.' VRA. 
Of the latter, theie were originally 
two, afterwards ten. The j>r<etor urha- 
nwjwas a magistrate nearly answering 
to ' the Lord Mayor' of London. MAD. 

102. ' First come, first served.' GIF. 
Libertin i are enfranchised slaves , MA D. 
and the same as liherti ; they are called 
liberfivrhen the patron's name is added. 
R. [The former noun is usedabsolutely, 
the latter relatively.] 

104. An immense number of slaves 
came from Armenia, Cappadocia, Me- 
sopotamia, and the countries through 
which the Euphrates flowed. PK^. 



Among the Orientals, even men used 
to wear ear-rings for omament ; Plin. 
xi, 37 ; incedunt cum annulatisaurihus ; 
Plaut. Pcen. 14. PRA. The boring of 
the ear was, among many eastern na- 
tions, a sign of servitude; see Exodus, 
xxi, 6; [Home on the Scriptures ; 
Xen. An. iii, 1, 21.] This expression 
may be put by hypallage foT fene- 
sfrcB in aure tnolliy according to the 
proverb auricula mollior ; Cic. ad Q. 
Fr. ii, 15 ; or from being a sign of soft- 
ness in the wearer. GRA. R. 

105. ' I have five shops in the Foram 
which are let for as much as a knighfs 
estate.' Sch. T. Tiberio imperante 
constitutum ne quis in equesfri ordine 
conserefur, nisi cui ingenuo ipsi, patri, 
avoque paferno sesfertia quadringenta 
census fuisset ; Plin. xxxiii, 2 ; RRA. 
xiv, 323 &'. R. 

106. ' The greater purple' may be 
either ' the consulship,' as foga niajor] 
Claudian. viii, 656; or ' the broad- 
bordered tunic of the senator,' as 
purpura latior and latus clavus ; Piin. 
Ep. ii, 9; major cl. Stat. Silv. iii, 2, 
124 ;felixp. Mart. viii, 8, 4 ; and on the 
other hand pauper or angustus cl. 
denotesthe equestrianorder; Stat. Silv. 
V, 2, 18 ; Vell. ii, 88. But under the 
Caesars this distinction was less rigidly 
observed. s. Suet. ii, 38; vi, 26; xii, 
10; Plin. H.N. xxxiii, 1; R. ib. ix, 
36 ff; PRA. Livy xxvii, 19, 8. ED. 
[ Vulgoque purpura latiore tunicee usos 
invenimus etiam prcecones, Pli. xxxiii, 

108. Corvinus, descended from the 
Valerian clan. s. viii, 5. R, 

109. Paltas, an Arcadian, was a 
freedman of Claudius and immensely 



104 



TUE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



110 Vincant clivitine ; sacro nec cedat honori, 

Nupcr in hanc nrhem i^edibus qui vcnerat albis: 
Quandoqnidera inter nos sanctissima Divitiarum 
Majcstas ; ctsi, funesta Pecunia, tcmplo 
Nondum habitas ; nullas nuniorum ereximus aras ; 

1 15 Ut colitur Pax atque Fides, Victoria, Virtus, 
Quajque salutato crepitat Concordia nido. 

Sed quum suunnus honor fniito computet anno, 
Sportula quid referat, quantura rationibus addat ; 
Quid facient comites, quibus hinc toga, calceus hinc est 

120 Et panis fumusque domi .? Densissiraa centura 
Quadrantes lectica petit, sequiturque maritnm 
Languida vel pra^gnans et circumducitur uxor. 
Hic pctit absenti, nota jam callidus arte, 
Ostendens vacuam et clausam pro conjuge sellam. 



rich. Suet. v, 28 ; Tac. An. xii, 
63; xiv, G5; Plin. H. N. xxxiii, 10 ; 
Plin. Ep. vii, 29 ; viii, C. He was put 
to death by Nero for the sake of his 
wealth. Sch. H. 

L/ni/iii/s, a German, was a freedman 
of Augustus ; he was likewise very rich : 
xiv, 306 : but there were also wealthy 
families of tlie Licinian clan, viz. the 
Ca/vi Stolones; Liv. vii, 16; [Gell. 
vii ; Max. viii, 3; CS.^ and the Crassi 
Divites. PRA. U. Pers. ii, 36. Sch. 
G V. GIF. 

110. Virtiis post niaiios; Hor. Ep. 
j, 1, 54 ; GRA. omnis cnim res, virtiis, 
fama, decus, divina hvmanaqiie, piil- 
cris divifiis parent ; qiias qui con- 
traxcrit, ille clarus crit,fortis,justus. 
' Sapiensnef Etiam: et rex, ct quicquid 
volct; Id. S. ii, 3, 94; et genus ct 
virtus, nisi ciim rc, vilior alga cst ; ib. 
V, 8. PRA. 

The tribunes were sacrosancti ' in- 
violable;' Liv. ii, 33; iii, 19; 55; 
Dionys. vi, 89; vii, 17- If any one 
injured them by word or deed, he was 
held accursed, and his goods were con- 
fiscated. AB. R. 

111. Vilissimum cst crctee genus,qua 
pedes venaliiim trans marc advcctorinn 
denotarc majorcs institucrant; Plin. 
H. N. XXXV, 17- Bcgnum ipsc tcnet, 
quem scepe cocgit harbara gi/psatos 
ferre catasta pedes ; Tib. ii, 3, 59; 



[Ov. Am. i, 8. 64 ;] Pers. vi, 78 ; s. v, 
53; vii, 16; 120; Suet. ii, 69. This 
white markwas the signature either of 
the slave-merchant, or of the proprietor, 
or of the republic. BRO. SM. PRA. 
R. 

113. Pecunia, ' the cause of many a 
death,' was deified; and universally 
worshipped; though e n s h r i n e d 
only in the hearts of Iier votaries. Sch. 
T. PRA [Eur. Cy. 316; Ph. 449; 
Hooker E. P. v, 79.] 

115. [Cie. N. D. ii, 23.] 

116. At the temple of Concord was 
heard the chattering of the stork which 
liad built its nest there, as often as it 
flew honie with food for i(s young. Sch. 
ipsa sibi plaudat crcpitantc ciconia 
rostro; Ov. Met. vi, 97. T. FAR. 
[Mart. iii, 58, 18. ADD, on M. t. i, p. 
435.] 

117. ' Men of the highest rank cal- 
culate on these doles as no inconsider- 
able portion of their annual income.' 
See note on 101. LUB. 

119. See 46 ;Mart.iii, 30. R. ' These 
poor dependents had looked to this as a 
means of paying their tailor's, shoe- 
maker's, baker's, and coalmerchanfs 
bills.' 

120. Mart. xiii, 15; iii, 30, 3. R. 

121. ' A crowd of litters brings pe- 
titioners.' PRA. See 95. R. 

124. See 65. PRA. 



55AT. I. 



OF JUVENAL. 



105 



125 " Galla mea est" inquit: " Citiiis dimittc. Moraris?' 
" Profer Galla canut." " Noli vexarc, quicscit." 

Ipsc (lics pulcro distiuguitur ordinc reruui : 
Sportula, dcinde forum jurisque peritus ApoIIo 
Atquc triumphales, inter quas ausus habcrc 

130 Nescio quis titulos .Egyptius atque Arabarches, 
Cujus ad cffigiera non tantum mejere fas est. 
Vestibulis abeunt vctei*es lassique clientes 



125. Galla is supposed to be the 
wife's name. M.4D. 

With inquit understand marilus. 
PRA. 

126. ' Put out your head,' says the 
dispenser, (because this was ' a stale 
trick' /lota ars). ' Don't disturb her;' 
says the hushand ; ' I dare say, she is 
a.sleep.' LUB. Or the whole line may 
be assigned to the husband only. 

127. The ordiuary routine of the day's 
employment is made much the same bj- 
Martial ; p r i m a saliitantes atque a l- 
tera continet hora. Exercet raucos 
tert ia causidicos. In quinta m va- 
rios extendit Roma labores : se.vta 
quies lassis, s ep t i m a finis erit. Suf- 
ficit in 7ionam nitidis octnva palee- 
stris : impcrat e.rstructos frnngere 
nona toros. Hora libeilorum decima 
est; iv, 8. PRA. 

128. The clients attended their 
patron to ' the forum' of Augustus, in 
which there wa.s an ivorj' statue of 
Apollo, (Plin. xxxvi, 5; vii, 53; Hor. 
S. i, 9, 78 ;) who is calledy?^r/« peritus 
from the number of pleadings, at which 
he must have been present. Hence 
also we have Mar^-yan caussidicum ; 
Mart. ii, 64, 8; Hor. S. i, 6, 119. In 
the same spot Augustus had erected 
' the triumphal statues' of the greatest 
generals; Suet. ii, 29; Sch.3l. BRI. 
GRA. PRA. R. 

130. ' An effigy with an inscription 
on the pedestal:' c/araque dispositis 
acta subesse viris; Ov. F. v, 566. GRA. 

Arabarches. There is niuch un- 
certainty here both as to the text, and 
as to the person intended. He may be 
either (I) Crispinus (26), who was 
created Prince of Arabia by Domitian, 
Schol. MS. He might also be called 
' the Arch-Arabian,' sarcastically, as 
worst of all the Arab slaves. LUB. or 
(2) Tib. A/exnnder, who was governor 
of Egypt, brotber or nephew of Philo 



Juda?us, procurator of Judaea, and a 
Roman knight. Tac. H. i, 11 ; ii, 79; 
Eus. ii. G Y.AT. FAR. HOL. GIF. 

or (3) Josep/ius, to vvhom Vespasian 
granted a triumplial statue. Hieronym. 
FV. PRH. 'ihen with regard to the 
word itself, it is doubted whether it 
should be Arabarclics or A/abar- 
c/«(?*; [" iEthiopians: not that re- 
mote nation beyond Egypt, but those of 
Arabia Petrea, a wikl, theevish, and 
servile nation, such as now inhabit 
those parts, base, bloody, and theevish 
Alarbes, hated and despised of all 
their neighbours, and so by the Is- 
raelites their neighbours aceounted at 
that dav :" POL, Ann. on Amos ix, 7. 
s. VY,'E. D.] see F. and i?'s ejccur. 
sus. 

131. Pers. i, 114. PRA. ' It is 
allowable to commit any nuisance.' 
vi, 309. BRL R. 

132. See 95 f. Veteres is in aggra- 
vation of the neglect, R. The two 
classes of patron and client com- 
prehended nearly all the citizens of 
Rome. A patron was a man of rank 
and fovtune, under whose care the 
meaner people voluntarily put them- 
selves, and, in consequence of it, were 
denominated his clients. the patron 
assisted his client with his iufluence 
and advice; and the client, in return, 
gave his vote to his patron, when he 
sought any office for himself or friends. 
The elient owed his patron respect ; the 
patron owed his client protection. The 
early Romans threw a sanctity around 
this obligation on the patron's part. It 
was expressly enforced by a law of the 
Twelve Tables : putronus si c/ienti 

fraudem fecerit, sacer esto. Virgil, 
many ages after, places the unjust 
patron in Taitarus, among the violators 
of natural and moral decorum : hic qui- 
bus invisi fralres, pulsatusve parens, 
et frnus ivnexa c/ienti; JE. vi, 



r 



106 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I. 



Votaque deponunt, quamquani longissima coena; 
Spes homini. Caulcs miscris atque ignis emendus. 
135 Optima silvarum intcrea pelagique vorabit 

Rex horum vacuisque toris tantum ipse jacebit. 
Nam de tot pulcris ct latis orbibus et tam 
Antiquis una comedunt patrimonia mensa. 



608. This state of mutual dependence, 
which commenced with the monarchy, 
was productive of the happiest effects ; 
till, as riches and pride increased, new 
duties were imposed on the clients : 
they were liarassed with constant at- 
tendance, and mortified by neglect; in 
a word, they were little better than 
slaves. GIF. 

133. Deponere is opposed to susci- 
pere. GRA. 

Longisshria ' retained 1o the very 
last' or ' cherished all day long.' Lu- 
cian (sTf^i tHv l<!ri fnaSou ffuvoiiTMv) says 
of clients, Si ^S»v?5 IXti^ix ftdiov "roX- 
Xa; art^iai iiToy,iiiiiv ai;d TiT^axTai avroTs 
eiSev Iv a-favri toi (iia> 'Tripa T>is 
IXcr/Sa;, ^ 7 and 8. s. vi, 166. Un- 
less the words should be transposed 
thus : votmjue deponiint cwna ; longis- 
sima quanquain spes lioniini, according 
to the old adage, cegroto diim anima 
est spes esf, [Cic. A. ix, 10;] ' while 
there is life there is hope.' Hence it 
was that to Hadrian's question ' What 
is the longest thingp' Epictetus an- 
swered ' Hope.' R. 

134. ' With their paltry dole they 
have to buy a bunch of greens and 
a little flrewood on their way home; 
and then tbey must wait till the vege- 
tables are boiled, before they can ap- 
pease their hunger.' 

136. BaoiXiTs, Lucian repeatedly; 
lifToTas, id. Nigr. rcx; v, 14; 137; 
viii, 161; Hor. Ep. i, 17, 43; Mart. 
iii, 7, 5; v, 22, 14; dominus; v, 81 ; 
92 ; 147. Tt. Seneca somewhere [E. 19;] 
say.s that good cheer, without a friend to 
partakc of it, is tbe entertainment of a 
wildbeast: and Alexis abuses a man 
for being f^ovoipdyos. GIF. 

Ipse, as aiiros- s. Ari.-itoph. Tb. 472 ; 
541. 

At their meals, the men used to 
recline on sofas, and the ladies sat in 
ohairs BQS. s. note on ii, 120. R. 

137. See 75. Orbis denotes ' the 



slab of a round table;' [which was 
separate from the legs or supporters ;] 
xi, 122; 173; s. iv, 132; Mart. ii, 
43, 9 f; ix, 60, 7 ff. Their tables 
were originaliy square; v, 2; Varr. 
iv, 25. R. It was the ancient fashion 
to place before the guests tables with 
the viands, and not to change the dishes 
on the table. They had two tables, one 
with the meat &c; the other with the 
dessert. When they had eaten as much 
meat as thej' wished, the table itself 
was withdrawn, and the second course 
or dessert was placed before them on 
a fresh table. The square tables 
went out of fashion with the tric/inia. 
The new-fashioned coucli was of a 
semicircular form called sigma, from 
its shape C ; and it held seven or eight 
persons ; Mart. x, 48, 5 f; xiv, 87; to 
suit these, round tables were intro- 
duced. As luxury advanced, the num- 
ber of tables were increased (sometimes 
they had a fresh table with every course); 
and the guests either remained in the 
same place vvhile the tables were 
changed, or else removed to the fresh 
tables ; which latter Martial calls ain- 
bulans cwna ; vii, 48. Both the number 
and size of these tables is here noticed. 
The diameter of the table, which eon- 
sisted of a single slab, would depend on 
the size of the citron tree. And the 
beauty of the wood consisted in the 
number of its fcuots and veius. Whence 
Petronius says, citrearum inenscrutn 
Africa emtarum maculas mutari auro 
viliori, et censmn ita furbari. Their 
antiquity too is not overlooked: they 
had been famous in the family for seve- 
ral generations. And yet amidst all this 
profusion, one single course cost a for- 
time ! There seems an allusion to the 
gluttony of Clodius .^Esopus, the actor, 
and his son. Plin. ix, 35 ; x, 51 ; Hor. 
S. ii, 3, 239 ff; HNN. Plut. V. xxvi, 
p. 3 1 8 f ; xl V, p. 149 ; Suet. iv, 37 ; ix, 
13. R. LUB. L. AD. 



SAT. I. 



OF JUVENAL. 



107 



Nullus jain parasitus erit ! Sed (juis ferat istas 
140 Luxuriic sordes ? (Juanta est gula, qu;c sibi totos 

Ponit aj)ros, aninial jnoptcr conviv ia nutuni ! 

Pcena tanien prKsens, quum tu dejjonis ainictus 

Turgidus et crudum ])avonem in balnea portas. 

Hinc subita> mortes atque intestata senectus. 
145 It nova nec tristis per cunctas fal)ula caMias : 

Ducitur iratis ])laudendum funus amicis. 
Nil erit ulterius, quod nostris moribus addat 

Posteritas: eadem cuiiient facientque minores. 

Oraue in ])raecipiti vilium stetit. Utere velis ; 
150 Totos j?aude sinus. Dicas hic forsitan " Unde 



139. ' The parasife' (Ta^a <r7rn') 
paid for his dinner by flattery of his 
host. PRA. Terence has f»iven a mas- 
terly portrait of such a character iu his 
Gnatho, MAD. [Eu. ii, 2, &c.] 

' One consolation is, that the breed 
of parasites wiil become extinct ! and 
yet it may be questionpd whether even 
a parasite could sit still and see such 
a disgusting exhibition of selfish glut- 
tony.' 

140. O quanta est gfda, centies co- 
tnesse ! Mart. v, 70, 5 ; niemorabile 
inagni guttnris exetnplum; ii, 113 R. 
P. Servilius Itullus was the first who 
had a wild boar dressed whole. Plin. 
TJii, 61; PRA. s. v, 116; Suet. iii, 
34; Mart. vii, 59. It was often the 
top dish. Antony had eight served up ; 
Plut. Caranus had one to each guest ; 
Ath. iv, I. R. 

141. Suilhnn pecus donatum ah na- 
tura dicunt ad epulan du m ; Var. R. 
K. ii, 4, 10. PRA. A certain philo- 
sopher conjectured that Zi was the 
same as tui. m tls 6vin» xa} r^paynv 
/itioi WiTrsiiior Clem. Al. Strom. li. 
' For a banquet, not for a soli tary 
meal.' R. [Hor. S ii, 2, 89. . .92.] 

Natis in itsum lcetitiee scyphis pug- 
nare; Hor. Od. i, 27, 1 ; PRA. oves, 
placidtim pecus, inr/ue tuendos natum 
homines; Ov, M. xv, 116 f; MAD. 
boves, animal natum tolerare labores ; 
ib. 120 f; Livy xxii, 4, 3. 

142. Culpam piKiia premit comes; 
Hor. Od. iv, 5, 24; GliA. Od. iii, 2, 
31 f. R. hinc {ex ebrietate) pallor ct 
genae pendvlee, oculorum ulcera. tre- 



mul(B manus effundentes plena vasa ; 
et (/ uam sif pocna praesen s,furiales 
somni et inquies nocturna osteiulunt; 
Plin. xiv, 22. BRl. 

Primus Q. Ilortensius augurali coena 
dicitur pavones posuisse. Quorum pre- 
tia statim extulerunt multi, ita ut ova 
eorum denariis venirent f/iiinis, ipsi 
facile quim/uagenis; Macr. Sat. iii, 13. 
PRA. The flesh of this bird is very 
indigestible. Aug. de Civ. D. xxi, 4. 
AS. 

143. Pers. iii, 98 ff; PRA. crudi tu- 
midi(/ue lavcmur; Hor. Ep. i, fJ, 61. 
MAD. [' gorged with food.' GJF.] 

145. Avarus, nisi cum moritur, non 
recte facit. G V. 

146. Tristia fn ncra d uciint; 
"Viro:. G. iv, 256; Pers. [iii,] 105 f; 
vi,33f. LUB. The friends are au- 
noyed, both at the selfishness of the 
deceased, and at their having no lega- 
cies from him. MAD. 

147. See87. R. 

148. Mmoj-esunderstand natu,MAD. 
ii, 146; \-iii, 234; opposed to veteres ; 
xiv, 189; to majores; Ov, Tr. iv, 10, 
55. R. 

149. ' The climax is now complete : 
vice has reached its acme.' Livy xxiv, 
7, 1. 

The poet here encourages liimself to 
give full scope to his indignation in a 
familiar metaphor. s. Virg. G. ii, 41 ; 
iv, 117; Hor. Od. i, 31, 4; ii, 10, 23; 
iv, 15, 4; &c. R. 

150. Froni vnde to arena, 157; is an 
anticipation of the ohjections supposed 
tn be made bv a friend. BUI. 



108 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. I 



lugenium par raateriae ? unde illa priorum 
Scribendi, quodcumciue animo ilagrante liberet, 
Simplicitas, cujus non audeo dicere nomen ? 
Quid refert dictis ignoscat Mucius, an non ? 
155 Ponc Tigellinum : tteda lucebis in illa, 

Qxia. stantes ardent, qui fixo gutture fumant, 
Et latum media sulcum diducis arena." 



151. Observe the hiatus in materice 
unde. Seeii, 26; iii, 70; v, 158; vi, 
247; 468; &c; R. [xv, 126.] 

Priores viz. Eupolis, Cratinus, Aris- 
tophanes, Lucilius, Cato Censorinus, 
Terentius Varro, and Horace. PRA. 
s. Hor. S. ii, 1, 62. R. [ib. i, 4, 1.] 

153. Simplicitas, irecppttvia. ' The un- 
utterable name' was libertas. BRI. 
s. Suet. iv, 27. PRA. 

154. See Pers. i, 114 f. ' T. Mucius 
AlbutiKS had sufticient magnanimity 
and wisdom to disregard the attacks of 
Lucilius ; but had it been otherwise, 
the satirist would have little to dread 
from his resentment.' Sch. MAD. 

155. ' Dare to put down the uame 
of Tigelli/ius, and you will be treated 
as an incendiary.' C Offonius Tigel- 
linus of Agrigentum was recommended 
to the notice of Nero by his debauche- 
ries. After the murder of Burrhus, he 
succeeded to the command of the prae- 
torian guards, and abused his asceud- 
ancy over the emperor to the most 
dreadful purposes. He afterwards be- 
trayed him ; by which, and other acts 
of perfidy, he secured himself during 
Galba's short reign. He was put to 
death by Otho, to the great' joy of the 
people, and died, as he had lived, a 
protiigate and a coward. See 59. Who 
is here designated by the name of 
Tigellinus, cannot now be known ; even 
in Trajan's reign there were depraved 
favourites, whose enmity it would be 
perilous to provoke. Sch. GIF. Mart. 
iii, 20, 16; GV. PRA. Suet. vii, 
15. Pone may mean ' pourtray ;' Pers. 
i, 70; Hor. A. P. 34. R. [nunc saxo, 
nunc li(/uiilis coloribus ponere, id. O. 
iv, 8, 7f.] 

Tceda. . .jianant. The dreadful fire, 
which laid waste a great part of Rome 
in the reigii of Nero, was found to have 
broken out in the house of Tigellinus. 
His notorious intimacy with the emperor 



corroborated the general suspicion tbat 
the contlagration was owing to design. 
Nero was exasperated at the discovery, 
and, to avert the odium from his fa- 
vourite, basely taxed the Christians 
with setting fire to the house. Thou- 
sands of those innocent victims were 
sacrificed in consequence : multitudo 
ingens convicti su»t: et pereuntibus 
addita ludibriu, nt ferarum tergis con- 
tecti, laniatu canum interire7it, aut 
crucibus adjixi, aut Jiammandi, atque, 
ubi defecisset dies, in usum nocturni 
luminis urerentur : liortos suos ei spec- 
taculo Nero obtulerat, et circense ludi- 
crum edebat ; Tac. An. xv, 44. GIF. 
This was called tunica ptmire molesta ; 
viii, 235 ; BRO. circiimdati dejixis cor- 
■poribus ignes; Sen. de Ira, iii, 3; L. 
cogita illam tunicam alimentis ignium 
illitam et intextam. et quicquid prceter 
h(Ec scevitia commenta est; id. ad 
Lucil. PRA. id. Ep. xiv. R. 

157. Homines defoderunt in terram 
dimidiatos,ignemque circumposuerunt ; 
ita interfecerunt ; Cat. ia Gell. iii, 
14. G. Supposing this to be the case 
here, we may read (or, at any rate, 
interpret) the line thus ; Et latum 
medius sulcum diducis arena. s. Livy 
v, 38, [a; vi, 15, d;] xxi, 55, 5; (D.) 
xliv, 33. ED. The ground in which 
the stake was fixed appears to have 
been more or less excavated ; poena 
Flavii Veiano Nigro tribuno nmndatur: 
is jrroximo in agro scrobem effodi 
jussit, quam Ftavius ut humilem et 
angustam increpabat; Tac. An. xv, 
[67 ^^^ scrobem sibijieri coram imperai 
dimensus ad corporis sui modulum ipse 
Nero; Suet. vi, 49. These executiona 
often took place ' in the centre of the 
arena of the amphitheatre.' Suet. iv, 
7. PRA. nemo spectator miseras vo- 
luptates unco et ignibus expiavit; Plin. 
Pan. xxxiii, 3. jR. [Paley Ev. i, ch. 
2.] or ' You labour in vain, as if you 



SAI. I. 



OF JUVENAL. 



100 



Qiii dedit t-rgo tribus patruis aconita, vehatur 
Fensilibus plumis atquc illinc despiciat nos ? 

100 " Quum venict contra, digito compesce labellum. 
Accwsator erit, qui verbum dixerit, hic est. 
Securus licet .Eneam Rutulumque ferocem 
Committas: nuUi gravis cst percussus Achilles, 
Aut multum qusesitus Hylas urnamque sequutus. 

165 Ense vchit stricto quotie.s Lucilius ardens 

Infrcnuiit, rubct auditor, cui frigida niens est 
Criminibus ; tacita sudant prcecordia culpa. 
Tnde ine et lacrumae. Tecum prius ergo voluta 
Hxc animo ante tubas : galeatum scro duclli 



were ploughing the sand.' s. vii, 48 f. 
MAD. [^sulcnm dant luris conj. 
s. Vir. JE. ii, 697. AN, in DB, A.] 

158. Here the author replies indig- 
nantly. LUB. See 6". PRA. ' Wolfs- 
bane' may be put for poison generally : 
litrida terribiles miscent aconita no- 
vercce; Ov. Met. i, 147; MAD. id. 
vii, 418 ff; Virg. G. ii, 152. R. 

159. ' On pensile couch of down.' 
Sch. 

160. The friend now speaks. 
Contra ' in your way;' Mart. v, 4, 

5 ; xiv, 62. R. 

161. ' He will be regarded in the 
light of an accuser, who shall but have 
whispered " That's he''!' HS. even 
although these words are generally used 
in a favourable sense ; as Pers. i, 28 ; 
Mart v, 13, 3 ; R. or ' If a person 
does but say " That's he!" he will 
have an information laid against him.' 
PRA. 

162. ' You may without apprehension 
handle epic themes.' ' The Rutilian' is 
Tnrnus. PRA. s. Hor. S. ii, 1, 10 ff. 
R. Nos enim, gui in foro veris^ue 
litibits terinmr, multuni malitife, quam- 
vis no/imus, addiscimus : scholaetaudi- 
torium, ut Jicta causa, ita res inermis 
innoj:ia est ; Piin. There is the same 
idea in the Knight of the Burning 
Pestle : [by Beaumont and Fletcher:] 
" Prol. By your sweet favour we intend 
no harm to the city. Cit. No, sir! yes, 
sir. If you were not resolved to play 
the jack, what need you study for new 
subjectspurposely to abuseyourbetters? 
Why could not you be content, as well 
as others, with the Legend of Whitting- 



ton, the Story of Queen Eleanor, and 
the rearing of London Bridge upon 
woolsacks ?" GIF. 

163. Committere is a metaphor from 
' matching' a pair of gladiators ' against 
each other.' GY. vi,378; 436; Luc. 
i, 97. R. [Hom. 11. A 8.] 

Nec nocet auctori, mollem qui fecit 
Achillem, i/ifregisse suis mollia facta 
modis; Ov. Tr.ii,411 f. GR.4. Achilles 
was shot with an arrow by Paris. PRA. 
Hom. II. X ;359; Od. fl 36 ff; Virg. 
&. vi, 57. R. 

164. ' Sought for by Hercules and 
the Argonauts.' Virg. E. vi, 43 f; 
PRA. G. iii, 6. R. 

165. Secuit Luciliusurbem; Pers. i, 
114; PR^. Hor. S. i, 4, 1 ff; S. ii, 1, 
62 ff; R. s. Suet. iv, 53; Hor. Od. 
iii, 1, 17 ff. In Randolph's Entertain- 
ment there is an admirable paraphrase 
of this passage : " When I but frown'd 
in my Lucilius' brow, Each conscious 
cheek grew red, and a cold trembling 
Freezed the chill soul, while everv 
guilty breast Stood,fearful of dissection, 
as afraid To be anatomized by that 
skilful hand, And have each artery, 
nerve, and vein of sin, By it laid open 
to the public scorn." GIF. 

166. ' It shudders;' * the blood runs 
cold.' MAD. formidine turpi frigida 
corda tremunt; Sil. ii, 338. R. 

168. Uinc ilfce laerumee ! Ter. And. 
i, 1, 99. GV. 

Virg. /E. iv, 533; vi, 158; 185. R. 

169. Tubas is here put for classica 
' the sounds of the trumpet.' G V. cur 
ante tubam tremor occupat artua; 
Virg. JE. xi, 42i ; s. Sil. ix, 52 ; Cland. 



110 



THE SATIRES OF JUVENAL. 



SAT. I. 



170 Pa3nitet." Experiar, quid concedatur in illos, 
Quorum Flaminia tegitur cuns atque Latina. 



iii, 333; xxi, 192. R. Juvenal is very 
fond of adopting Virgilian expressions ; 
see 61 ; ii, 99 ; 100; vi, 44 ; (s. i, 36;) 
xii, 94 ; A'c. HNR. 

Galeatux denotes not inerely ' a sol- 
dier,' as in viii, 238 ; but one who has 
buckled on his helmet ; (s. vi, 252 ; 
[i Kings XX, 11;]) since it appears 
from Traian's Pillar, that before sol- 
diers went into battle, their helmets 
were suspended from the right shoulder. 
HNR. 

Sero; compare St Lulce xiv, 31. 

Duellioa is the ancient form ofMiioi/, 
and hence the word perdt(ellis. F. 

iro. The Poet declares that he will 
wage war on the dead alone. PRA. 
Hall, ou the contrary, says, " I will 
not ransack up the quiet grave, Nor 
burn dead bones as he example gave ; 
I tax the living, let the ashes rest, 
Whose faults are dead, and nailed in 
their chest." Yet Hall, like Juvenal, 
makes use of the names of those de- 
parted. GIF. 

171. ' The Flaminian and Latin 
ways,' as well as the Appian, were 



adorncd on either side with the sepul- 
ehres of niany illustrious men : Sch. v, 
55 ; for tl\e hiws of the Twelve Tables 
prohibited sepulture within the walls. 
The Latin way led to Sinuessa. FRA. 
[Job xviii, 17 ; and xxi, 27; (nn.) " In 
ail the old highways, that lead from 
Rome, one sees several little ruius on 
each side of them, that were formerly 
so many sepulchres ; for the ancient 
Romans generaliy buried their dead 
near the great roads. None, but some 
few of a very extraordinary quality, 
having been interred within the walls 
of the city. Our cliristian epitaphs, 
that are to be seen only in churches or 
in church-yards, begin often with siste 
viator! viator prf.care salu- 
TEM ! ETC. probably in imitation of 
the old Koman inscriptions, that gene- 
rally addressed themselves to the tra- 
vellers; as it was impossible for them 
to enter the city, or to go out of it, 
without passing through one of tbese 
melancholy roads, which for a great 
length was nothing else but a street of 
funeral monuments." ADD, R. p. 58.] 



S A T I R E II. 



ARGUMENT. 

Tbis Satire, iii point of time, was probably tbe first wbicb Juvenal wrote. 
It contains an irregular biit auimated attack upon tbe bypocrisy of 
pbilosopbers and reformers ; wbose wickedness it exposes witb just se- 
vcrity, 1 . .28. Domitian bere becomes tbe bero : and tbe poet must bave 
bad an intrepid spirit to produce and circulate, thougb but in private, 
such a faithful picture of tbat ferocious tyrant, at once tbe censor and 
tbe pattern of profligacy, 29 fl:'. Tbe corruption, beginning at the 
head, is represented as rapidly spreading dowuwards, 3-1. .81. Even the 
victorious progress of tbe Roman arms served but to diff^use corruption 
more widely, 159.. 170. 

Infidelity was now universal, 149. .152. Sucb was the depravity and im- 
piety, tbat a club was formed to dress up as females and burlesque the 
rites of the Good Goddess, 82.. 114. Tbere were even iustancts of 
men marrying eacb otber, 11 5.. 142; and of Roman nobles degrading 
tbemselves by playing the gladiator, 143. .148. How would the beroes of 
primitive Rome receive in the shades below their degenerate posterity? 
153.. 158. GIF. R. 

There is a close correspondence between this Satire and Dio Cbrysost. 
Tt(t txnfiaTos Orat. Alex. liah. HNN. 



11-2 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. n. 



Ultra Sauromatas fugere hinc libel et glacialem 
Oceanum, quotics aliquid de moribus audent, 
Qui Curios simulant et Bacchanalia vivunt. 
Indocti primum ; quamquam plena omnia gypso 
Chrjsippi invenias. Nam perfectissimus horum est, 
Si quis Aristotelem similem vel Pittacon emit, 
Et jubet archelypos pluteum servare Cleanthas. 
Fronti nulla fides. Quis enim non vicus abundat 



1. ' Fain would I flee.' s. xv, l7l f ; 
Prop. ii, 30, 2; R. Hnr. Od. iii, 10, 1. 

The Sattromatce, or Sarmatee, (iii, 
79; Herod. iv, 21 ; <fee ;) inhabited the 
banks of the Tanais and Borysthenes ; 
GRA, PRA. the province of Astra- 
can. 

' The iey or northern ocean:' et fjita 
brmna rigens ac nescia vere remitti, 
adstringif Scythico g l a c ia le mfrigore 
ponfum; Luc. i, 17. MAD. 

2. Understand docere, scribere, aut 
disputare. GRA. In this line, as in 
40, 63, and 121, there is a side blovr 
at the Perpetual Censorship which 
Domitian had assumed. UNR. 

3. Siviulare ' to pretend to be what 
one is n o t ; ' dissimulare ' to pretend 
not to be what one is.' [Cses. C. i, 19 ; 
ii, 31 ; quod non est simulo, dissimu- 
loque quod est.'^ 

M\ Curius Dentaius, thrice consul, 
conquerorof theSabines, Samnites, Lu- 
canians, and Pyrrhus, was apattern of 
frugality and integrity. Val. Maxim. 
iv, 3, 5 ; Plin. xviii, 3 ; PRA. xi, 78 S. 
Adspicis incompfisillum, Deciane, ca- 
pillis ? (s. Hor. Od. i, 12, 41 fiF;) cujus 
et ipse times triste supercilium ; q u i 
loquitur Curios, assertoresque Ca- 
millos : ?iolito fronti credere; 
Mart. i, 25; vii, 58, 7 f; ix, 28, 6 ff. 
Quid? si quis vultu forvo ferus, ef pede 
nudo, exiguceque togce simul et textore 
Catonem, virtutemne reprcesentet 
moresque Catonis? Hor. Ep. i, 19, 12 
fF. R. 

Bacchanalia : s. Liv. xxxix, 8 fiF. 
PRA. A Grecism for bacchantium 
more. MAD. Nunc Safyrum, 7iunc 
agresfem Cyclopa jyiovetur; Hor. 
Ep.ii,2, 125. In these rites the grossest 
vices were practised under the cloak of 
religion. R. 

4. These ' unleamed'pretenders had 
brought out of the schoolslittle wisdom, 
but plenty of conceit. HNR, 



Understand /oca : ' every corner of 
their libraries and halls.' LUB. 

Gypso ' of plaster casts or busts.' 
LUB. 

5. Chrysippus, the Stoic, pupil of 
Zeno and Cleanthes. LUB, Pers. vi, 
80. PRA. 

Esf, i. e. in their estimation. LUB. 

6. ' A fac-simile of Aristotle,' the 
Stagyrite, pupil of Plato, founder of the 
Peripatetic sect, tutor of Alexander the 
great. PRA. Thus similem fe ' an 
image of thee;' Stat. S. i, 1, 101 ; ii, 
7, 129; Mart. ix, 102, 1. R. 

Pitfacus, Dictator of Mitylene, one 
ofthe seven sages. LUB. 

7. ' Originals' {lc^y^rtTu^ot). T. Mart. 
vii, 10, 4-^ xii, 69, 2. R. 

Pluteum ' the bookcase.' Sch. Pers. 
V, 106. PRA. ["Books are indeed the 
least part of the furniture that one 
ordinarily goes to see in an Italian 
library ; which they generally set ofiF 
with pictures, statues, and other orna- 
ments, where they can afford them, 
after the example of the old Greeks and 
Romans;" ADD, Milan p. 12.] 

Cleanthes, [son of Phanes.] originally 
apugilist, was afterwards pupilof Zeno, 
and his successor in the Stoic School : 
while student he was so poor that he 
used to work at night in drawing water 
for gardeners, and was hence called 
(p^iavrXtis. LUB. Therefore some pre • 
fer the reading pufeum. VAL. GV, 
HS. Pers.y, 64. PRA. 

If Lucian had read Juvenal, he might 
have this passage in his thought when 
he wrote his Illiterate Book-collector. 
Locher, who translated Brandt's Ship of 
Fools, had undoubtedly both Lucian 
and Juvenal before him, when he gave 
the foUowing version : spetn quoquenec 
parvam collecfa volnmina prcebent, 
calleo nec verbum, nec libri sentio 
mentem, attamen in magno per me 
servanttfr honore. GIF. 



SAT. 11. 



OF JUVENAL. 



11:} 



Trislibus ohsciuni.s? Casligas tur|)ia, quuni sis 
10 Inter SocralicDS notissinia Ibssa cinjidos, 

Ilispida nienibra (juideni ct thna> pcr bracliia settB 
Proiuittunt atrocem aninium ; sed podice levi 
Cseduntur tumida^, niodico ridcntc, mariscaj. 
Rarus sermo ihis et niagna hibiJo taccndi 
15 Atque superciho brevior coma. Verius ergo 
Et magis ingonue Peribomius. Hunc ego latis 
Imputo, qui vultu morbum incessuque fatetur. 
Horum simplicitas miserabilis ; his furor ipse 



9. ' Solemn debauchees :' (erumtiosi- 
qitr Solones, obstipo capite et Jigentes 
tiiwine terram \ Pers. iii, 79 ; GRA. 
philosophi vitltiim et tristitiam et 
dissentientem a ceterishahitumpessiinis 
moribus prcefendunt ; Quint. 1. pr. § 
15; pigritite arrogantioris (homines), 
qui, snbito fronte conficta immissaqne 
harba, paulum aliquid sederunt in 
scholis philosophorum, itt tleiiide in 
publico fristes, domi dissoluti, 
captarent auctoritatem contcmtit cete- 
rorum ; id. xii, 3, 12. HXR. 

Castigas, ^■c. s. Rouians ii, 1. 
MAD. 

10. ' The most notorious sink of all 
the depraved pretenders to Socratic phi- 
losophy.' A? Juvenal admired Socrates, 
xiii, 185 ff; xiv, 320 ; and is here attack- 
ing hypocri.sy, (Mart. ix, 48; R.) the 
alteration of the text to Sotadicos is 
worse than unnecessary, for Sotades 
was no hj-pocrite. GIF. 

11. See ix, 15 ; xiv, 194 ; Mart. ii, 
36; vi, 6G; R. Ov. Met. xiii, 850. 
LUB. These were Stoici pcene Cynici ; 
Cic. 0S.\,3b.HNR. 

12. V, Flacc. i, 272; Claud. viii, 
521. Spondet ; vii, 134 ; 9TiZra.i, Hom. 
II. r83; E 832; 1 241. R. 

Atrox nnimus Cntonis; Hor. 
Od, ii, 1, 24. R. 

" But all so smooth below ! the 
surgeon smiles, And scarcely can, for 
laughter, lance the piles." GIF. 

13. The Pythagorean philosophers 
exacted rigid silence from their pupils. 
GRA. ia^oDi aureui xairfiiais (iaSl^cyras , 
ififitfikn/iiyiv; iltraXus (p^siTiC^oiiTas ai) 
afpnaTou; . i» X'''f >^ov^ias rovs 'sXiiirrtv;. 
ovoi» a/3e«ir oiio ai Ta.tu \s ro aiia,<p6po)t 
vxtoiKTfrroi us ixvXtiKrof titai xai xvti- 
«a» art^toDs, aXX.' it) toZ ftirov xxra^rri 



(jt.aros » Sn aoirroi) atratrts iTcaj ^airii w 
rouri)* oXiyo» iroi fiiXti. a^ois «» tufraXhs 
« aiafioXn xa) o rayut [iafivs xai 1» XiV 
n xov^x ; xa) xZ^ «''"' «•;^;»i/<aT«u» xa) 
liadio^/uarut xa) xovoas ^iayiytdrxiiy rovs 
do',<rrovs os o at /jlyi £;^>j raZra (/.riSi 
rxvf^uTOS V xa) f^otrirrixos ro fr«aViwT«», 
dvohoxiunirisos xa) aTofiXririos ; Luc. 

Hermot. 18. R. 

15. The Stoics, who were the most 
rigid sect, (G4 f; iv, 76 ;) cuttheirhair 
quite close to the head ; whence the 
proverb crinc Stoicus ; and defonsa 

Jitvcntus ; Pers. iii, 54. LUB. a^iriirif 
oux ivioixt xofin was the opinion of 
Phocyllidcs. GRA. s. i Corinthiansxi, 
14. MAD. Thereishuraourintheuseof 
supercilio, as alluding to their affecta- 
tionofsuperciliousness. v,62. R. ['Their 
hair conies short of their supercilious- 
ness.'J 

Verius ' with more candour.' Cic. 
Or. ii, 86. R. 

16. A fictitious name, from irig/ and 
(iufiis, [altaria circum, Vir. /E. viii, 
285 ;] in allusion perhaps to the dis- 
solute priests of Cybele, Sch. [Per. iii, 
32, note.l 

Fafis ' to an unfortunate constitu- 
tion.' Stttpet hicvitio; Pers. iii, 32. 
' To a malign horoscope.' PRA. s. 
Manil. V, 105. GRA. ' To irresi^stible 
destiny.' R. 

17. ' His sin and its consequences.' 
50; iv, 49; Kora. i, 27, latter part. 
MAD. 

Fafetiir • manifests,' ' openly shows.' 
X, 172; XV, 132. Perhaps quem 
would be preferable to qui. R. 

18. ' Of him and the like.' R. 
Vera simplicitate bonus ; Mart. 

i, 40, 4. R. 

' Tobepitied.' rtvrovs iXtiTiriai -roor- 



lU 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. II. 



Dat veniam : sed pejores, qui talia verbis 

20 Ilerculis invadunt et de virtute loqimti 

Clunem agitant. " Ego te ceventcm, Sexte, verebor?" 
Infamis Varillus ait. " Quo deterior t(i .'' 
Loripedem rectus derideat, .Ethiopem albus. 
Quis tulerit Gracchos de seditioue querentes ? 

25 Quis coelum terris non misceat et mare coelo. 



»)»i/' Gal. de Us. Part. xi ; acd /itt K^in- 
#•«■«» ihXoaaxrKravra. Kai ra tura iTifT^i- 
ypayra xa) oiixiTv ovx a^ttu/iiyiav It) rrt> 
xonii* iKiitmv a-roXoyia* xara(pvyil)i (Xiyta 
3» rnv riy^rti xa) /ioT^av xai iifia^uitvv) 
»a) va^airiTsiai irvyytufttiv tx,ti» y-oi rovt 
tfririfiuvrai , iiiorat af oviivos iiui7s xv^ioi, 
«cXX' v*'o rivof XQiirrotos, f.aXXov ii ft.iaf 
Tuv treoii^nfiivut ayoftita, ov^ ixnvrtf, 
aX^.' diairioi xavravairiv ovTit, a avXiyu- 
fitr ti voiafii)! Luc. ' Aa*. o*. r. i. /tiff. rvv. 
9. R. 

19. ' They may be acquitted on the 
ground of insanity.' 

With talia understand flagitia or 
vitia. s. 34. 

20. ' Herculean,' or ' ia such lan- 
guage as Prodicus has put in the mouth 
of Hercules.' GV. (s. Pers. v, 34 f; 
TRA.) Xen. Mem. ii, 1 ; Cic. Off. 
i, 32. MAD. axovirar, u Iruaxif (or 
"Sroaxif), ifiTo^oi Xri^ou, Xoycov yar«- 
xpirrioif, 01 fiovoi travra ra '» roTf viva^i, 
irj(» « ru ffo(pu Say»a», avro) xaTappofi(7rs' 
xaf aXiffxiffh Itavrla ■r^affffovrif oif 
r^ayefiSlirt ^^vXXiirt ya^, ori St? fih 
rur ffufidruv, aXXa rnf '4"'X^' 'f'*''" 
Herm. in A.then.- xiii, 15, p. 663. R. 
These Stoics affected to imitate Her- 
cules. HNR. 

21. ' Act the wanton.' 
Ceventem ' indulging in lewdness.' 

22. YariUus.1 a beggarly debauchee, 
being threatened with punishment by 
Sejcti/s, a magistrate of depraved cha- 
racter, takes occasion to shelter himself 
by recrimination. He aggravates the 
hypocrisy of his judge by various ex- 
amples, till the accumulated force of 
the charge is tumed upon Domitian. 
GIF. s. Hor. S. ii, 7, 40 ff; R. Pers. 
iv, 23 f. GRJ. 

23. ' One who has his legs twisted 
lite a thong.' PRA. 

Vicinia so/is vsquead speciem n ig r i 
colorisexussit .^thiopas, torridce ni- 
mirum zonee subjectos; Macrob. de 



Som. Sc. ii, 10 ; Plin. ii, 78 ; Diod. iv, 

1. PRA. 

Qui alterum accusat probri, eum ip- 
sum se intueri oportet; Plaiit. Truc. i, 

2, 58 ; GRA. I" One who lives in a 
glass house should be the last to throw 
stones."] St Matthew vii, 3, .5. MAD. 

24. Ti. and C. Semprcmii Gracchi 
were brothers, nobly descended and 
virtuously educated, but too ambitious 
for their times. To carry an Agrarian 
lavv, which they had proposed, they 
stuck at no meanshowever inconsistent 
with that liberty of whieh they were 
the professed champions. They both 
met with violent deaths, the former at 
the hands of Scipio Nasica, the latter 
about thirteen years afterwards, by 
order of the consul Opimius. Of their 
characters Dio says : iKi7vof fiit iir 
a^irnt tf ^iXoriftiav^ xai i\ avrnt if 
xaxiat i^axiiXtV ovros Ss ra^ap^u^nf rt 
(pvffti »», xa) ixuv iVovri^iviTo' fr. 90. 
Cicero speaks in high terms of the 
abilities of the younger brother: Ti. 
sequutusest C. Gracchus, quo ingenio, 
[quanta i'/,] quanta gravitate dicendi! 
xit dolerent boni omnes, no7i illa tanta 
ornamenta ad meliorem mentem voluti- 
tatemque esse conversa ; de Ar. Resp. 
19, 41. Fromthe present passage it ap- 
pears that Juvenal thought them se- 
d i t i o u s ; they certainly set a pernicious 
example to the ambitious men of the 
subsequent age. After SuUa, Marius, 
and Cinna had devastated the common- 
wealth by their sanguinary feuds and 
proscriptions, the people, weary of fierce 
contentions froin which they gained 
nothing, threw themselves intothe arms 
of tyranny, the ordinary refuge from 
the evils of licentious anarchy. GIF. 

25. An imitation of non si terra 
mari miscebitur, et mare coelo ; Lucr. 
iii, 854 ; [( WK.) i, 280 f.] ' Who 
would not exclaim, ccelum, terra, 
O maria NeptuniP Ter. Ad. v, 3, 4 ; 



SAT. II. 



OF JUVENAL. 



115 



Si fur displiceat Verri, hoinicida Miloni ? 
Clodius accuset nia?chos, Catiliua Cothej^uni } 
In tabuUun Sulhe si dicant discipuli tres ? 
Qualis erat nuper tragico poUutus adulter 
30 Concubitu, qui tunc leges revocabat amaras 
Omnibus atque ipsis Veneri Martique tiniendas, 
Quum tot abortivis fecundam JuHa vulvam 



LUB. vi, 283 f; Virg. /E. i, [50; 
128;] 133; [iii,422; iv, 160;] v,790; 
Liv. i V, 3 ; rv yv r J» »vgmtef atafttfii-^iitr 
Luc. Prom.'9'; R. [Psalm cvi, 26; 
iEsch. P. V. 1028 ; 1121 ff ; (nn.) Ov. 
M. xi, 497; Tac. A. ii, 23; E, C. C. 
and PLE,L.E. miscere ; BRK, C. R. 
i, p.211ff.J "Oallyouhostofheaven! 
O earth! What else? And shall I 
couple hell?" Shaksp. Ham. i, 5. s. 
75, note; [Hor. E. 17,30.] 

26. The extortions of C. Verres, in 
Gaul, Cilicia, and more especially in 
Sicily, where he was proconsul, are well 
known from Cicero's orations. R. 

T. Annius Milo killed P. Clodius, 
and was defended unsuccessfully by 
Cicero. MAD. 

27. rUnd.«e, accordingtotheHebrew 
idiom.J 

P. Clodiiis was guilty of incest with 
bis own sister, and of adultery with 
Porapeia, the wife of Csesar. He was 
a bitter enemy of Cicero, and the chief 
author of his banishment. G V. MAD. 
This name is the same as Claudius. R. 

L. Sergius Catitina and Corn. Ce- 
thegus were accomplices in the formi- 
dable conspiracy which was frustrated 
by the exertions of Cicero. Sall. Cat. 
PRA. viii, 231 ; x, 287. R. 

28. ' The proscripiion-list.' Flor.iii, 
21 ; V. Max. ix, 2. GV. 

Sulla: see i, 16. 

Dicere in may be either ' to inveigh 
against, as accusers,' or ' to condemn, 
as judges.' R. 

* The three disciples' are most pro- 
bably thesecond triumvirate, Octavius, 
Antony, and Lepidus, who imitated 
Sulla in the extent and cruelty of their 
proscriptions : Flor. v, 4. The former 
triumvirate of Csesar, Pompey, and 
Crassus, was formed within twenty 
years of Sulla'8 death. Sch. R. Both 
these triumvirates might have said with 
Shylock, " The villainy you t e a c h us, 



we willexecute; and it shall go hard, 
but we willbetter tbe instructionj" 
Shaksp. M. of V, iii, 1. GIF. 

29. ' Such a rigid censor was Domi- 
tian.' Suet. xii, 8. HNR. Nostine 
hos, <jui omninm libidiman servi, sic 
aliorum vitiis irascuntur, ^uasi invide- 
ant ; et gravissime puniunt, quos maxi- 
me imitantur; Plin. Ep. i, 22. FAR. 
Tu^Kii 3i Koi a,ti^if xai yuiaixn rSn 
^Xau^iaif ir) fici-^tia \»0>.dv(nfa.i, ut 1ti»t 
*«) isr' auTou ifm^tiirifar D. Cas. Ixvii, 
12. Nec miuore scclere quam quod 
ulcisci videbalur, Domitit^nus absentem 
inauditamque Corneliam damnavit in- 
cesti, cum ipse fratris filiam, incesto 
non polluisset solum, verum etiam 
occidisset ! Plin. iv, 11. G/i^. Domi- 
tian, after having declined the hand of 
Julia the daughter of his brother Titus, 
seduced her, although she was then 
married to Sabinus. During the life- 
timeofherfatherandhusband,however, 
he kept the intrigue secret. R. He had 
previouslytaken away Domitia Longina 
from her husband jElius Lamia. MAD. 
' Tragic,' ' full of horrors :' as were 
theguilty loves of Thyestes and Aerope, 
the passion of Phsedra for her step-son 
Hippolytus, PRA. the marriage of 
CEdipus and Jocasta, &c. HEI. Livy 
i, 46. 

30. ' The Julian and Scatinian 
laws;' the former against adultery, the 
latteragainstunnatural vites :44; Suet. 
xii, 8. The epigrammatist makes this re- 
enactment the grounds of courtly pane- 
gyric ; Mart, vi, 2 ; ix, 7 ; PRA. s. vi, 
368. R. 

31. 07««?6?<5shows theuniversal de- 
pravity of the times. R. 

' Venus and Mars' were detected by 
Vulcan. L UB. Ov. M. iv, 1 71 ff. 

32. ' Drugs to procure abortioru' vi, 
368 ; 59;') f. R. These medicines were 
repeated in stronger doses, and the last 
proved fatal. Suet. xii, 22. PRA. 



116 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. 11. 



Solveret et patruo similes effunderet offUs." 
Nonne igitur jure ac merito vitia ultima fictos 

35 Contemuunt Scauros ct castigata remordent ? 
Non tulit ex illis torvum Lauronia qucmdam 
Clamantem toties: " Ubi nunc lex Julia? dormis?" 
Ad quem subridens : " Felicia tempora, quse te 
Moribus opponunt ! Habcat jam Roma pudorem ! 

40 Tertius e coelo cecidit Cato. Sed tamen unde 
Haec emis, hirsuto spirant opobalsama collo 
Qua3 tibi? Ne pudeat dominum monstrare taberna;. 



33. Solveret [' would unburthen/ iv, 
67.] 

' Her uncle' Domitian was ill-maJe. 
Suet. xii, 18. GRA. 

' Shapeless lumps.' xv, 11. It does 
iiot foUow from the epithet fecundam 
and the plural offas, thatmore than one 
miscarriage was caused. R. 

34. Vitia ^iltima, by hypallap^e, for 
' the very worst of men;' LUB. the 
abstraec for the concrete ; MAD. thus 
lahes ac cwninn ; Cic. sceliis; Plaut. 
Bac. V, 2, 57 ; &c ; R. Ter. And. iii, 5, 
1 ; and ip«/3«; for (poSii^iv Her. vii, 112. 

35. M. ^Einilius Scanrus\s described 
as homo vitia sua cal/ide occultans ; 
Sall. Jug. 18 ; LUB. Hor. S. i, 3, 62. 
But on comparing xi, 90 f; [and vi, 
604 ;] we niay presume thatthe family, 
rather than the individual, is alluded 
to : ' Those who p r e t e n d to be Scauri.' 
-R. 

' Bite in return.' Hor. Ep. 6; Lucr. 
iii, 839; iv, 1131." i?. 

36. ' Ofthose hypocrites.' P/?yl. 
Torvum ' crabbed ;' or, if coupled 

with clanumtem, ' sternlv ;' MAD. as 
Tirg. ^E, vii, 399 ; Sil. xi, 99. R. 

Lauronia, according to Martial, was 
orba, divcs, anus, vidi/a; ii, 32, 6. 
PRA. The fable of ' the Lion and the 
Painter' (Spect. No. xi ;) is admirably 
illustrated by her attack : whicb not 
only does away, in advance, several of 
the heaviest charges against the women 
in Sat. vi ; but retorts them with good 
effect on the raen. GIF. 

37. ' The Julian law,' 30 ; was 
enacted by Augustus, and called Ju- 
lian, because Augustus was adopted 
into that family by the will of his great 
uncle, and, consequently, took the namt' 
of C. Julius Ctesar. GRA. 



Ferulee cessent, et idus do r m ian l 
iu Octobres ; Mart. x, 62, 10 f; pessuli 
dorm iunt; Plaut. Curo. i, 2, (i6 ; 7?. 
ei AccxiSsei//,o'n()i, Xuovrtf iv XZ^''f ''''>'' 
ecTi/^iKV Tu» aXovTuv cTi^i Hukov, sfiajav' 
'"xaifiairiuv o i vo f/,o t <rn/ie^ov'" App. 
Pun. 112; RIG. s. 43. 

38. Understand /«9«?'^. LUB. 

' Smiling ironically.' LUB. Virg. 
JE. X, 742. R. 

39. See note on Pers. v, 178. PRA. 

40. Both M. Porcius Cato the Cen- 
sor (thence called Censorius) and his 
great-grandson, surnamed Uticensis 
frum his death at Utica, were men of 
most rigid morals, and strict disciplin- 
arians. Sch. PRA. Thus Stertinius is 
called sapicntum octavus ; Hor. S. ii, 
3, 296. R. See note on 2. HNR. 

Any thing of extraordinary excel- 
lence (xi, 27 ;) or occurring unex- 
pectedly in a time of great emergency, 
(Liv. xxii, 29, 2 ;) was said to have 
come down from heaven. R. ED. A 
pinnace, which (Herodotus says viii, 
94 ;) fell in with the Corinthians hii^ 
TTofi-jT^, is called \>y Plutarch ol^aiovt- 

41. Lauronia may be said to have 
smelt this censor out, notwithstanding 
his assumed odour of sanctity. MAD. 

Hirsuto, see 11. R. 

' Exhale fragrance:' ambrosieeque 
comcE divinnm vertice odorem spira- 
vere; Virg. /E. i, 407. 

Opohdlsayna was the juice whicb ex- 
uded from the wounds made in the bal- 
sam tree ; respecting thi.s, the xylobal- 
samum, and the carpohalsamum, see 
Plin. H.N.xii, 15or25; iZ7.B. Mart. 
xiv, 59. 7?. 

42. ' By the way, I should very much 
like to know the shop, where you buy 



SAT. IF. 



OF JUVENAL. 



117 



Quod si vexantiir lcges ac jura, citari 

Ante omnes debet Scatinia. Respice primuui 

45 Kt scrutare viros : faciunt lii plura ; .sed illos 
Defendit nunierus juncticquc unibone phalangcs. 
Magna intcr niolles concordia. Nou erit uUuui 
Exeuipluni in nostro tam detestabilc sexu. 
Tivdia non lanibit Cluviam nec Flora Calullam : 

50 Hispo subit juvcncs ct morbo pallct utroque. 
Numquid nos aginuis causas ? civilia jura 
Novimus ? aut ullo slrcpitu fora vestra movcnuis ? 
Luclantur paucae ; coraedunt coliphia paucie. 



such ladj-like perfumcs ; why should 
you be ashamed to tell me ?' PRA. 
MAV). 

43. Qiiod [<ra^(A.xai>,] Livy xxvii, 7 
f. ED. Vir honitsest fjuis? fjiiicoiisulta 
patruiii, fjui l eg e s j u rar/ ue servat ; 
Hor. Ep. i, 16, 41 ; i. e. the decrees of 
the senate, ' the statute-law, and the 
commoa-law.' MAD. 

Vexari ' to be roused into actioa' is 
opposed to (lormire. MAD. s. 37. 

44. See 30. 

45. ' More thiogs deserving of repro- 
batioa and punishment.' R. 

46. Ipse iiietus exsolverat audax 
tiirba suos : quidijuid multis jieccatur, 
inultum est ; Luc. v, 259 f ; Sch. pu- 
dorem rei tollet multitudo pecrnHtium^ 
et desinet esse probri loco commune 
delictum ; Sen. Ben. iii, 16 ; id. Clem. i, 
22; R. fde I. ii, 10. " Ye are heavily 
accurseJ, because with a kind of pub- 
lick coDsent ye have joined youiselves 
in one to rob me, imagining the com- 
monness of your offcnce to be eveiy 
maa's particularjustification ;" Hooker 
E. P. v, 79, 458.] 

' By locking their shields one in the 
other' the testuflo was formcd : PRA. 
(ped^atrii <ru.Ki>; (rix.li, a.rT)i a^ a.ffiiio 
ipiiit, Si{ ^ruKtci ipijrairav dXX:^X<nri' 
Hom. 11. N 130 iX; n 21-2 if. H. See 
note on ^ga|«»Tif Ta yifpa' Her. ix, 61. 

' The plialanx' was the Maccdonian 
disposition of heavy infantry. LUB. 

4/. SeeCat. Ivii, 1, 10; simi/issimi/i 
gaiidet, and Mart. viii, 35 ; GRA. 
[Livy i, 46. " Vogel voii einer Farbe 
Jiiegen gerne mit einaiider;'^ Gcrnian 
Proveib.j 



48. Ewemplum ' an example or in- 
stance,' exemplar ' a pattern.' GRA. 

49. These are the real or tictitious 
names of notorious courtezans at Kome ; 
as Hispo was of somc infamous wretch. 
R. 

Lambit ' fondlcs not.' 

Catulla ; x, 322 ; Mart. viii, 53. R. 

50. Subit ' submits tobecaressedby.' 
Prop. iii, 19, 14. R. 

Morio utrofjuc ' with twofold sin.' 

51. ' We trespass not on your de- 
partment, therefore why shouM you 
nsurp our piovinceP' Plutarch men- 
tions one instance of a woman's pleading 
her own cause, which was regarded by 
the senate as portentous : Comp. Lyc. 
et Num. LUB. Intercain si novi 
ciri/iajura! Hor. S. i, 9, 38 ff. 

52. Vestra ' all your own.' Ama?sia, 
Afrania, and Hortensia were considered 
indelicate for having spoken in the fo- 
rum. V. Max. viii, 3. RRA. But s. vi, 
24v!. R. 

53. ' To be sure there may be some 
few wrestlers among us, but tiien they 
are but a few.' s. i, 22 f ; vi, 245 ff; 
Mart. Sp. vi. PliA. 

Co/ipliia., because they make kZx» 
' the limbs' l^ia ' strong.' The diet of 
athletes. Mart. vii, 67, 12; J. Plaut. 
Pers. i, 3, 12. VRA. Or irom Ka\nvicv 
or xuXnipiov, diininulive of kuXyi, xuXri*. 
SM. s. xi, 20. U. ' Kump stcak-;.' SD. 
BCE. This etymology of our English 
word CJLLOP has bcen overlooked : 
" Take notice whatplight you find me 
in, if tliere want but a collop or a 
steak o'nie, look to't ;'' Beaum. and 
Fl. Muid in the Mill. 



ns 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. II. 



Vos lauam trahitis calatbisque peracta refertis 
55 Vellera : vos tenni pricgnantem stamine fusum 
Penelope melius, levius torquelis Arachne, 
Horrida quale fiicit residens in codicc pellex. 
Notum est, cur solo tabulas im])leverit Hisler 
Liberto, dederit vivus cur multa puella. 
60 Dives erit, magno quaj dormit tcrtia lecto. 
Tu nube atque tace : donant arcana cylindros. 
De nobis post haec tristis sententia fertur : 
Dat veniam corvis, vexat censura columbas." 
Fugerunt trepidi vera ac manifesta canentem 



64. Paucaque cum tacta perfeci 
stamina teta\ Oy. Her. 19, 49; 
HS. Tib. i, 6, 78 ff. R. 

' In work-basket!<.' LUB. 

55. * The spindle big with slender 
thread.' MAD. s. Pers. vi, 73. PRA. 

66. Penelope., queen of Ithaca, 
atnused her importunate suitors by a 
promise to ehoose one of their number 
as soon as she had finished a pall which 
she was then weaving for Laertes ; but 
delayed her decision by undoing at 
night, what was worked diiring the 
day. Hence the proverb Peiielopes 
telam texere. LUB. Hom. Od. T 137 
ff. R. 

' Morenimbly:' levi teretem ver- 
sabat poUice fumm ; Ov. JVlet. vi, 22 ; 
Xi^Tt' nXaxaTtt, cr ^ta<ptii(ta' Hom. 

Od. P 97. i?. 

Arachne, a Lydian damsel, chal- 
lenged Pallas in vv-eavir.g, and, being 
vanqui«hed,hung herself and was trans- 
formed into a spider. Ov. Met. vi, 1 f ; 
LUB. s. Plin. vii, 66. PRA. 

57. When the mistress of a family 
detected any improper familiarity be- 
tween a female slave aiid her master, 
she used to fasten her to a large ' log of 
wood' and keep her to constant work. 
Sch. caudicis immundi vincula 
sentit: et graviora rependit iniquis 
pensa quasillis; Prop. iv, 7. 44 and 
41 ; Plaut. Poen. V, 3, 34. R.' 

PelleXjiraXXdx.ri, ' aconcubine,' the 
mistress of a married man. MAD. 

58. Opinor omnibus et lippis notum 
et tonsoribus esse; Hor. S. i, 7, 2 f; 
LUB. Virg. E. iii, 8. PRA. See note 
on vi, 366. 

Post mcriium sane mirandxm, om- 



7iia soli brevifer dabit; xii, 124 f; 
LUB. vi, 601. R. 

This Pacuvius Hister was an in- 
famous wretch, who had made his 
foitune by legacy-huuting ; xii, 111 f. 
LUB. 

59. ' During his life-time,' because 
it was illegal to bequeath a fortune 
to one's wife. PRA. 

Lauroma, by calHng the wife p^iella, 
insinuates that the hu^band had neg- 
lected her, to follow his vile propensi- 
ties. L UB. Uwor virgo maneret ; ix, 
72 ; puella ; 74. MA D. See also i, 84 ; 
iii, 160 ; iv, 35 ; 1 14 ; xiii, 80 ; &c. 

60. ' A wife, who consents to sleep 
three in a bed, is sure to make her 
fortune bv the hush-money she will 
receive.' LUB. MAD. 

61. Lauronia here apostrophizes the 
unmaiTied, telling them beforehand 
what they have to expect. MAD. 

' Your keeping a secret will ensure 
presents of costly jewels.' L UB. Plin. 
xxxvii, 5; GRA. s. vi, 459. PRA. 

62. ' If this be so, the melancholy 
truth is told of us in the proverb.' FAR. 

63. See 2. HNR. Of course ' ra- 
vens' and ' doves' designate ' men' and 
' women.' L UB. Democrates, Zaleucus, 
and Anacharsis compared laws to cob- 
webs, which only catch small insects, 
whereas larger ones break through 
them ; [too strong for the weak, too 
weak for the strong.] Ter. Phor. iii, 2, 
16. R. 

64. Trepidi ' conscience-stricken ;' as 
the Pharisees were in St John viii, 9. 
MAD. There is sarcasm in this word, 
for the Stoics professed to be i^ahit. 
LUB. 



SAT. 11. 



OF JIVENAL. 



IIU 



65 Sloicida). Quid eniin lalsl Lauronia ? Sed quid 
Non facieut alii, qumn tu niulticia sunias, 
Cretice, ct hanc vesteni pupulo niirante perores 
In Proculas et Pollitas .'' Est moccha LabuUa : 
Damnetur, si vis, etiam Carfinia. Talem 

70 Non sumet damnata logam. " Sed Julius ardet; 
.^stuo." Xudus agas ! Minus est insania turpis. 
En habitum, quo te leges ac jura fcrentem 
Vulncribus crudis ))opulus modo victor et illud 
Montanura positis audiret vulgus aratris ! 

75 Quid non prodames, in corpore judicis ista 



Canentem ' delivering oracularly;' 
cantare; Plaut. Bac. iv, 9, 61; Mos. 
iv, 2, 64; Rud. ii, 5, 21. K. 

65. Stoicidee ' These new-fangled 
Stoics ;' fortned as ^-Eacidee, Priainidce, 
&.C. FRA. Thus TiTdaxti note on 20. 
R. Or rather ' apes of the Stoics.' 
HXR. 

Now the Satire proceeds to the Stoici 
p<ene Epieurei: p. 11. HNR, 

66. Qn id domini fa c ian t, audent 
quutn talia fures '. Virg. E. iii, 16. 
GV. 

' Thou, a magistrate!' PRA. 

Multicia ' thin musliQ robes,' 76 ; 
xi, 186; called serica as coming from 
India through the country of tbe Seres, 
now Bocharia. They were first im- 
ported under the Emperors for ladies' 
dresses, but, being transparent, (78 ; 
Tib. iv, 6, 13;) gave great offence : 
video sericas vestes,si vestes vocandcE 
tunt, in quibus nihil est quo defendi 
corpus aut denique pudor possit : Sfc ; 
Sen. Ben. vii, 9; denudat feminas 
vestis; l'lin.xi,23. P. Syrus calls them 
ventus textilis and nebula linea. GRA. 
R. GIF. Seenotesonvi,259f. [ADD, 
D. M. t. i,p. 438.] 

Sumas is the opposite to ponas. 
GRA. s. 74; iii, 56. 

67. By the name of Creticus (viii, 
38 ;) is designated a degeuerate des- 
cendant of the Ccecilius Metellus 
who acquired that appellation from the 
conquest of Crete; [686 y. R.] with 
8ome allusion to the inexorabie severity 
of the ancient Cretan judges, Minos 
and Rbadamanthus. G V. HNR. R. 

Perorare ' to sum up,' ' to deliver 
a Btudied harangue.' MAD. 



GS. By Procula, (iii, 203;) Pollita, 
<fec, are meant females amenable to the 
Julian law. R. 

70. ' There is no denying her guilt : 
you may sentence her to infamy: and, 
when condemned, she may be obliged 
to lay aside tbe decent vest (sto/am) 
and assume the gown of penance {to- 
gam): but, bad as she is, she wouid 
ueverdegrade herself by wearing such 
a gown.' LUB. Cicero distinguishes 
the virilis toga frora the muliebris stola ; 
Phil. but females of disreputable cha- 
racter were obliged towear the former: 
hence the virtuous and the loose part of 
the sex were discriminated as stolatee 
and togatce. s. Hor. S. i, 2, 63 ; 82 ; 
Tib.i, 6, 68; iv, 10, 3; Mart. ii, 39; 
X, 52. RIG. PRA. GIF. R. 

' These are the dog-days:' LUB. 
tostam fervens Julius coquit messem ; 
Mart. X, 62, 7. R- 

71. ' If you are so dreadfully hot, 
you had better strip at once I you might 
then have some claim upon our pity as 
a lunatic' LUB. Nudus {ah yufitic) 
means with nothing but the tunic on ; 
(Virg. G. 1, 299 ;) R. instead of whioh, 
competitors at the games wore cam- 
pestria ' drawers.' Hor. Ep. i, 11, 18. 
AD. [Livy iii, 26, I ; s. BU, on Pet. 
Sat. 92.] 

With agas understand causas. R. 

72. ' A pretty dress, forsooth, you 
would adopt!' s. Virg. JE. iv, 597; xii, 
359 ff; &c. R. 

73. '' Our legions, with fresh laurels 
crown'd, And smarting still from many 
a glorious wound." GIF. 

75. As ' Mare, ierra, ccelum, di, 
vostram fidem ." Plaut. or ' tempora ! 



120 



THE SATIKES 



SAT. II. 



Si vidcrts.' Qiuuro, an (lccuaiit multicia tcstem .'' 
Acer et iiidomitus libertatisque magistcr, 
Cretice, pcrliices, Dcdit lianc contagio labem 
Et dabit in plures ; sicul grex totus in agris 
80 Unius scabie cadit ct porrigine porci, 
Uvaquc conspecta livorcm ducit ab uva. 

Foedius hoc aliquid quandoque audebis amictu. 
Nemo repente venit turpissimus. Accipient te 
PauLitiin, qui longa domi redimicula sumunt 



Cic. Cat. i, 1; GRJ. 
1. R. See note oa 25. 



O morcs 
Mart. ix 
PRJ. 

76. ' 1 1 woulJ be indecent even in a 
witness: much more iu a judge; and 
that judge a stoic!' An argument a 

fortiori. BRL GRA. 

77. ' Sour and rigid.' jR. 

It was the tenet of the Stoics an 
ftitos <ro(pos iXlih^os, xa) vra.; a(p^aiv 
^ouXos- libertas est potestas viveiuti nt 
ve/is; Cic. Par. v, \,4;MJD. iXivh^/a, 
V^ovrioe, ahroor^oiyias' C Laert. vii, 121 ; 
s. Hor. S. ii, 7, 83 ff; Ep. i, 16, 63. /{. 

78. Per/uces has a double meaning: 
' the veil thrown over your disposition 
is as flimsy as that which exposes, 
rather than conceals, your person.' 
PRA. In the latter sense vve have 
a beau described as crine nitens, niger 
ungi/ento, perlucidus ostro; Mart. 
xii, 38, 3. R. 

' The distemper is catching : it will 
spread.' BRI. Adspice, quid faciant 
commercial 166; contagia ri/es ; liac 
etiam pecori scepe-nocere so/ent : 8fC ; 
Ov. R. A. 613 ff; Virg. E. i, 51 ; Sch. 
R. (phi^ovffio »lV» ,\g?<r^ OfiiXixi xuKxi- 
Menander quoted by St Faui, i Cor. 
XV, 33; Livy [iii, 6 ;J xxix, 6, marg. 
FiEsch. S. Th. 594 ft'.J 

79. Virg. G. iii, 441 ff; 468 &'. R. 
" One sickly sheep infects the flock, 
And poisons all the rest;" Watts, D. 
S. xxi, 15f. [Thu. ii, 51, 11. BF.] 

81. According to tlie proverh, uva 
uvam videndo viria fit : Sch. jioT^us 
vp^i liorpvi ■ri^ruivtrar Suidas. GRA. 
It was a vulgar notion tbat ' the dark 
colour, in ripening, was communicated 
from grape to grape.' T. ' One plum 
gets colour by looking at another' is a 
common saying in Persia : Gladwin, 
Bahar Danush. GIF. Livor is ' the 
purple tinge;' o ^iiXavoxzius fiir^vf 



Anacr. 1, 1; /ividos distingnet du- 
tumnus racemos purpureo varius 
cotore; Hor. Od. ii, 5, 10 ft'; variat 
tiventibus uva racemis; Prop. iv, 
2, 13 ; R. [Hor. O. iv, 2, 59, (BY.) 
K.] 

82. ' You will not stop here:' quan- 
doqne ' some of these days.' 

Perhaps we should read aliud. 
LUB. 

83. " Never let man be bold enough 
to say, Thus, and no farther let niy 
passion stray : The first crime past 
compels us on to more, And guilt proves 
fate, which was but choice before." 
The author I have forgotten. MAD. 
" There is a method in man's wicked- 
ness, It grows up by degrees. I am 
not come So high as killing of myself ; 
there are A hundred thousand sins 
'twixt it and me, Which I must do ; 
I shall come to't at last;" Beaum. 
King and no King. Gresset applies it 
very happily to the singular depravity 
of the unfortunate Ver-Vert : " // de- 
mentit /es ce/cbres maximes Oii nous 
tisons, qu^Oii ne vient aux grands crimes 
Qne par dcgres. It fnt nn scelerat 
Profes d'abord, et sans noviciat." GIF. 

Venit for fit, as venias for fias ; vii, 
29; R. [Vir. G. i, 29 ; IXhTt Xen. A. 
iii, 2, 3.] In French devenir, in 
Italian divenire, ' to become.' 

' In time, no doubt, you will be con- 
sidered qualified for admis^^ion into that 
abominable club of atheists, which has 
been formed for the sole purpose of 
burlesquing the rites of the Good 
Goddess.' GIF. vi, 314; Ov. A. A. 
iii. 244. R. 

84. Domi ' in private.' 
Redimicn/a ' fillets' or ' ribbons' 

hanging from their caps : et tunicee 
manicas ef habent redimicula mitrce ; 
Virg. R. ix, 614 &c ; PRA. iii, 66, K. 



SAT. II. 



OF JUVKNAL. 



lil 



85 Frontibus et toto posuere monilia collo 

Atquc Hoiiam tenera- placant abdoniinc porcic 
Et luagno cratere Dcani. Sed inore sinistro 
Exagitala procul non intrat femina limen. 
Solis ara I)ea> niaribus patet. " Ite profauie!" 

90 Clamatur : nullo geuiit hic tibicina cornu. 
Talia secreta coluerunt Oigia taeda 
Cecropiam solita Tiaptte lassare Cotytto. 
Ille supercilium madida fuligine tactum 
Obliqua producit acu pingitque Irementes 



86. Monilia are so called as having 
been originally ' memorials' of merit. 
TQ. See note oii vrfiTrit' Her. iii, 
20, 1. ' These necklaces' oftea con- 
sisted ' of so many rows as to cover the 
whole neck.' MAD. 

86. It appears that more than one 
goddess was worshipped under this 
name: Macrob. Sat. i, 12; PRA. vi, 
314 ff. R. 

Antiqui s u m e n vocabant abdomen; 
Plin. xi, 84. PRA. It may here be 
put, by synecdoehe, for the whole ani- 
raal, as in xii, 73. MAD. 

87. See xii, 8 ; PRA. Ov. F. iii, 
418. R. ' The large bowl' hints at the 
free indulgence which prevailed even 
among the ladies at their secret rites ; 
GIF. vi, 315. On crater, s. Her. iii, 
130, 17. 

' By a contrary regulation.' FAR. 

88. Sarra Bonce, maribus non ad- 
eunda, De<e; Tib. i, vi, 22. MAD. 

89. A parody oi ^' procu/, o procnl 
este, p ro/a n i," conclamat vates, " to- 
toque absistite luco !" Virg. JE. vi, 259 
f. MA D. Et procul hinc, moneo, pro- 
cul hinc, f/ucerunque profancB, ferte 
gradus; Sil. xvii, 28 f; s. Suet. vi, 
34. Tlie Greek formulary was Ixaf, 
ixa;, i'ffTif akiT^o; nr Ixa;, tx.i( itTTi 
(iifini^ai. R. [('all. H. Ap. s. HGH, ou 
Chr. de Sac. 89.] 

90. ' Here no female minstrel sounds 
the plaintive horn.' The horn, flute, 
and trumpet were used (as the bell 
among us) to summon the worshippers 
together. LUB. (s. Dan. iii.) The 
Phrygian flute (tibia, iii, 63 ;) was 
curved, and is constantly called rornu : 
as nota Honce secrrta Dea;, ifuum i ibia 
lumbos incitat et cornu pariter vino- 
gve feruntur \ vi, 314 f; adnnco tibia 



cornu; Ov. Met. iii, 533 ; xi, 16; F. 

iv, 181. ' The Berecynthii.n horti' 
(Hor. Od. i, 18, 13 f';) is used as 
synonymous with ' the Berecynthian 
flute;' ib. iii, 19, 18 f; iv, 1, 22 f. 
R. 

Gemere; vii, 71- R' 

91. ' Orgies' were so called from the 
enthusiastic rage (ogyi) with which they 
were ' celebrated.' FAR. 

' Mystic torches' were carritd in the 
Eleusinian procession. R. 

92. The Athenians were called Ce- 
cropians from Cecrops their first king. 
GRA. 

Baptrc so called from being ' deeply 
imbued in impurities,' or from their 
' plunging in water' to purify theniselves 
after their nefarious rites. GRA. It is 
the title of a coraedy of Eupolis, wherein 
he lashed such etfeminate practices ; in 
consequence of which, Alcibiades, who 
was the principal object of attack, eu- 
deavoured to have the author assas- 
sinated. Sch. 

' So as to fatigue and disgust even 
Cotijtlo, the goddess of wantonness,' 
wliose worship was introduced from 
Edonia in Thrace. GRA. 

93. \Ve have here a picture quite in 
Hogarth's style. We are admitted into 
tlie conventicle of this detestable club, 
and behold the members at their several 
employments. 

94. The custom of tinging the eyes 
and eyebrows originated in the East. 
"Jezebelputhereyesinpaint;"ilKings 
ix, 30, margin ; " i. e. in stibium, which 
made the eyes look blaek, and was ac- 
counted beautiful : and also dilated the 
eyebrows, and made the eyes appear 
big; which, in some countries, was also 
tliought very amiable." PK. " La 



R 



122 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. II. 



95 Adtollcns oculos : vitreo bibit illc Priapo 

Reticulumque comis auratuni ingentibus implet, 
CiDrulea indutus scululata aut galbana rasa 
Et per .Tunonem domini jurante minislro. 
llle tenet speculum, pathici gestameu Othonis, 



grande heauti des dames Arabes et de 
tonles lesfeinmesde POrient est d^avoir 
I ie g rands yeux noirslienfe n d u s 
ef afleur de tete\ Memoires d'Arvieux 
t. iii, p. 297. We read ot' Astyagc.s as 
KiKoffl/.ni/.ivos o^SaXftu]) V jFoy^a.^pv' Xen. 
Cyr. i,o, 2. Fromthe East,this fashioa 
travelled to Greece ; from Greece to 
Eome : the Greekladies used antimony 
or b^ack le;id ; the Romans lanip-black 
raixed withbear'sgrease. Plin.xxxviii, 
11. ARC. Black was the favourite 
colour; Hor. A. P. 37; PRA. Mart. 
ix, 38, G; nigro pulvere oculoruni ex- 
ordia producuntur \ Tert.de Hab. Mul. 
2. R. The fashion continued till a late 
date '. /MSiSs fi.iXaiii TioTaiv utto fiXiipa^mTi* 
ofa-x-as- INaumach. G'/jF. aud Jerome 
speaks oiorhes stihiofuliginatos. FAR. 
Tbe operation, as performed by the 
Turkish females at Aleppo, is thus de- 
scribed by Shaw and Eussel : " Their 
method of doiug it is by a cylindrical 
piece of silver, steel, or ivory, about 
two inches long, made very smooth, and 
ahout the size of a common probe. Ti^is 
they wet with water, in order that thc 
powder of Itad ore may stick to it, and 
applying the niiddle part borizontally 
lo the eye, tbey shutthe eyelids upon it, 
and so draw"ing itthrough Ijetween thera, 
it blacks the inside, leaving a narrow 
black rim all round the edge." MAD. 
See BCE, p. 23. 

' Turning up his eyes, which quiver 
under the operation,' from the extreme 
sensitiveness of the part. They might 
be also ' tremulous from wantonness ;' 
vii, 241 ; oculos ndos ac tremu tos, ac 
prona lih idine ntarcidos^jam jamque 
semiadopertulos; Apul. Met.iii,p. 135; 
Ov. A. A. ii, 721 ; Pers. i, 18 ; Hor. 
Od. i, 36, 1 7 ; Lucian. Am. U. L UB. 
MAD. R. 

95. In pocufis fihidines ca-fare juvit 
acper obsccenitates bihere ; Plin. xxxiii, 
pr. GRA. 

Priapus, the son of Bacchus and 
Venus, was the god of gardens and the 
tutelary deity of Abydos. PRA. 



9fi. ' His long and tbick tresses are 
contined in network of gokl.' Plin. xii, 
14. PRA. MAD. Otho and Ela- 
gabalus powdered their hair with gold 
dust. HNN. 

97. Understaud vestimenta. ' Blue 
checks, or green (or pale yellow) stutfs, 
shorn of the pile.' Whence gafbanos 
hahet mores; Mart. i, 97, 9; LUB. 
homo galhanatus ; Id. iii, b2, 5. MAD. 
The Gauls invented checked stuiFs. 
Rasa are opposed to pe.ra. GRA. 
Theycameintpfashionin the Augustan 
age. PRA. Mart. ii, 85, 4. Lana Is- 
trice Lihiirniee^iHe pifo propior quam 
lante, pexis afiena vestibus, et </uam 
Sufaria scutiifato textu commendat in 
Lusitania ; Plin. viii, 48 or 72 ; xi, 24 
or 28. R. 

98. ' Nay even the valet swears by 
his lord's Juno.' BR. Men used to 
swear by the gods, women by the god- 
desses, Plin ii, 7; PRA. andservants 
by their master's Genius. s. Tib. iii, 6, 
49; R. nu, on Hor. Od. iii, 17, 14; 
[and E. i, 7, 94.] 

99. Anotherparodyon Virgil: magni 
gestamen Abantis; M. iii, 286; vii, 
246 ; and corripit hastam Actoris Au- 
runci spofium; JE. xii, 93 f. This 
wretch was proud of ' the effeminate 
Otho's mirror,' noless thanTurnus was 
of ' the gallant Actor's spear.' LUB. 
Or ' of which Otho had erst despoiled 
some other redoubted champion.' Their 
mirrors were made of polished metal, 
and sometimes equalled the full length 
of the figure. Sen. Q. N. i, 17 ; HNN. 
Stat. S. iii, 4, 94. BCE. On the effemi- 
nacy of Otho, see Suet. viii, 2, and 12; 
Tac.H.i,7l;<fec.i?. Thoughafavourite 
of Nero, he was the first to join Galba, 
of whose assassination he afterwards 
became the author. As an enemy of 
Galba (whom Vespasian suspected of a 
design upon bis life) and of Vitellius, 
he was regarded with favour by the 
Flavian family, and conscquently with 
aversion by Juvenal. Taeitus representa 
differently his last march : nec illi segne 



SAT. II. 



OF JUVENAL. 



1-J3 



lOO Actoris Aurunci spolium, (juo se illc vicUbiit 
ArnuUuni, (luuni jani tolli vcxilla iul)t.rct. 
Res nicuioramUi novis ainialibus at^iue rcccnti 
Historia, speculuui civilis sarciua bclli. 
Niniinun sunnni clucis cst, occiclcrc Galbani 

105 Et ciu-are cutcin; suuinii constautia civis, 
Bebriaci campo spolium affectare Palati 
Et pressmn iu facicm cligitis cxtendcrc ])anem : 
Quocl uec in Assyrio ])liarctrata Scmiramis orbe, 



aut corruptum luxu iter ; std lurica 
ferrea usus est, et atite iig/ia pei/ester, 
horriitus, incomptus, fa/iKer/He i/issimi- 
lis; H. ii, 11. GIF. 

100. Ilte [ipse? s. i,33.] 

101. When an army encamped, the 
standards were pitched in the ground 
near the generaPs tent. When battle 
was to be given, the general ' coin- 
manded the standards to be taken up.' 
Toi/i is opposed to staiiii. GRA. MAD. 
The vexiltiim was ' a red fiag,' wliich 
was hoisted on a spear from the top of 
the general's tent as a siv^nal of pre- 
paration for battle. L. ' Otho gave his 
orders from his toilet, while he was 
admiring himself in the ghiss.' LUB. 
[s. Pope Mor. Ess. i, 88.) 

102. [On the diiference between 
novus and receiis s. BRK, C. K. i, p. 
76 ff.] 

In ' A n n a 1 s,' the facts are digested 
under their several years. PRA. 

103. ' In a civil war, when the em- 
plre of the world was at stakc !' viz. 
that between Otho and Vitellius. Nec 
deerant qui ambitioiie stolida luxuriosos 
apparatiis conviviorum, et irritamenta 
iibidiuHm, ut instrumenta belli merca- 
rentur ; Tae. H. i, 88. FAR. 

104. The antithesis here dt-pends on 
the punctuation. HEI. ' At one time 
to be acting the assassin, at another the 
petit maitre.' After his suicide, his sol- 
diersextolled hima>' fortissi/uu/n virum, 
unicum imperatorem ; Suet. viii, 12. 
Our satirist observes that ' such a 
character was undoubtedly {nimirum is 
uaed ironically, xiv, 54; Sil. v, 114; 
Hor. S. ii, 2, 106; as scilicet in 122; 
V, 76; vi, 239; vii, 159; xiv, 156;) 
Otho's due.' Tac. H. i, 41 ff; Suei. 
vii, 19. ' It was a great feat to murder 
an old man' manibus pcdibusque arii- 
culari morbo distortissimis; ib. 21 ; 



23. ' It was a worthy oceupation to 
be softening his cheeks with cosmetics:' 
viunditiarum pcene muliebriHm; vuls« 
corporc ; f/uin et facicm miotidie rasi- 
tare, ac pane madido linere consuetum : 
idi/ue insiituisse a prima lanugine, tie 
barbatHs unquam esset ; Suet. viii, 12. 
PRA. HNN. R. 

105 and 107. vi, 464 ; Hor. Ep. i, 4, 
15. R. In cuie curanda pius cequo 
0, cratajtiventus; ib. ii, 29. 

' Consistency worthy of the first 
citizen in the republic !' R. It was 
currently reported after his death, 
Galbam ab eo non tam dominandi, 
quam rei publiccE ac iiberiatis resti- 
tHendce caiisa inlerempiHm; Suet. viii, 
12. 

106. ' The battle of Bebriacum' (be- 
tween Verona and Cremona) decided 
the fate of the empire and transferred 
the purple to Vitellius. Tac. H. ii, 14 
ff; Suet. viii, 8 f. PRA. R. 

' The spoil of the palace' intimates 
that the imperial dignity had become 
the prey of each daring adventurer. R. 

10". Slices of bread, made of rice, 
beans, or wheat, and soakcd in asses' 
milk, were spread over the face as a 
cosmetic. LUB. vi,4Gl ff. CS. Ciiiem 
in facie eriigari et teneresccre, et can- 
dorcm cusiodirilactc asinino putabant ; 
unde Poppcea uxoi' Neronis, quocunque 
ire contigisset , seciim sexcenias asellas 
ducebat; Plin. xxviii, 12; xi, 41; 
PRA. Tib. i, 8, 11. i^. 

1 08. ' Even the most luxurious queens, 
when they went forth to war, discon- 
tinued such effeminate habits ' Scmi- 
ramis, Assyriorum regina, ciim ei circa 
cultiim capiiisoccHpatee nuntiaium esset 
Babiflonem defecisse, altera partc cri- 
niiim adliiic soliiia, protinus ad cani 
expugnandam cucurrit, ncc prius dc- 
corem capilloruni in ordincm, quam 



124 



THK SATIRES 



SAT. II. 



Moesta nec Actiaca fecit Cleopatra carina. 
110 Hic nullus verbis pudor aut reverentia mensa?. 

Hic turpis Cybcles et fracta voce loquendi 

Libertas ct crine senex phanalicus albo 

Sacrorum autistes, rarum ac memorabile magni 

Gutturis exemplum conducendusquc raagister. 
116 Quid tamen exsjiectant, Phrygio quos lempus erat jam 

More supervacuam cultins abrumpere carnem ? 

Quadringenta dedit Gracchus sestertia dotem 



tantam iirhem in poiestafem suam, re- 
degit. qnocirca statiia ejus Babylone 
posita est itlo hahitu^ quo^ ad tiltionem 
exigcndum, celeritate prcecipiii teten- 
dit; V. Max. ix, 3; Just. i, 2. PRJ. 
Orbc ' empire.' VAL. 

109. Cleojyatra, daughter of Ptolemy 
Auletes, queen of Egypt and mistrej<s 
of Antony, wa3 present to witness her 
paramour's ' sad' defeat by Augustus 
' at Actium.' LUB. cum aurea puppe 
veloque pupureo se in altum dedit ; 
Plin. xix, l. See Shakspeare's de- 
scription of ber galley, Ant. and Cl. 
ii, 2 ; MAD. Flor. iv", Jl ; Hor. Od. i, 
37 ; R. Prop. iv, 6, 57 ff. 

110. ' In this precious eonelave.' 

T ifA.a.t ai ^iXiis Ti xai ^ifics Synes. 
Ep. 57. THY. nusquani reverentia 
mensce; Claud. iii, 229. R. Among 
many absurd and many impious tenets 
of paganism, there are some of excel- 
lent tendency and not undeserving of 
imitation. Snch was their hospitality, 
founded on the notion that celestials 
SDmetimes visited the abodes of men. 
8. Hebrews xiii, 2; Genesis xviii, 
1 ... 8 ; xix, 1 ... 3 ; olim mos erat et 
mensce credere adesse deos ; Ov. F. 
vi, 305 f; [v, 495;] preesentes nam- 
que ante domus invisere castas ste- 
pius, et sese mortali ostendere cwtu 
cwlicolfE, nondum spreta pietate, sote- 
bant; Cat. Ixiv, ;ri85 ff. Hence a 
stranger, however humble his exterior, 
was treated with respect: ^u* . ov fe.ei 

Sifiii IVt , thV ii xaxicat ffiHv 'iX^ti ^iTvot 
a.Tift.rtra.i Toh yaj Aio} tiirit awatrii 
|ir»a/' Ti VTmx'i '■' Hom. Od. 3 56 ff; 
Z 107 f. " 1 tried your charity, When 
in a beggar's shape you took me up, 
And clothed my naked limbs, and afttr 
fed, As you believed, my famish'd 
mouth. Learn all, By your example, 



to look on the poor With gentle eyes f 
for in such habits, often, Angels desire 
an alms;" Massinger Virg. Mart. iv, 

3. GIF. 

111.' Such disgraceful Hcentiousness 
as prevails at the Megalesian rites 
among the emasculated priests of the 
Phrvgian goddess.' LUB. .«. Diod. 
Sic."iv, 5 ; Ov. F. iv. PRA. R. The 
grossness of these eeremonies was such, 
that the parents of the actors were 
ashamed tobe present at the rehearsals, 
which took place at home, previous to 
the celebration of the festival. GIF. 

They lisped their obscenities ' in a 
falsetto voice.' GES. s. Augustin. xi, 
111. LUB. 

112. P/tanaiicus ' possessed.' Virg. 
M. vi, 46 ff. MAD. 

114. Seei, J40. R. 

' If one would take lessons in glut- 
tony.' tu7n si magistrnm cepit ad eam 
reni improbum ; Ter. An. i, 2, 19. 
MAD. 

1 15. ' Why hesitate (Ov. Ep. iii, 83;) 
any longer about completing your re- 
semblance to those etfeminate priests, 
when a knife will rid you in a moment 
of the superfluous characteristics of 
manhood ?' T. Ov. F. iv, 243 ; Tib. i, 

4, 70. J^. 

This ' Phrygian fashion' was adopted 
in imitation of the boy Atys whom 
Cybele loved. PRA. 

116. The knives were of sharp stone : 
vi, 514 ; Claud. xix, 280 ; R. as among 
the Jews, PRA. Lxodus iv, 25. 

117. See i, 92; 106 ; vi, 137. ' Has 
brought with him.' PRA. i, 62 ; 78. 

' A descendant of the Gracchi.' s. 
24. PRA. Of this horrible transaction 
no contemporary writer speaks : Nero, 
however, had set the example; (Tac. 
An. XV, 38 ;) and royalty is never at 
a loss for irsitators. vi, 616. GIF. 



SAT. II. 



OF JUyENAL. 



l-2o 



Conncini, sivc hic recto cantaverat lurc. 
Signatje tabulae : dictum " Feliciter !" Ingens 

120 Coena sodet: grcmio jacnit nova nnj)ta maviti. 

O proceres, censoro opus est an liarusj)icc nobis .-' 
Scilicet horreres majoraque monstra putares, 
Si mnlier vitnhnn vel si bos cderct agnnm ? 
Segmenta ctlongos habitus et flamca sumit, 

125 Arcano qui sacra ferens nutantia loro 



118. * To a horn-blower, or else to a 
trumpeter.' ttibn direc/i eeris, cornua 

fiexi\ Ov. iNI. i, 98. The Romans used 
only wind-instrument.s in their army. 
MAD. ' The clarion' IHuhs belonged 
to the cavalry. Hor. Od. ii, 1, 17 f; 
Schol on Od. i, 1, 23. 

119. ' The marriage-writings are 
sipned and sealed. " We wisb you 
joy!" is the general exclamation.' 
Understand cedant Ikb niiptice. PRA. 
Felix hoc ; alinm desine velle virian. 
LUB. Suet. xli, 13. 

120. ' A sumptuous banquet is set 
out.' i, 9G; Ov. Tr. ii, 481. HOL. 
MAD.OT^ Animmenseparty sitsdown 
totable.' BRL s.34 ; v, 82. R. [Cvna: 
sed et gremio M, V. L. ix, 8. s. MR, 
in K, Crit. Rev, Dec. 1804, p. 410. 
DB, A.] 

' The bride' i. e. Gracchus ; ' the 
bridegroom' i. e. the trumpeter. LUB. 
8. Tac. An. xi, 27; Ov. Am. i, 4, 5. 
R. 

[St John xiii, 23; xxi, 20.] 

121. Proceres; s. Pers i, 52. PRA. 
There is a bitter sarcasm in this appeal 
tothe ' patricians,' who werethemselves 
deeply implicated in many of these dis- 
gusting proceedings. GRA. 

' Do we need a censor to correct 
such enormities .^ or rather a sooth- 
sayer to expiate such portentous 
prodigiesP Sch. vi, 549 ff. PRA. 
There were two censors, who had the 
power to degrade citizens from their 
several ranks and to expel senators from 
the house. They were formerly so 
strict as to be formidable even to their 
colleagues. MAD. See 2. HNR. 

It was the office of the soothsayer, 
when anyprodigyoccurred,toascertain 
and prescribe the expiation which the 
gods required. MAD. 

An ; Ov. F. ii, 394. HS. 



122. Monstrtim is ' any thing out of 
the course of nature.' see F. 1 43 ; iv, 2 ; 
45; 115; vi, 286; 645, <tec. R. 

123. Such prodigies occur constantly 
in Livy. 

124. ' Fringes'or'flounces.' "V. Max. 
v, 2; F^l?. Ov.A. A.iii, 169; P«/l. 
s. vi, 89. R. 

The matrons wore ' a long flowing 
gown' stola, with ' a train' synna, 
MAD. R. GIF. 

Virgins on their wedding-day wore 
a light flame-coloured hood, that the 
spectators might confound the glow shed 
over the cheek by the tint of the veil, 
with the suffusion of modesty : GIF. 
Mart. xi, 78, 3; PRA. vi, 225; x, 
334. timidum nuptce leviter tectura 
pudorem lutea demissos velaruntflamea 
vultus; Luc. ii,360f. From thebride's 
being enveloped in this veil, she was 
said nubere viro. R. [a nnbibus 
verbuni nu bentiu m tractum arbitror: 
deni(/ue operiuntur ut nube s, ctim ac- 
ceperint nupturae velamina, Ambr. 
Exh. ad Virg. Rom. i, f. 108.] s. nn, on 
134 and 137. 

125. Ov. F. iii, 259 ff. PRA. Most 
of the Comraentators by sacra under- 
stand ancilia. The epithet arcano may 
then refer either to ignorance as to 
the genuine shield, or to the strap on 
the inside by which the shields were 
suspended ; andw//^a«f/«totheswinging 
of the shieids to and fro, as the priests 
ieaped and danced. FAR. It would 
seem more natural to understand simu- 
lacra with sacra, supposing twelve of 
the Salii to have borne the ancilia, and 
the other twelve priests to have carried 
images ofthe gods, whieh, by means of 
a concealed thong, were made to nod 
their hcads in answer to the acciama- 
tions and plnudits of the surrounding 
multitude. Thus thc image of Venus, 



12G 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. ir. 



Sudavit clypeis ancilibu.s. O pater Urbis, 
Undu nefas tautum Latiis pastoribus ? uude 
Ha3C tetigit, Gradivc, tuos urtica nepotes.? 
Truditur eccc viro clarus gencre atquc opibus vir: 
130 Nec galeani quassas nec terram cuspide pulsas 
Ncc quereris patri ? Vade ergo et cede severi 
Jugeribus campi, quem negligis ! " Officium cras 



which was borne in procession at the 
Circensian games, annuit etmotn signa 
secunda dedit; Ov. Am. iii, 2, 58. 
MAD. A similar triek is said to have 
been pla)'ed otF some few j'ears ago hy 
the priests in Portugal, with an image 
of the Virgin, to confirra i)on Miguers 
right to the throne. [s. Deane Serp. 
■Wor. p. 149.1 

126. The Sa/// were priests of Mars, 
(so called from their dancing, Ov. 
F. iii, 3870 chosen out of the first 
families at Rome, [patrician both on 
the father"s and on the mother's 
side, vi, 604 ; J?.] as guardians of the 
heaven-descended buckler ou which de- 
pended the fate of the empire. Numa 
had eleven other shields made, exactly 
similar to the original. The Salii 
were at first twelve : Tullus Hostilius 
doubled the number. FAR. o^x,^ffiv 
uTro^X.cuwTO.i ^icfro^iuofiii/oi T^y voXiv 
xivouvroei §£ £cr/T£«5riwj, Ikiyfioui T/vas 
Kct,) fjt,na^oXa,s iv pti^fcai rtt.^os ix^o^ri xeti 
TvxiOTtiTce. fiiTcc pa/fc/is xoci xou^pornros 
a!r«S/§oiiT£f P-iut. V. iv; R. Virg. iE. 
viii, 285. [Livj- iv, 64, 4 ; vi, 41, 7.] 

The neuter ancile is an adjective and 
agrees with scietinn : as ancilia arnia ; 
V. Max. i, 1, 9 : it is derived from an- 
cisus ' cut around ;' Ov. F. iii, 377 f ; 
or from dyxuXiov ' curved;' Plut. V. 
iv, p. 69. FRA. R. 

Mars himself is here apostrophized, 
the father of Romulus, the founder, and 
Remus. FAR. Hor. Od. i, 2, 35 ff. 
MAD. ' "Wherein is thy paterna! 
care displayed ?' R. 

127. ' Where is the simplicity and 
innocence nf that hardy race, to which 
Romulus and our forefathers belonged ?' 
Sch. PRA. iii, 67 ; R- viii, 275. On 
the origin of the name Latium, s. Virg. 
M. viii, 319 ff. MAD. 

128. Mars was called Gradivus (xiii, 
113; Virg. JE. iii, 34 ;) either from 



(jradie nd ' taking long strides,' or 
' marching orderly ;' orfroni x^a,'haui 
' brandisliing his spear;' GRA. rfii 
ficaxQa fiiliois, x^ao daiv ioXi^offxiat 
'iyX''i- Hom. 11. H 213. MAD. or from 
a Thracian word signifying ' brave.' 
l'l\A. [Livy ii, 45, 14.] 

Urfica ' a burning itch' like that ex- 
cited by the ' nettlc.' LUB. xi, 166. R. 

129. ' Is consigned over.' Mart. xi, 
78, 11; GRA. s. Suet. vi, 29; FAR. 
117. R. 

130. ' And yet thou evincest no 
symptoms of indignation !' FAR. xiii, 
l"j3 ff; s. Hom. Od. E 2S5 ; Virg. JE. 
vii, 292; V. Flac. i, .528; vii, 577; 
R. Livy xxiv, 10, 7. ED. Cuspis was 
' the poiut of a sword or spear.' LUB. 

131. Marswastheson of Jupiter and 
Juno; PRA. Hom. II. E 896: aecording 
to others, of Juno only ; Ov. F. v, 229. 
MAD. ' If the evil is grovra too 
enormous to be checked by thy own 
power, complain to thy f ather, who is 
armed with lightnings.' FAR. 

Cedc for discede. FAR. iii, 29; 
Virg. lE. vi, 460. MAD. ' Make room 
for some other deity, who will take more 
care of his charge.' R. [Livy ii, 2, t.] 

The campus M art i u s (Li vy ii, 5 ;) 
is putfor ' Rome,' and is called «ewer?^s 
ironically, with reference to the present 
impunityofcrimeas contrasted with the 
ancient se veri ty of punisliment : (ex- 
traordinary public trials used to be held 
in ' the Field of Mars.') PRA. R. 
This epithet also belongs to the god 
himself ; Mart. x, 30, 2. GRA.MAD. 

132. The satirist now introduces a 
conversation relating to one of these 
infamous weddings. Officiuni was ' a 
duty undertaken out of kindncss or 
compliment:' nuptiale (Petron.) or 
7iuptiaru?H (Suet. v, 26;) is here un- 
derstood. Plin. Ep. i, 9. T. MAD. 
R. 



SAT. II. 



or JUVENAL. 



1-27 



Priiiio .sole mihi ])eragcnduni in valle Quirini." 
(iiue caiisa olVicii ? '' (iuicl (juaMis .^ Nubit aniicus, 

135 Xcc multo-s atlhibet." Liccat niodo viveie ; lient, 
Fient isla palani, cupient et in acta refeni. 
Intcrea tormcntum ingens nuhentibus hieret, 
C^uod nequeunt pavere el parlu retinere maritos. 
Sed melius, quod nil animis iu corpora juris 

140 Nalura indulget. Steriles morientm" et illis 
Turgida non prodest condita pyxide L^-de 
Nec prodest agili jialmas pracbere Luperco. 



133. Marriage contracts were often 
signed ' in the portico of the teHi[)le of 
Romulus on the Quiriual hill :' T. 
MAD. Mart. xi, 1, 9; PRA. in colte 
Quirini; Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 68 ; Od. i, 2, 
46; Ov. M. xiv, 8.36. R. 

134. ' Canuot jou guess? a gentle- 
man of my acquaintance is to be led to 
the altar.' Nnbere applies only to tbe 
br ide, </wc«'r<' to tiie i) ridegr ooin. 
GRA. 117; i, 62; 78. R. See 124 and 
137. ["Where the lady '• wore the 
breeches," the phrases were reversed ; 
uxorem qunre locupletcm ducere 
nolim,()U(eritis? uxori nuberenolo 
mea. inferior matrona suo sit, Prisce, 
marito : non aliter fuerint femina 
virque pares ; IMart. viii, 12; meus 

frater nupsit dotatae vetulcc, Pomp. 
in Non. ii, .577 : s. vi, 136.] 

135. ' There will be but a small 
party to witness the ceremony :' becaase 
the Scatinian law was still in being. 
LUB. Pontice, si qua facis, sine teste 

facis, sine tu rha ; n on ad liibes m u l- 
fos: Puntice, cautus liomo es; Mart. 
vii, 100, 3 f. GV. 

' If it please the gods to spare our 
lives.' PRA. 

136. The rcpetitioD of the vforAfient 
adds force to the prediction. Instances 
of this kind occu ■ constantlv in the 
Greek orators. [s. BUR. on JE. P. V.] 

Salvian, who wrote in the fifth cen- 
tury, speaking of this dedecoris scele- 
risque consortium, as he calls it, says 
that it spread all over the city, and 
though the act itself wa.<5 not common 
to all, ytt the approbation of it was. 
MAD. 

Acta ' the public registers.' FAR. 
8. ix, 84 ; n. L, on Tac. An. v, 4. 



13". Nubentibus ' these male 
brides.' 

138. Such was the complaint of Eu- 
tropius : generis proli sors durissima 
nostri '. femina eum senuit, retinet 
connubia partu, ujcorisque decus 
7nntris reverentia pensat : nos Lncina 

fugit, nec pi^nore nitimur ullo; Ciaud. 
xix, 71 fl". FAR. Children constitute 
a bond of love: and steriiity was a 
frequent cause of divorce. PR.-i. vi, 
142 fiF. R. 

139. ' It is just as well that nature 
prohibits thefuifilmentof snch extrava- 
gant wishes.' BRI. 

141. Lyde wa.s some woman who 
compounded, and sold in small boxes, 
(trvlU from being originally made of 
' box wood,' BCE.) a specific against 
batrenness. T. The epithetmay either 
imply her owu corpulence, as being an 
old woman, BE. or the eftects of her 
nostrum. GRA. 

142. The festival of the Lupercalia 
was instituted in honour of Pan (orium 
custos; Virg. G. i, 17;)because tupos 
arcet. A goat, the emblem of fecun- 
dity, being sacrificed, thosewho oflici- 
ated put on the skin of the victim and 
ran about with either a thong of the 
skin or a wand in their hands, wiih 
which they struck the palms of the wo- 
men who threw themselves in their vvay 
to have the benefit of the eharm. E.r- 
cipe fecundce patienter verhera dextra- ; 
Ov.F. ii,427 &c; LUB. ille cnprum 
mactat :jusscesuaterga maritfcpcllibus 
exsectis percutienda dahaut ; ib. 445 f. 
Shakspeare alludes to it: " Forget not 
i n you r speed To touch Calphurnia ; 
for our elders say, The barren touched 
in this holy chase, Shake oflFtheir sterile 



128 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. ir. 



Vicit et hoc monstruni tunicati fuscina Gracchi, 
Lustravitque fuga mediani gladiator arenam 
145 Pit Capitolinis gcnerosior et Marcellis 

Et Catulis Pauniquc minoribus et Fabiis et 
Omnibus ad ])odium spectantibus : his licet ipsuni 
Admoveas, cujus tunc munere retia misit. 
Esse aliquid Manes et sublerranea regna 
150 Et contum et Stygio ranas in gurgite nigi'as 



curse;" J. Cas. i, 2. MAD. This 
superstitious practice was one of the 
last Pagan ceremonies that was ahan- 
doned, and excited the indignation of 
many Christian writers. It was finally 
abolished by Gelasius ; in whose time 
7}ohiles ipsi currehant ; et mntronce nu- 
dato corpore vapxlal^ant. GIF. The 
festival, which took place in February, 
was probahly introduced into Italy by 
Evander: s. Virg. ^En. viii, 343 f. 
The grove there described, which was 
also the spot where Romnlus and Ee- 
mus were afterwards found, was fixed 
upon by the Eomans for the site of 
Pan's temple. PRA. 

143. See the notes on viii, 192 fF; and 
I99ff. J?. ' Has outdone.' This may 
be an instance of that spirit of aggra- 
vation which so much distinguishes 
Juvenal. Whatever be the vice which 
he lashes, he bestows the whole of his 
fury upon it ; and in many places the cli- 
max of moral reprehensiou is strangely 
perverted. JR. All the writers of 
Koman history, however, viewed the 
gladiatorship- of the nobility with the 
utmost horror. GIF. 

144. See viii, 208. ' Traversed in 
flight.' MJD. 

The centre of the amphitheatre was 
strewed with ' sand,' to hide the blood 
which was spilt. PRA. 

145. (1) M. Manlii/s surnamed Ca- 
pitolinus from his defence of the capitol 
against tlie Gauls. (2) M. Claudius 
Marcellus the captor of Syracuse. (3) 
Q. Lvtativs Catulus vvho gained the 
naval victory off the iEgates. (4) L. 
^'Emilius Paulhis the conqueror of 
Macedonia. (a) Q. Fahius Maximus 
suniamed Cunrtator^ who kept Han- 
nibal in constant check by his cautious 
moves. LUB. 

' More noble;' vi, 124; vii, 191; 
viii, 30; 224. R. 

146. Minores; i, I4S. R. Perhaps 



the two sons of Paullus, one of whom 
was adopted into the family of the 
Scipios, the other into that of the Fabii 
Maximi. 

147. ' The front' or lowest row of 
seats was reserved for senators : Suet. 
ii, 44. LUB. The podium was the 
projecting part of the partition which 
divided the seats from the arena. Be- 
tween this, and the first row ou which 
the senators sat, there was probably 
just space enough left for the chairs of 
the curule magistrates, &c. L. 

' A narrowslip.' GIF. Ueitur Herod. 
viii, 31. 

' You may even add the personage 
himself,' i. e. ' the prsetor ;' or, rather, 
' the emperor' Nero or Domitian. PRA. 
See note on i, 97. 

148. ' The person at whose expense 
the games were exhibited' was called 
7nunerarius. GRA. [Quint. viii, 3.] 

149. The poet now proceeds to at- 
tribute all tliis gross and degrading 
profligacy to scepticism and infidelity ; 
to the disbelief of a future state of 
rewards and punishments, and, conse- 
quently, of the moral government of 
the universe. LUB. PRA. MAD. 
GJI. Eut PYE and R, take tbe 
sense to be ' The absurd stories of the 
infernal regions are now hardly credited 
in the nursery ; (s. xiii, 151 ff; Arist. 
R. 181 ff; vix navita Porthmeus sttf- 
ficiet simulaci-a virifm traducere cyviba: 
classe opus est; Petron. Sat. 121 end ; 
Prop. iii, 5, 39 ff; Lucr. iii, 991 ff; 
Pythngoras in Ov. Met. xv, 153 ff; 
&c ;) but .suppose them true, how 
would the shades of our ancient heroes 
be horrified at the appearance of such 
scandalous wretches among them I' 

Sunt alir/uid manes ; letum 7ion omnia 
fi)iit; Prop. iv, 7, 1 ; Ov. Met. vi,543 ; 
Hom. II.'*' 103. R. [s. Y, 1382; Hor. 
0. V, 5.] 

150. Ipse {Charon) ratem cottto 



SAT. II. 



OF JUVENAL. 



l'2i) 



Atque uiia iransive vaduin tot millia cynihii, 
Nec |)ucri credunt, nisi qni nonduni.a-re luvantm : 
Sed lu vera pnta. Curins qnid scntit el an.ibo 
Scipiada% quid 1'abricius niancsquc Caniilli, 
155 Qnid Cremerae legio et Cannis consunita juventus, 



subigit,i't ferruginen subvectat corpora 
cymba; Virg. /E. vi, 302 f. Sch. 
One Ms has cantum\ if this be the 
true reaiiing, cantum et ranas is equi- 
▼alent to cantum ranarum : s. Arist. 
R. ^O.') ff. R. The text would then 
better suit the comraon interpretation 
of the whole passnge. 

Sti/gia palus; Virg. JE. vi, 323 f; 
PRA. G. iv, 480. MAD. Turbidus 
hic cceno vastaque voragine gurges 
eestuat; JE. vi, 29G f; gurgcs and va- 
dum are opposed, Livy xxii, (>, 6. 

16). See Virg. 11. cc. <t>vir) yout 
Ts^^fiivf fth "hia^Kiffa.i avToit Ton to 
r X d. ^ i , aWa, ff^^iiiecs ^ia-rt)%afiiivous 
T»uf ^oXXous alrut ^iavXiuaai' Luc. 
Dial. Mort. xii, 5. R. 

Juvenal describes the world of spirits 
as peopled by the figments of the poets ; 
the circumstances he has not invented, 
but selected ; and it does not foUow, 
that, because he believed in a future 
atate, he therefore gave credit to such 
absurdities. We may altribute the 
sketch be has given to his satirical 
turn, which he could not forbear in- 
dulging to the disparagement of his 
argumint. Virgil, to whom our author 
is here plainly alluding, does not give 
a very dignified narrative of his hero's 
passage over the Styx : ..E. vi,4Jl.. 
416. Such puerilities excite our pity ; 
especially when we think how incom- 
parably sublime is the description of the 
state of reprobation,in Holy Writ, as a 
place " wher e the worm d ieth not and the 
fire is not quenched:" StMark ix,43 f; 
while of the state of blessedness the 
Apostle says, " Eye hath not seen, nor 
ear heard, neither ha\ e entered into the 
heart of man, the things which God 
hath prepared for them that love him." 
1 Corinthians ii, 9. GIF. 

152. The common people, when they 
went to a bath, paid the bath-keeper a 
brass coin, in value about a halfpenny. 
vi, 446; Hor. S. i, 3, 137. MAD. 
Ctiildren, under four years old, were 
either not taken to the baths, or, if they 
were, paid nothing. Sch. Mart. iii, .30, 



4; xiv, 163. Seneca calls the bath 
f/uaflrantaria res; Ep. '^•6 m. One Ms 
hjui nec senes credunt, nec qui 8fc. 
R. 

153. ' But be thou persuaded that 
these things are true.' The language is 
too emphatic for a mere supposition. 
GIF. See R, on 149. [Virg. /E. vi, 
94 ; iEsch. Ctes. end.] 

Curius s. 3. 

154. For Scipioniafiee, LUB, and 
that for Sripioncs. Sil. vii, 107. As 
Memtniai/esfoT 31cmmiits; Lucr i,27- 
R. geminos, dvo fulmina belti, Scipia- 
das, cladem Libyee ; Virg. JE. vi, 843 
f. VRA. Africaniis Major, who con- 
qucrcd Hannibal , and Africanui Minor, 
who rased Nuraantia and Carthage. 
MAD. 

C. Luscinius Fabricius, the con- 
queror of Pvrrhus. V. Max. iv, 3, 6; 
PRA. Virg. m.. vi, 845. 

M. Furius Camillus, five times dic- 
tator, saved the city from the Gauls, 
and was styled ' a second Eomulus.' 
[Eutr. i.] PRA. He was the first 
citizen, who was honoured with an 
equestrian statue in the forum. MAD. 

155. The Fabii, who had taken the 
Veian war upon themselves, were cut 
off by the enemy at the Cremera, in 
Tuscany, to the number of three hun- 
«Ired and six. The clan would thereby 
have become extinct, but for one boy 
who was left at home. Liv. ii, 48 fF; 
Ov. F. ii, 193 fif; PRA. Virg. JE. vi, 
846 ; MAD. Diouys. ix, 22 ; Sil. vii, 
40 ff. R. 

' Legion ;' s. iii, 132. 

At Cannce in Apulia, Hannibal 
gained his fourth and greatest victory, 
defeating two consular armies, and 
slaying 40,000 of the Romans, in- 
cluding Mmilius Pavllvs one of the 
consuls, and so many of the equestrian 
order, that three bushels of gold rings 
were sent to Carthage in token of the 
victory.' PRA. [Livy xxii, 47 ff.] 

Consu7nta. \animeef/ue magnee pro- 
digum Paullum, Hor.'0. i, 12, 37 f; »• 
'inoi ya^ t» ro7( toXiuikoTs KiyiiioK ifiXoi 



]30 



THE SATIRES 



S.4T, II. 



Tot bellorum animae, qiioties hinc talis ad illos 
Umbra venit ? Cnperent bistrari, si qiia darentur 
Sulphura cum ta;dis et si foret huinida laurus. 
Tlluc (heu !) miscri traducimur. Arnia quidem ultra 
160 Litora JuvernaD pi'omovimus et modo captas 
Orcadas ac minima contentos nocte Britannos : 
Sed qiue nunc populi fiunt victoris in urbe, 
Non faciunt ilh, quos vicimus. " Et tamen unus 
Armenius Zalates cunctis narratur ephebis 



aTopiokiit iu9a,g(rui 'i^oviriv Arist. Eth. 
iii, 6.J 

156. lUustres belUs ammce; Lucaa, 
Phars. Sch. bellorum for beUivee^ as 
animee servicntium\ Tac. H. iv, 32; 
for serviles. s. vroWa.; if^i/xous ■^uy^k; 
fl^aaiv Hom. II. A 3 ; R. Virg. JE. vi, 
660. Juvenal adduces these patriots, 
both as instances of the belief in a 
future state, the greatest safeguard of 
integrity and incentive to valour ; and 
as examples of the unfading happiness 
in store for those who faithfully dis- 
charge their duties as men and citizens. 
MAD. 

157. ' To be purified from the con- 
tamination of its very presence, if they 
could gtt the requisite articles.' PRA. 
MAD. 

158. ' The fumes of sulphur thrown 
on a lighted torch of the unctuous pine,' 
MAD. Plin. H. N. xxxv, 15, FRA. 
lustral e m sic rite fa cem, cui lu- 
men odonnn sulpliure cceruleo ni- 
groqve bitiimine fumat, circum memhra 
rotat doctus purganda sacerdos, rore 
pio spargens et dirafuganfibus lierbis 
numina, purificumque Jovem Triviam- 
gne precatus., trans caput aversis mani- 
bus jaculatur in austrum secvm rap- 
turas cantata piacula taedas; Claud. 
xxviii, 324 ft ; Ov. M. vii, 261 ; F. 
iv, 739 f; A, A. ii, 329 f; Tib. i, 
6, 11; 2. 61; Prop. iv, 8, 83 ff; 
Hom. Od. X 481. GRA. o fidyos Sa5a 
xociofiivtjv E^^^wv •^t^iKyviin fct, iva p,n 
^Xa.TTOifn.nv uvo Tui (fa.vraafio.TUiV Luc, 
Nec. 9 & 7. R' llheoc. xxiv, 94.] 

' A branch of bay dipped iu water' 
was also used to sprinkle the parties 
who were to be purified. Plin. H. N. 
XV, 30. PRA. 

Lauro sparguntur ab vda\ Ov. 
F. v, C77. R. 



159. See 149. Thus Trimalcio ex- 
claiins, ' Heu, lieu, nos miseros! 
quam totus homuncio nil est ! sic erinms 
cuncti, postqnam nos auferet Orcus ;' 
Petron, [40 f.] ' Believe, or not; there 
is our final home!' LUB. GIF. De- 
bemur morti nos, nostraque; Hor. A. 
P. 63. PRA. ' \Ve are on our road 
thither:' [or ' We are dragged as cap- 
tives ;' s, Livy ii, 38, 2 : or ' \Ve are 
driven as a flock of sheep ;' omnes 
eodem cogimur., Hor. O. ii, 3, 25 ; K. 
{compellimur : " Tityre, cage pecus ;''' 
Virg. [E. iii, 20; s. ib. ii, 30;] Sch.) 
or the metaphor niay be taken from 
the oriental custom of transplanting 
vanquished people ; Her, v, 12.] R 
takes it to mean, ' To such a pass are 
we wretches come !' 

160. The same as Hibernia ' Ireland.' 
LUB. Camden thlnks tlie Eomans did 
not conquer that island, MAD. (s. Tac. 
Ag. 24 ;) but Juvenal may be obliquely 
ridiculing the boastfulness of his de- 
generate fellow-countrymen. R. 

Modo i. e. bv Claudius, LUB. or by 
Aflrricola ; Tac. 10. R. 

'l61. ' The Orkneys.' MAD. 

In Britannia dierum spatia ultra 
nostri orbis mensuram : et nox clara, 
et extrema parte Britannia brevis. ut 
finem atque initium lucis ejciguo dis- 
crimine internoscas; Tac. Ag. 12; 
PRA. Plin, ii, 75 ; Cses. B. G. v, 10. 
R. 

162. Understand _^a5r?7/a et facinora. 
Thus Seneca says of Alexander ; 

armis vicit, vitiis victus est. LUB. 

163. Some one here starts an objec- 
tion. R. 

164. Armenian hostages are men- 
tioned, Tac. A. xiii, 9; xv, 1 fi'. LUB. 

When the Roman youths assumed 
the virile gown, they were said ea;- 
cedere ex eph ebis. "Ter. And. i, 1, 24. 



SAJ. II. 



OF JUVENAL. 



131 



165 Mollior ardenti sese indulsisse TribuuD." 

Adspici', quid faciant c-oniniereia ! vi^ncrat obscs. 
Ilic linut homincs. Nani si niora longior Url)cm 
Indulsit pucris, non uiuquani dcrit aniator : 
iMittcntur braca^, cultelli, frcna, flagclluin. 

170 Sic pranextatos referunt Artaxala luorcs. 



165. Ariiens: Virg. E. ii, 1. MAD. 
' To have vieldetl his person.' Stat. 

S. iv, 6, 36 f.' R. 

Caligula iriiiy be the wretch de- 
signated by the name of ' Tribune;' 
Suet. [iv,] 36 ; MJD. s. xi, 7. R. 

166. See 78. [ff. (nn.)] GRA. Boninn 
esse riim bonis, /laiid valde laiidabile 
est ; at iinmensi est prceconii, buniiin 
etiani inter matos e.islitisse ; Greg. 
Mag. Mor. i, 1. PRA. 

As ' a hostage' his person should 
have been sacred. LUB. The breach 
of honour aggravates the crime. MAIJ, 

167. ' Rome is the place for forming 
men.' R. 

168. ' A seducer.' 

169. ' Their national costume and 
habits wili be laid a^ide.' The Ori- 
entals, as well as the Gauls, wore 
' trowsers.' FAR. Pers. iii, 53 ; PRA. 



viii, 234; Prop. iv, 10, 43; Suut. ii, 
8-2; Ov. Tr. v, 10, 34; iii, 10, 19 f. 
'Afalv^iiit. (See Her. v, 49, 39.) 
' TliL- dapger, or coiiteau de c/iasse,' 
was an appendage to their girdles: a 
diminiitive noun is used, beeause boys 
are spoken of. R. 

1 70. Sic ' by a protracted residence.' 
BRI. 

Artaxata, on the Arases, is the 
capital of Greater Armenia. (The noun 
is in the neuter plural.) BRI. Now 
' Teflis.' PRA. or ' Ardashat.' AW. 

' The morals of the fashionable Ko- 
mans,' i, 78 ; MAD. or ' gross;' Suet. 
X, 22; BRI. i. e. by antiphrasis, 
' such as no gentleman would use.' 
Festus. s. Pers. v, 30; PRA. or ' such 
as require a veil or cloak to conceal 
them.' R. 



S A T J R E III. 



ARGUMENT. 

Umbricius, au eminent soothsayer, (^aruspicum in nostro cpvo peritissinius ; 
Plin. who, on the day Galha was murdered, predicted the impending 
treason; Tac. H. i, 27; Plut.) disgusted at the prevalence of vice and 
the total disregard of necdy and unassuming virtue, is introduced as on 
the point of quitting Rome, 1..9. The poet accompanies him a short 
distance out of the tomi, 10. .20 ; when the houest exile, no longer able 
to suppress his indignation, stops short, and in a strain of animated 
invective, acquaints his friend with the cause of his retirement, 21 flf. 
This Satire is managed with wonderful ingenuity. The way by which 
Juveual couducts Umbricius, 11 ff; is calculated to raise a thousand 
teuder images in his mind ; and, wheTi he stops to look at it for the last 
time, in a spot endeared by religion, covered with the venerable relics 
of antiquity, and in itself eminently beautiful, we are led to listen with a 
melancholy interest to the farewell of the solitary fugitive. 
The discourse of Umbricius may be resolved under the following heads : 
Flattery and Vice are the only thriving arts at Rome, 21. .57 ; in these 
points the Romans are left far in the distance by the foreigners, more 
especially the Greeks, who resort to the city in such shoals; 58.. 125. 
Poor clients are not only defrauded of their dues by wealthy competitors, 
126. .130 ; but have the mortification of seeing low-born fellows putover 
their head, 131.. 136; 153 ff; and of finding themselves universally 
slighted, 137.. 163. Then the expense of living in Rome is enormous, 
147 ff; 164 ff; 223.. 225. Besides, you are in constant appreheusion 
of being either buried by some overgrown, top-heavy, building, or burut 
in your bed, 190. .222 ; that is, if you can contrive to fall asleep in the 
midst of such a din and racket ; 232.. 238. Unless you are rich you 
cannot move about town with any comfort, 239. .267 ; aud if you stir out 
after dark, you are almost sure of a broken head, either from some 
missile out of a garret-window, 268. .277 ; or from the cudgel of some 
choice spirit, \\\xo has sallied iuto the streets in quest of an adventure: 
278.. 301: should you try to avoid such a rencounter by striking into 
the lanes, you run the risk of being robbed and murdered by one of 
those numerous ruffians, who, for the accommodation of the honest 
citizens, have been hunted into Rome, and there left to exercise their 
vocation unshackled, as the blacksmiths cannot keep pace with the 
demand for irons, 302.. 3 14. 
After alleging these various rcasons for leaving town, Umbricius bids an 

affectiouate farewell to his firiend, 315.. 322. GIF. R. 
This Satire is imitated by Math. Regnier, Sat, iii; by Nic. Boileau, Sat. i, 
and vi ; by Smollett, ' Satirical Description of London and Bath in the 
Expedition of Humphry Clinker;' R. aud by Dr. Johnson, in " London; 
a Poem." 



SAT. III. 



THE SATIRES OF JUVENAL. 



133 



QuAMVis digressu veteris confusus araici, 
Laudo tamen, vacuis quod sedem figere Cumis 
Destincl atfiuc unum civcm donare Sibyllic. 
Janua Baiarum cst ct gratum litus amocni 
5 Secessus. Ego vcl Prochytam praepono Subuiae. 
Nam quid tam miscrum, tam solum vidimus, ut non 
Deterius crcdas horrcrc inccndia, lapsus 
Tectorum assiduos ac mille pericula sajvae 
Urbis ct Augusto recitantcs mense poctas .'' 
10 Sed dura tota domus rcda componitur una, 

Substitit ad veteres arcus madidamque Capenam. 

1. ' Troubled.' R. [Livy vi, 34, 10.] 

2. Sedem. [uvrt ix*'^ tSga», Soph. 
Tr. 1168.] 

CumtB, which wa.s ' now decayed and 
but tbinly inhabited,' was the ancient 
capital of Campania and one of the oldest 
cities in Italy, built by a colony of 
CumaeaDS from Asia. LUB. MAD. a. 
X, 102 ; Virg. G. ii, 225 ; Hor. Ep. i, 
7, 45; 2,81 ff. K. 

3. ' At least one citizen to the Sibyl,' 
GIF. i. e. ' to Cuma;.' s. Plaut. Pers. 
iv, 3, 6. R. In this town there was a 
celebrated temple of the Sibyl, hence 
called Cumaean. [Vir. E. iv, 4. {HY.y\ 
The Sibyls were ten in number; and 
the name is derived from {iauXh and 2/of 
i. e. Ai«, LUB. or 2<»t; for Qsov. PRA. 
Virg. ^. vi, 10 ff. MAD. 

4. ' It is the grand thoroughfare to 
Baiee, (s. viii, 160; R.) which was a 
very fashionable watering-place ; niilhts 
in orle sinus Baiis preelucet amcenis ; 
Hor. Ep. i, 1, 83. BRI. Both these 
towns were pleasantly situated in the 
Bay of Naples. LUB. [ F, 808.] 

5. Prochyta, now ' Procita,' was a 
barren rock, about three miles in circum- 
ference, off Cape Misenus. Some derive 
the name from wja;t;i5»a<, from its having 
been thrown out of the seaby an earth- 
quake. Plin. H. N. ii, 88 ; iii, 6; Sil. 
viii, 542. Virgil calls it alta, JE. ix, 
716: Statius aspern, S. ii, 2, 76. 
LUB. PRA, R. It is now converted 
into a pretty, fertile, spot. GIF. 

Stibura, the etymology, and, conse- 
quently, the orthography of this word is 
uncertain : s. Varr. L. L. iv, 8 ; Quint. 
i,7,28; [orl3.(fiJ7.)Fe8.]BCE,p.82. 
Itnow retainsthe name of ' laSuburra.' 
It wa-^ a noisy street, full of shops, and 



frequented by thieves and prostitutes. 
X, 1.56 ; xl, 51 ; 141 ; Mart. vi, 66, 2 ; 
vii, 31, 12; x, 94, 5; xii, 18, 2; Pers. 
V, 32. LUB. PRA. MAD. R. 

6. ' Lonely ;' Sil. iii, 429. R. 

7. See L, on Tac. An. xv, 43 ; IIB, 
Comm. de Pol. Rom. § 17 and 45 ; Sen. 
Contr. ix, 2. R. prceterea domibus 
flammam domibusrjue ruinam; 

Prop. ii, 27, 9. BRI. 

8. It is ' cruel' to keep persons in 
constant fear of their lives. GRA. 

Et/tddem, nos t/uod Romae sumns, 
miserrimu m esse duco,- — (/uod o m- 
nibus casibus subitorumperi- 
culorum magis objecti sumus, quam 
si abessemus ; Cic. Ep. vi, 4. BRI. 

9. There is much malicious humour 
in this climax : ' fires, falls of houses, 
and poets reciting their verses in the 
dog-days !' In the very hottest month, 
when every one who could, ran away 
from Rome,thosewho remained behind 
were calkd upon to help make an au- 
dience for these incessant spouters. 
Metastasio's translation of this passage 
is pecub'arly happy, " « tanti rischi 
Della cittd trovarsi esposto, e al folle 
Cicalar de^ poeti a' giorni es- 
tivi." s. i, I ff; Pers. i, 17; Hor. S. 
i, 9; A. P. 453 ff. BRl. PRA. GIF. 

10. ' All his family and furniture are 
stowed in a single wagon.' PRA. This 
shows the frugal moderation of Um- 
britrus, BRI. Reda is derived from 
the same Celtic root as our verb kide. 
It was a four-wheeled vehicle. R. [Livy 
V, 40, 6.] 

11. ' He stopped for it.' Seh. While 
he and Juvenal are standing there, the 
foUowing conversation takes place. 
MAD. 



134 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. iir. 



Hic, ubi nocturnae Numa constituebat amicae, 
Nimc sacri fontis n6mus et delnbra locantur 
Judseis, quorum copliinus foenumquo supellex, 
.15 (Omnis eniui populo mcrcedem pcadere jussa est 
Arbor ct ejectis mendicat silva Camenis) 
In vallem Egeri;e descendimus et speluncas 
Dissimiles veris. Quanto praestantius esset 
Numen aqua^, viridi si margine clauderet undas 



' The ancient triumphal arches' of 
Eomulus, [and the Horatii,] which 
were built of brick originally,afterwards 
of marbie. LUB. Or the arches of the 
aqueduct. T. HEI. 

Capena was the gate opening to the 
Appian road : Sch. now called " St 
Sebastian's Gate." GRA. It was 
' wet' froni tbe number of springs there 
(whence it had the name o\ Funtinatis) 
FE. and also from the constant dripping 
of the aqueducts. Capeiia grandi porta 
qua pluit gutta ; Mart. iii,47, 1 ; LUB. 
X, 34, 14; Liv. xxsv, 10. R. It was 
also called Triumplialis, from the tri- 
umphs passing through it. PRA. 

12. Nu.ma Pompitius, iit populum 
Romanuni sacris obligaret, volebat vi- 
deri sibi cum dea Egeria congressus 
esse 7iocturnos, ejusque monitu accepta 
diis immortalibus sacra instituere ; 
V. Max. i, 2; Liv. i, 19 ; 21. PJ?^. 
Nyinpha Numts conjux, consiliumque 

fuit; Ov. F. iii, 262; 276 &c ; GRA. 
M. XV, 482 ff; Dionys. ii, 60 ff; Plut. 
V. iv. R. ■ 

[Und. fempus,] ' Made assignations ;' 
vi, 487; Prop. iv, 8, 33. R. 

13. Lucus erat, qnem medium ex 
opaco specu fons perenni rigabat a- 
qua : quo quia se perscepe Nu m a sine 
arbitris velut ad co?igressu m deae 
inferebat; Camenis cum lucum sa- 
cravit, quod earum sibi concilia cum 
conjuge sua Eg eria essent; Liv. i, 
21. PRA. 

More than one delubrum were often 
within the same templum or r'ift,itoi, 

Locare ' to let,' conducere ' to hire or 
rent;' 31. Such was theavariceof 
the Romans that they exacted rent from 
these Jews, though they were so poor, 
that ' a basliet with a small bundle of 
hay constituted the whole of their goods 
and chattels :' vi, 541 ; and such their 
i m p i e t y that they did not scruple to 



let the sacred grove to these persecuted 
outcasts. L UB. PRA. R. 

14. The heathens confounded the 
Christians and ' the Jews.' The latter 
had been expelled from Rome, recently, ^' 
by an edict of Poraitiau, CUN. as, for- 
merly, by a decree of Claudius: not . 
long afterwards, however, the city was_) 
again fuH of them. vi, 542 ff. R. 

The ' hay' probably served by way of 
a pillow to keep their heads from the 
damp ground. BRI. GIF. The Ko^ivas 
was a ' basket,' in which the Jews 
used to carry their provisions, to keep . 
them from poUution. See St Matthew 
xiv, 20 ; xvi, 9 f ; St Mark vi, 43 ; viii, 
19 f ; St Luke ix, 17; St John vi, 13. 
MAD. When it is said that the dis- 
ciples of our Lord gathered up twelve 
baskets fuU of fragments, it may mean 
that each apostle filled his own basket. 

15. ' Not a tree but pays its rent:' 
for the grove was crowded with these 
poor wretches, who were glad to avail 
themselves even of this comfortiess 
sheker. MAD. Suet. xii, 12. R. 

The phrase mercedem pendere 
(r^hcnce our word pound) originated 
from sums of money being weighed, 
instead of counted. LUB. 

16. See vi, 541 ff. ' The old tenants 
being served with an ejectment.' By 
' the forest' is meant ' the new tenantry 
of the forest,' which ' goes a begging' to 
collect both a livelihood and the rent 
against next quarter-day. LUB. Or 
' the forest swarms with beggars.' 
MAD. 

17. ' I and Umbricius.' LUB. 

' Grottoes, altered till they have lost 
all resemblance to nature.' L UB. 

18. Seexi, 116f. Perhaps we should - 
read praesentius; s. T ira;. E. i, 42 ; ^ 
G. i, 10 ; JE. ix, 404. GRA. HS. R. ^ 

19. Ourpoethere isindebtedto Ovid: 
val li s erat, piceis et acuta densa cu- 



SAT. iir. 



OF JUVENAL. 



1 35 



20 Herba nec ingcnuum violarent niannora tophuui ! 

Ilic lunc l-uibricius " (^uaudu artibus" iu^iuit "lujncstis 
Nulhis iu Irljc lociis, uulhi cuiohiuicuta hiboruui, 
Res bodie niiuor cst, licrc (luaui luit, atque eadcni cras 
Dcterct exiguis ah(juid : jjropouiuuis illuc 

25 Ire, faligatas ubi Diedahis exuit alas, 

Duiu uova canities, dum prima et rccta scnectus, 
Dum supcrest Lachcsi, quod torqucat, ct pedibus nie 
Porlo nicis, nidh) dcxtram subcuutc bacillo. 
Cedamus patria : vi\ aut Artorius istic 

30 Et Catuhis: mancaut, qui nigrum iu candida vertunt, 



pressu ; . . .cujus in extremo edantrum 
neviora le recessu, arte laburatuiH 
nutla : simulnverat artem ingcnio natura 
suo : nampumicevivo et leviiiistoph i s 
nat iv u m dujcerat arcum. fo n s sunat 
a iledtra tenui perluciitus utiiia, mar- 
gine gramineo patulos incinct us 
Aiatus; Met. iii, 155 tt'. Nuuwn fu/uee 
' the sai red fount:' R. or ' the Naiad 
of the spring.' MAD. 

20. Ingenuum ' native.' The tuphus 
was ' a coarse lime-stone,' which was 
now supplaced by a marble basin.' 
Ti. Art ' does vioience' to nature: 
nullo viulatus Jupitcr auro ; xi, 116; 
violaverit ostro ebur ; Viinr. /E. xii, '•7 ; 
Mart. i, 54, 6 ; /tiaintif ixi(p»\Ta (pomKr 
Hom. II. A 141. R. 

21. TLe word honestis is emphatic. 
MAD. This passage is an imitation 
of Plautus Merc. v, 1, 7 ff. GRA. 

22. Emolumentum, from e and mola, 
was properly ' the profit got by grist.' 

23. ' .My fortune is growing less, 
daily.' PRA. 

Here is an ancientform ofheri. PRA. 

24. ' VVill file down somewhat.'^/a/«- 
nosa ijuid nun imminuit dies f Hor. 
Od.iii,6,45. GRA. Strictly speaking, 
res deterit ur and not deterit. R. 

' I and my family propose.' MAD. 

25. Livy xxviii, 15, 5. ED. ' Fa- 
tigued with his long flight from Crete.' 
Virg. ^. vi, 14 ff. If Dffidalus, who 
had the choice of ail the worid before 

' him, tixed upon Cuma-, it must indeed 

j be a lovely spot (since he was both 

: xu^uf aud ttiaii' s. Arist. Kh. i, 7, 2 ;) 

LUB. i, 54 ; PRA. Sil. xii, 89 ff. R. 

26. ' Before the infirmities of old age 
grow upon me :' L UB. s. Cic. Sen. 26 ; 



60. PRA. donec virenti canities abest 
morusa; Hor. Od. i, 9, 17 f. jR. Phi- 
losophers di\ided man's lifethus: from 
birth to 3 or 4 infantia, 3 or 4 to 10 
pueritia, 10 to 18 pubertas, 18 to 25 
adulcscentia, 25 to 35 or 40 Juventus, 
35 or 40 to 50 (etas virilis, 50 to 65 
senectus prima or rccta, 65 till deaih 
senertus iillima or ilecrcpita. HOL. 

27. Dum res et eetas et sororum fila 
triuin patiuntur atra ; Hor. Od. ii, 3, 
15 f. The respective offices of the 
three Destinies is de.scribed in the foi- 
lowing verse: Clothu colum gestat, 
Lachesis net, et Atropos octat: [" Sad 
Clotho held the roc-ke, the whiles the 
thrid, By grieslv Lachesis was spun 
with paine, That cruell Atropos eft- 
soones undid, With cursed knife cut- 
ting the twist in twaine : Most wretched 
me, whose days depend on thrids so 
vaine!" Spenser F. Q. ii, 43.] The 
name of Lachesis is derived from X.ay- 
Xinif. L UB. s. Cat. Ixiv, 3 1 2 fl". Tur- 
i/uere and versare (Tib. ii, 1, 64;) 
signify ' to spin.' R. [s. xii, 62 ; xiv, 
248.] 

28. Senex, gravatus annis, totus in 
baculum pronus et lassum trahens vesti- 
gium ; Apul. LUB. Corapare the rid- 
dle of the Sphinx. 

29. Seeii, 131. Artorius axii Catulus 
were two knaves who, by disreputabie 
arts, had risen from the dregs of the 
people to affluence. Sch. 

30. Qui facere assuerat, patria; non 
degener arlis. candida de nigris 
et de candenlibus atra ; Ov. M. xi, 314 
f. ' White' and ' black' the ancients 
often used for ' good' and ' bad:' hic 
niger est ; hunc tu, Romane, caveto ; 



136 



THE SATIRES 



.SAT. III. 



Quis facile est aedera conducere, flumina, portus, 
Siccandam cluviem, portandum ad busta cadaver, 
Et prajbere caput domina venale sub hasta. 
Quondam hi comicines et municipalis arenae 
35 Perpetui comites nota^que per oppida buccae, 
Munera nunc edunt et verso pollice vulgi 



Hor. S. i, 4, 85; Pers. v, 108. His 
prcemium nunc est, gui recta prava 
faciunt; Ter. Phor. v, 2, 6 ; LUB. 
Pers. ii, 1 , f . Mundana sapienfia est 
cor machinafionibus fegere, scnsutn vcr- 
bis ve/are, r/ueefa/sa sunt vera osfendere, 
quce vera suntftlsa demonstrare ; Greg. 
Mag. Mor. PRA. 

31. ' Whohave the means of getting 
contracts for lucrative public works.' 
MA D. These con tractors were generall y 
of the Equestrian order. R. ' Thebuild- 
ing of a temple ;' for this is (almost 
without exception) the signification of 
aedrs in the singular. Serv. v«o» fnff- 
tBUfSai Her. V, 62. s. [vii, 37 ; 40 ;] 
nn, on vi, 597 ; Livy xxii, 33, 8 ; xxiii, 
48, 10. {DN.) 

' The clearing the mud from rivers 
and harbours,' or else ' thefisheries, fer- 
ries, and harbour dues.' FAB. BRI. 
Or ' the coDstruction and reparation of 
harbours.' GRA. 

32. ' The cleansing of the public 
sewers.' Sch. s. Arist. Eth. iv, 1. 

' The fumishing of a funeral.' GIF. 
Scipio's funeral was performed by con- 
tract, the sum being raised bv subscrip- 
tion : Plin. H. N. xxi, 3. PRA. 

33. ' To speculate in e drove of slaves' 
by buyingthewholecargo, and then dis- 
pcsins of them by auction in separate 
lots. GRA. Pers. vi, 76 f. MAD. 

' A spear' used to be stuck up as the 
sign of a public auction. (Liv. xxiii, 37, 
3 ; xxvii, 24, b. ED.) It was called 
' tlie mis tress-spear' as implying the 
dominion over the person and life of 
the slave, which vvas then and there 
vested in the purchaser. BR. MAD. [or 
as a badge o[al^fit.aXuTo; tovXoa^vni, Her. 
ix, 7G-] Tib. ii, 4, 54. duminus and 
domina are often used as adjectives: 
Ov. Her. 3, 100. HS. 

34. ' They once used to blow the horn 
at the provincial theatres, and attend 
tbe strolling companv of prize-fighters 
fi-om town to town.' T. PRA. ' The 
horn' was sounded to call the people to- 



gether, as at the shows in our country 
fairs. MAD. 

Municipium was ' a borough-town,' 
which had the privileges and freedom 
of Roine, and at the same time was 
governed by laws of its own, somewhat 
like our corporations. MAD. 

35. ' Their faces were known;' for 
which Juvenal says ' their cheeks,' 
the most prominent part of their faces 
while thev were puffing their homs. 
PRA. MAD. 

36. ' Now they give shows to the 
people.' From the occasional practice 
of putting prisoners of war to death at 
the grave of a favourite chief who had 
fallen in battle, as the readiest way to 
appease his manes, arose that of ex- 
hibiting combats of gladiators in Rome, 
at the funerals of eminent persons ; to 
whichthey werefor sometimerestricted. 
The magistrates were the first to break 
through this restriction, by producing 
them at festivals for the amusement of 
the citizens. A mbitious men soon foimd 
that to gratify tbe people with such 
entertainments was one of the readiest 
roads to power Cicero first chected 
this abuse by a law prohibiting candi- 
dates from so doing. Augustus decreed 
that they should be given but twice a 
year. Caligula removed every restric- 
tion : Domitian gave them every en- 
couragement: and even Trajan ex- 
hibited the horrid spectacle of 10,000 
victims, on his triumph over theDacians ! 
There were other checks of a secondary 
nature: among these a decree of the 
senate, ne quis gladiaforium munus 
edercf cui minor quadringenforum 
millium res ; Tac. An. iv, 63 ; and he 
was also required to be a free citizen ; 
for Haipocras, the freedman of Clau- 
dius, exhibited them by the emperor's 
special indulgence. This will account 
for the indignation which the poet feels, 
when such purse-proud upstarts pre- 
sumed to trifle away the lives of their 
fellow-creatures at the caprice of an 



SAT. III. 



OF JUVENAL. 



\:m 



QiuMH libct occidiiut populariter : inde reversi 
Coiulucunt loricas ; et cur nou oinnia .? quuin sint, 
Quales cx Iniinili niagna ad fastigia rerum 
40 Extollit, quoties voluit Fortuna jocari. 

Quid Ronrnp faciain .'' mentiri nescio: libiiim, 



uofeeling labble. Constaiitine sup- 
pressed these barbarou^ shows ; vrhich 
were finally abolished by Arcadius and 
Honorius. s. Suet. i, 10 ; Tac. An. xiii, 
49. GIF. T. R. 

Vertere pollicem wa.s a sign of con- 
demnation, previere pollicem of favour. 
8. Hor. Ep. i, 18, G«; LUB. Plin. 
xxviii, 2. PRA. The brutalization, 
resulting from the frequent sight of 
these massacres, rendered instaiices of 
conipassion but lare. If any where, 
we might have antieipated such pity 
would be found in the breasts of the 
Testals : O tenerinn mitemqxie ani- 
miim ! consurgit ad ictus : et, quoties 
victor ferrum jugulo inserit, illa deli- 
cias ait esse suas ! pectusquc Jacentis 
virgo modestajubet converso pollice 
rutnpi ; ne lateaf jxirs ulla animce vita- 
libus imis,altius imprcsso dum palpitat 
ense secutor ! Prud. adv. Sym. 1095. 
No war or pestilence ever swept away 
puch myriads of the human race, as 
thesebarbaroussports. Insomemonths, 
twenty or thirty thousand were slaiigh- 
tered in Europe aloiie. Nero and 
Caligula did but put to death soine 
hundredsduring their reigns : wheieas, 
at these games, even private citizens 
frequently butchered a thousand in a 
day ! L. GIF. [Spectator No. 436.] 

37. ' N^ hen the vulgar spectators 
have notified their wishes, he gives 
the death-signal which was waited for, 
to curry favour with the rabble;' LUB. 
GRA. and therefore might be said ' to 
kiir the gladiator: s. 116; R. upon the 
principle qui facit per alium,facit per 
se. 

' From these magnifieent exhibitions, 
they start off to the ediles to get some 
lucrative contract, no matter how 
Bordid.' ACH. 

38. ' Thcy farm the jakes,' buiit for 
the accommodation of the public, upon 
payment of a trifle. conducere ' to con- 
tract for;' vi, 597; R. s. note on 13 ; 
and Arist. Eth. iv, 1. 

40. ' The elevation of such low people 



is solely attributable to a frolic of the 
bhnd goddess.' x, 366 ; Hor. Od. i, 
34, 14 S; XXXV. 1 ff; iii, 29, 49 ff; 
MAD. vii, 197 f; !^tat. Th. iii, 179; 
Claud. xix, 23 ff. Hence shc is rallcd 
improba; vi, 605 tf. il»tfTi Si ««! rat 

0171(0 6v trKrttri xai lekurcoraiTiu i^d//.a'ri, 
TO» fiir i^ cixiTov dirTorn* •rpoietTn, to» 
5 olit) 'rXovriiiv •ri*nTa t«» Ss traTpccTn* 

IX •rmnToi n ^iaffiXia. toZto ydg toi x.at to 

J/ / ■ '/ , * , 

liyorxTot iffTi», ori. xairoi fia^TVfov/xttns 

t5{ Tv;(^ni Tai^iit <ra. Tat a.\6cu!rcot Tpdy. 

(ji.a.<Ta. xai oyoKoyovffni ^rSf» avrut utai 

/Si/3a/«», o/.tui fiiffTo) Tioiiaffi •rdtiTif oi 

yiyvein.hui iXfriSa;» Luc. lll Nig. 2o ; 

K. Livy XXX, ^K), 2. 

41. Vir buntts et pauper lingna^ue et 
■pectore verus, quid tibi vis, Urbem qui, 
Fabiane, petis ? qui nec leno potes nec 
comissator /laberi, nec pavidos tristi 
voce citare reos ; nec potes uxore^n cari 
corrumpere amici, plnudere nec Cnno 
plnudere nec Glapliyro. Unde miser 
vives? homo fidus, certus amictts. hoc 
nihil cst: numquam sic Philomelus 
eris; Mart. iv, 5. Wyatt, in his Epistle 
to his friend Toynes, shows that he had 
this Satire before him : " But how may 
I this honour now attaine,That cannot 
dye the colour black a lyer? IMy 
Poynes, I cannot frame my tune to 
fayn, To cloke the truth, for praise 
without desert, Of them that list all 
vice for to retayne." Hence he cannot 
prefer Chaucer's Tale of Sir Topas to 
his Paliemoii and Arcite: he cannot 
" Praise Syr Topas for a noble tale, 
And scome the story that the Knight 
tolde. Praisc him for counsell that is 
dronke of ale; Grinnewhen he laughes 
that beareth all the sway, Frowne 
when he frowneo, and grone when ho 
is pale; On others' lust to hang both 
night and day." GIF. 

Librum : s. Hor. A. P. 419 ff; Pers. 
i. FAR. quod tam grande " fftifui'.'''' 
clamat tibi turba togata, non tu, Pom- 
poni, ccpna diserta tua est; Mart. vi, 
48. MAD. 



T 



138 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



Si malus est, nequeo laudare et poscere: motus 

Astrorum ignoro : funus jiromitterc patris 

Nec volo nec possum : ranarum viscera numquara 

45 Inspexi. Ferre ad nuptam, quae mittit adnlter, 
Quie mandat, norunt alii : me nemo ministvo 
Fur erit atque ideo nulli comes exeo, tamquam 
Mancus et exstinctffi corpus non utile dextroe. 
Quis nunc diligitur, nisi conscius et cui fervens 

50 iEstuat occultis animus semperque tacendis .? 
Nil tibi se debere pulat, nil conferet umquam, 
PaiHicipem qui te secreti fecit honesti. 
Carus erit Veiri, qui Verrem tempore quo vult 
Accusare potest. Tanti tibi non sit opaci 

55 Omnis areua Tagi quodque in mare volvitur aurum. 



42. Poscere ' to say I sbould be de- 
lighted to have a copy.' FjiR. 

' I am no astrologer.' FAR. yiyAo3 
ff; xiv, 248 f. R. 

43. Spondcre ; vi, 548 ; ' to the pro- 
digal and expectant heifj' (vi, 565 ff;) 
R. qnifilius ante diem patrios inquirit 
in an)ios, Ov. M. i, 148. FAR. 

44. ' "Though a soothsayer, I 
never explored the entrails of a toad,' 
for the purpose of extractiug poison. 
Ex rartae ruhetae v iscerih u s, id 
est, linijua, ossiculo, liene, corde, mira 
fieri posse comtat, sunt enim plurimis 
medicaminihus rcferfa; Plin. [H. N. 
■viii, 48 ; xxxii, 18, 7 ; &c ;] FAR. i, 
70 ; PRA. vi, 658 ; 563 ff; MAD. Ov. 
M. XV, 577. R. Either our ' toad' is 
not the rana ruheta, [in vepribus tan- 
tum vivunt, grandissimcB cunctarum, 
geminis veluti cornihus, plenee vene- 
ficiorum, Pli. H. N. xxxii, 18, 7;] or 
it has lost its noxious qualities in 
this country. The oompounders of poi- 
sons might pretend to extract venom 
from toads, in order to conceal their 
seeret, vrhich more probahly vvas some 
vegetable ormi n e ralpoison. GJi^. 

45. Quce mittit, ' billets doux and 
presents.' GRA. 

46. Quce mandat, ' messages.' GRA. 

47. ' I will never be an accessary to 
peculation, or lend myself as an agent 
to extortion ; theiefore no governor, 
vrhen departing for nne of the foreign 
provinces, would receive me into his 
train.' s. 53 f. 



4S. ' A cripple.' exstinctce dextrcB is 
a Grecism for exstincta dextra. ' I am 
not dexterous enough in knavery to 
be made any one"s right-hand man.' 

49. Quis'^ i. e. nemo, ' none, but the 
cnnfidant of a guilty secret.' FAR. vis 

fieri dives, Bithynice ? conscius esto ; 
Mart. vi, 1, 5. R. 

50. Animo eestuante reditum ad vada 
retulit; Cat. a metaphor from the sea 
' raging and boiling' under the influence 
of a storm : fe rvet vertigine pontus ; 
Ov. M. xi, 54*J ; Maura semper ae- 
stuat unda; Hor. Od. ii, 6, 3 f; 
{fervidus eesius, S. i, 1, 38.] " The 
wicked are like the troubled sea, 
when it cannot rest, whose waters 
oast up mire and dirt. There is no 
peace, saith my Gnd, to the wicked ;'' 
isaiah Ivii, 20 f; MAD. " Raging 
waves of the sea, f o a m i n g out their 
own shame;'" St Jude 13. 

51. ' To be under no obligation.' 
MAD. nil tibi, vel minimum, basia 
pura dabu7it; Mart. vi, 1, 6. R. 

53. See ii, 26; PRA. Tac .A. vi, 
4; Amm. Marc. xxviii, 6, 20. R, s. 
47. 

54. Arcanum tieqiie tu scrutaberis 
iillius umquam, commissumque tegas, 
vel vino tortus et ira; Hor. Ep. i, 18, 
37 f. FAR. 

ASstus serenos aure ofranges Tago, 
obscurus umbris arhorum; Mart. i, 
1, 15&-. PRA. 

55. Now ' the Taio.' R. arena au- 
rumque (Sf S/a S«/o7»") ' golden sands.' 



»AT. III. 



OF JUVKNAL. 



13!» 



Ut soinno caieas ponenda(iut' piceniia stniias 

Tristis et a niagno sfniper tiniearis aniieo. 

Quie uunc divitibus gcns accej^tissinia noslris 

Et quos praecipue fugiani, j^roperabo liiteri 
60 Nec pudor obstabil. Non possuni fcrre, Quiritcs, 

Graccani Urbem : quamvis quota i^ortio fecis Achaei ? 

Jam pridem Syms in Tiberim detluxit Orontes 

Et linguam et niorcs et cum tibieine cliordas 

Obliquas nec non gentilia tympana secum 
65 Vcxit et ad Circum jussas prostare pucllas. ^. 

Ite, quibus grata est picta lupa barbara raitra. 



66. Sonie confou\]d ponentia w\th pro- 
posita: (Virp. JE. v, 292; 48(5;) it is 
nither fquivalent to ({eponenda^ espe- 
ciallv in juxta-position with .snnias; 
[but's. ii," 84, )";] E. as in Hor. Od. 
iii, 2. 19; MAD. ii, (iti. \h xaTu. 0sov 

^vxr) fttTettiesaf tij aannoiai uuiTafe.i^tfor 

KaTteyei^iToi, II Corinthians vii, 10.] 

'57. ' To vour sorrow,' ou ^aiau* 

See 1 1.^ ; "i, 33 ; M.4D. vi, :U3. R. 

( (pifis^t'-/ IrTi ifolio; tZ» ouiayiva» ti roi^irat, 

1 ir Tapatrxivti yao aiayKri livai to» tdioZtoV 

Arist. Rh. li, (i, 2. See the history of 

Pansanias in Thuc. i, 132 ff. 
58. [See Spectator No. 45.] 
69. Nec setiuar aiit fii g i am, tiiue 

diligit ipse vcl odit; Hor. Ep. i, 1 , 72. 

GRA. 

60. Pudor: Umbricius biushed for 
his country. 

Quirites ! is said in bitterness of 
ispirit, and as a contrast to Greecam. 
vi, 16 ; 185 If; 291 ff; xi, 169 ff; xv, 
llOff; Pers. vi,38; iTff. Sii. iii, 178; 
xi , 41 ; 49; 69; Cic. pro Flac. Luc. 
Ni^. 15. R. 

61. ' A Grecian Rotne. (xv, 1 10. R.) 
Yet, when I see wliat a deluge of 
Asiatics the Orontes has disgorped into 
the Tiber, I must own that the iilth of 
Greece bears but a sinall proportion to 
the inundatinn of impurity with which 
we are overwhelmed." GIF. s. xiii,157. 

I The depravity of the Greeks we learn 
'. from I Corinthians vi, 9. . 1 1 ; and else- 
L where in tlie New Te^itament. MAD. 
oXa Ttt. ihv aS^ncoi avrifi (at Rnme) 
autdixivTai. a; to K.a-rTadoxu)i xa) Tuoui 
Koi no»r<xa/v kk) a.XKo)» •xy.tirivca» Ath. 
i, 36. B(R. 

62. The inhabiiants of the East, and 
especially cf Antioeh, which was on 
the Orontes, (Julian. Miaop. Herodian 



ii, 7, 15; HNN.) were scandalously " 
debauched in their morals, (viii, 158 f;) • 
and iiitroduced quite new fashions;^ 
(vii, 14 ff; viii, 1V8 ff;) Mart. iii, 4; 
V, 50; Suet. x, 19. For a similar 
metaphor, see vi, 295 ; Claud. xix, 
434; Isaiah viii, 6.. 8. R. 

63- LiixnricE peregrinee origo ab ex- 
ercitu Asiatico invecta iu urbein esf ; 
ttim psattriee sambucistriepf/ue ei convi- 
vialia ludionum oblertamenta aildita 
epulis; Liv. xxxix, 6; th^ sambucum. 
was a triangular iyre. The ' harp and • 
flute' were very generally played tcge- •' 
ther ; s. Hor. E. ix, 5 f ; and elsewhere. 
5'A'. [S. i,2, 1 ; Ambubaiae dicnntur 
mulierestibirincB linf^na Syrorum. Sch. 
Aiibuba is Syriac for ' a pipe.' BAX. 
s. PZ, on JE. V. H. xii, 35. /IIV.] 

64. ' National tambourines.' Sch. 
Lucr. ii, 618. R. 

65. There were sevcral Circuses at 
Rome. The Circus Maxinius is here ■ 
meant, which was^first built by Tar- ' 
quinius Priscus, [Eutr. i, 6;] PRA. 
and by subsequent alterations was able 
to accommodate '260,000 spectators, 
KT. bcing more than three furlongs 
in length, and one broad ; Plin. xxxvi, 
15s24. BRI. See223. 

' To stand for hire.' vi, 123; R. i, 
47. 

Puellas, et quas Euphrates et riuas 
mi/ii viisit Orontes ; Prop. ii, 23, 21. R. 

66. ' Hie thither.' GIF. 

' The barbarian hariot with em- 
broidered' (undcr.«tand acu) ' turban.' 
These women were termed /npa from 
tlieir rai)aeity; and the houses where 
thcy lodged, luiianaria. The Greeks 
and Romans caiied all foreigners ' bar- 
barians.' MAD. See note on Her. i, pr. 

.See ii, 84 ; PRA. Virg. JE. iv, 216; 



140 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



Rusticiis ille Inus sumit trechedipna, Quirine, 

Et ceromatico fert niceteria collo. 

Hic alta Sicyonc ast hic Amydone relicta, 
70 Hic Andro, ille Samo, hic Trallibus aut Alabandis, 

Esquilias dictumque petunt a vimine collem, 

Viscera magnarum domuum dominique futuri. 

Ingenium velox, audacia perdita, sermo 

Promptus et Isa;o torrentior. Ede, quid illum 
75 Esse putes ? quem vis hominem, secum adtulit ad nos: 



ix, 616 ; Td. Cop. 1 ; Ov. M. xiv, 654 ; 
Claud. XX, 185. R. 

67- The Rornans were reduced to 
the levei of prize-tipihters ; while foreign- 
ers were wormiug themselves into every 
post of power and piofit. LUB. To 
. mark his c-ontem]>t the more, the poet 
erowds his description with Greek 
l words. GJF. s. Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 32 f. R. 
fPerhaps these lines should be written 
thus Riisticns ille fiais sn/iiit r^t^i- 
^iiwa, Q//irine, Et xtioeofiariKa fei-t 
vt!cyiTn^iK coUo. and again T^a.//.ft,aTiKo;, 
fYiTco^, lyiofiST^it;, picfor, a.^uTTn; , An- 
fjur, <rp^aivo^ii.Tn; j iitedicns, ftdyo; : oin- 
nia novit. 76 f.] 

Rusticits; s. ii, 74 ; 127; viii, 274 f. 
MAD. 

It is not agreed what part of the 

dress is meant by r^i^iiwjfvoi. It may 

be the same as ivB^of/.);, ' a gymnastic 

dress,' 103; vi, 245. '1\ or' the succinct 

I vcst of the Greek wiestlers,' GIF. or 

'" ' a su't of livery,' s. v, 143; IIG. or ' a 

, cloak in which tfiey ran for their supper 

' or dole,' 127 f ; LUB. PRA. HOL. or 

' Grecian shoes,' Sch. SM, HNN. or 

the same as vtx,»TYi^i<x, i.e. ' prizes vvorn 

round the neck, which served as badges 

, to distinguish such as wt-re entitled to 

paitake of the suppers provided at the 

( public expense.' SCA. RTG. VO. 

Quirin/fs, a surname of Bomulus, 
derived from curis a Sabine word sig- 
nifying ' a spear ;' or from Ci/res, after 
the admission of the Sabints into Roine. 
Mars was called Gradivi/s when in- 
censed, and Qnirinus when paeified. 
Ov. F. ii, 475 ti"; PBA. s. ii, 128. 

68. See ii, 14.^. ACH. Ccroma was 
an ointment made of oil, wax, and clay ; 
LUB. MhTt. vii, 32, 9 ; PRA. Plin. H. 
N. xxxviii, 4 s 13 ; xsxv, 12 f; R. with 
which they besmeared their neck and 
breast, and that profusely ; for Seneca, 
telling his fricnd Lucilius of a journey 



he had taken, says, ' the roads were 80 
bad that ho rather swam than walked, 
and, bef.ire he got to his inn, was 
plastered overwith ceronia like a prize- 
Hghter.' GIF. Mart. iv, 4, 10; xix, 5. 

69. See vii, 14 ff". Sici/on, in Achaia, 
was iiri Xo(poy l^ufmo»' Strab. viii, p. 587. 
R. 

Amydon, in Pfeonia a district of 
Macedon. Hom. IL B 849. LUB. 

70. A/idros one of the Cyclades. 
LUB. 

Sa?nos an island off the coast of lonia, 
where Juno was especialiy worshipped. 
LUB. 

Tralles a frontier town of Lydia. 
PRA. 

Alabanda arich city of Caria. LUB. 

71. ' The Esquiline and Viminal 
Hills,' two of the seven on which Rome 
stood, are put for the city itself. The 
former is now ' the IVIount of St Marj- 
the Greater.' PRA. Il had its name 
f\ om e s c u l i ' thebav-oaks' which grew 
there ; MAD. but s. Ov. F. iii, '245.^ 
R. 

72. ' The vital organs.' PRA. 

73. Ingeniuin velox; Ov. M. viii, 
254. R 

74. ' Than that of Tsjeus.' R. There 
were two celebrated orators of this 
n:;me: (l^thepreeeptorofDemosthenes, 
who came to Athens from Chalcis : 
Quint. xii, 10. (2) An Assyrian, vvho 
fiourished at Rome in Hadrian's reign: 
Plin. Ep. ii, J. BRI. 

' More rapidlyfluent.' torrens dicendi 
copia et facundia ; x, 9 f ; 128 ; Quint. 
iii, 8, 60; Pliii. xxvi, 3. s. largus et 
exundans ingeniifons; x, 119; Hom. 
li. A 249; iior. O. iv, 2, 5 ff. R. 

' Tell me ;' 296 ; &c. Quid; s. i, 74 ; 
XI, 33; Ov. Her. 12, 31. J?. 

"5. ' He is a Jack of all Irades: 
nothing comes amiss to him ; he is such 
y universal trenius.' MAD. 



SAT. III. 



OF JUVENAL. 



141 



Grarainaticus, rhetor, geometres, pictor, aliptcs, 
Augur, sclKrnobates, uuclicus, uiagus ; oiiuiia novit. 
Grifculus esuricus in cceluiu, jusseris, ibit. 
Ad suminain, non M aiirus erat neque Sarmata nec Tlirax, 

80 Qui suinsit i^eimas, mediis scd nalus Atbenis. 
Horum ego non lugium concliylia ? Mc prior ille 
Signabit? fultusque toro meliore recumbet 
Advectus Romaui, quo pruna ct cottaua vento ? 
Usque adeo nihil est, quod nostra infantia coeluin 

85 Hausit Aventinum baca nutrita Sabina ? 



7<3. Terrce ntensor: Hor. Od. i, 28, 

1 f. PRA. geonietres must be scanned 

j a3 three syllables: FAR. thus iino 

j eodemqite igni \ Virg. E. viii, 81 : 

[but s. 67, note.] 

' An anointer' of vvrestlers in the 
gyninasiufiT(t'rom dXtlftir) : FAR. who 
had also the trainini; ofathletes; Pind. 
01. viii, 71 tf. Or ' ii bath-man' who 
anointed those that had baTRed : s. vi, 
422. Or possibly, ' an oeulist.' R. 

77. ' An Augur' divinctl the future 
froni the flight, the feedinp, and the 
chirping ofbirds: FAR. ' an Aruspex' 
from the entrnils of sacrifices. 

' A Rope-dancer' (from axo^m and 
^xliiifj fiinambutus ; Ter. Hec. pr. 4 ; 
M. FAR. 

In Persis augurantur et divinant 
mcigi : ner: fjuisiiuam rex PcrMVum 
esse potcst, qui non ante magorum dis- 
ciplinam scientiamque perceperit; Cic. 
Div. i, 90. PRA. 

78. Thediminutive' Greekling'("r/F. 
isusedincontempt. s.61 ; R. Arist. Eh. 
iii, 2, G. 

Esvricns. Quis expedivit psittaco 
suum ;t«''€' picasque docuit 7ioslra verba 
conarif Magister artis ingenique lar- 
gitor vente r, negatas art ife x sequi 
voces;Ppr< pr. S f. F.tF. ii •xitta u; 
97rtuhni \'ra.ii,yii ko.) ^iTXccnrf^itriV 'i%u 
xai Tt^i iraXXa Trit oiayoi'/.* xi^tivuia» 
<rjo( iavTrif i-ritr^iipii' Chrys. Or. iv. 
ad Ant. /?. " Kece.-sity is tlie mother 
of Invention.'' 

Ibit ' he will try.' coelum ipsum 
petimus slultitia ; Hor. Od. i, 3, 38. R. 

79. ' In short.' LUB. 
Sarmata; ii, 1. PRA. 

80. There is here a double allusion ; 
(1) to Dmdatus, i, 54 ; who was either 
grandson or great-grandson, of Erech- 
fheus king of Athens: (2) to a mnn at 



Rome, who made an attempt to fly in 
the reign of Kero: inter Pyrrhicarum 
argitmentn. Icarus primo statim conatii 
ju.vta cubiculum ejus {Neronis) decidit, 
ipsitinque cruore respersit; Suet. vi, 
12 ; Mart. Sp. 8. Though there is 
no ceitainty that this latter was an 
Atheni.^n. R. GRA. 

81. Co7icliyliui)i, viii, 101 ; or murex, 
was the shell-fish from which the purple 
dye of the ancients was obtained. Plin. 
H. N. ix, 36 ; viii, 1. It is here put 
for ' the purple robes' vvorn only by 
nobles and mun of tlie first distinction. 
BRI. PRA. R. 

' Shall he take precedence of nie in 
signingmarriage-settlements, wills, &c, 
as a witness ?' L UB. Pers. v, 8 1 . PRA. 

b2. Effullitm pluma versicolore ca- 
put ; Prop. ii', 7,50 ; or rather ' on the 
elbow.' R. The middle couch was the 
' more honourable one.' GRA. Hor. S. 
ii, 8, 20 ff; MAD. s St Luke xiv, 7. 
[To avoid disputes for precedence at i 
table, in days of chivalry, knights were i 
sometinies seated at a round table.] .* 

8.3. ' Iinported from Syna.' LUB. i, 
111. MA D. m i s t n s Phariis venalis 
mevcibus infans; Stat. S. ii, 1, 73. 

' The plums of Damascus' were fa- 
mous. LUB. They are mentioned in 
conjunction with cofYawrt ; Pliu. H N. 
xiii, 5 ; xv, 13 ; Mart. xiii, 28 f ; PRA. 
iv, 63, 7 ; Stat. S. iv, 9, 28. R. [ib. i, 
6, 14.] Hcnce our word damsons,;> 
originally written hamascenes". -J 

St/ria peculiarcs habet arbores in 
ficorum generc: cnricas, et minores 
e/us generis qu(e cottana vocant; 
Plin. xiii, 5 ; Mart. iv, 89, 6. PRA. 

85. Hausit cielum ; Virg. 7E. x, 899. 
R. 

' 'J'hc Aventine,' onc of tlie seven 



142 



THi: SATIRES 



SAT. 111. 



Quid, quod udulaudi gcns prudentissima laudat 
Sermonem indocti, faciem deformis amici, 
Et longum invalidi colluni cervicibus a^quat 
Herculis Antajum procul a tcllure tencntis ? 
90 Miratur vocem angustam, qua deterius nec 
Hle sonat, quo mordetur gallina marito. 
Ha3C eadem licet et nobis laudare: sed illis 
Creditur. An melior, quum Thaida sustinet, aut quura 



. hills, is Dow the Mount of St Sabiiia. 
PRA. 

' The Sabine berry' is opposed to 
' the Syrian prunes.' The Sabine lands 
abounded in ' olives,' (Virg. M. vii, 
711 ; Sil. iii, 59(J ; Mart iv, 4, 10 ; R.) 
which are here put for the fruits of 
Italv in seneral : the s p e e i e s for the 
genus. ^BRT. FJR. 

Nutrita. {<Ta.ihoT^'o^ov (fvXXov IXeilas, 
Soph. CE. C. 733.] 

86. For other descriptions of such 
flatterers, see Hor. A. P, 428 tf; 
Theoph. Ch. ii ; Ter. Eun. ii, 2 ; iii, l ; 
Amm. Ep. xxv; (s. 100 ff; Ov. A. A. 
ii, 200 ff; Plaut. Amph. iii, 3, 4 ff;) 
Plut. M.iv. R. LUB. 

88. Collum ' the throat,' cervix ' the 
j nape of the neck' PRA. ' the neck and 
\ shoulders.' MAD. Plin. xiv,22; Mart. 

xiv, 48; Pind. Isth. iv, 83 ff. R. 

[" The turn of the neck and arms is 

often commended in the Latin poets 

among the beauties of a man, as Hor. 

O. i, 13, 2 f. This we should be at a 

loss to account for, did we not observe, 

, in the old Ronum statues, that these 

S two parts were always bare and ex- 

\ posed to view, as much as our hands 

i and face are at present:" ADD, 11. p. 

i/.lOO f ; s. xiv, 309 ; Livy iv, 12 f.J 

' Pronounces equal.' LJJB. 

89. The conflict of Hercules with 
Antspus, son of the Earth, whose 
strength was renovated by falling on 
the bosom of liis motber antl who was 
ultimately crushed by being held on 
high in the arms of his antagonist, is 
described, Luc. iv, 519 ff'; LUB. 
Apollod. ii, 5, 11. R. [" What a 

^ strained and unnatural similitude must 
? this seeni to a modern reader ; but how 
] full of humour, if we suppo>e it alludes 
J to any celebrated statues of these two 
^ champions that stood perhaps in some 



public place or higliway near Rome P 
We meet with the figures on antique 
intaglios and medals, nay Pjopertius 
has taken notice of the very statues." 
(Where.^ ED.) ADD, R. p. !00.] 

90. ' He professes to admire.' LUB. 
' Shvill and grating,' which is a 

great imperfection in a speaker; Quint. 
xi, 3; PRA. vocis arutee mollities; 
Claud. xix, 340 f. R. 

91 . As the text stands, the construc- 
tion is ille {inaritus) sonat, (a) quo 
marito g. m. There are instances of 
an ablative of the agent without a 
preposition. CO, on Sal. B. J. 15; 21. 
OU, and RK, on Suet. i, 19. HEL. 
Various alterations however have been 
proposed; (1) cui for a quo as illi, 
scripta quibus comwdia prisca viris 
est; Hor. S. i, 10, 16; Sil. i, 208 f. U. 
(2) Lither deterior. . . .sonus, quo 
(son o). . .; (3) or illa ( voa:) . . . , f/ud 

BRE. (4) Either / i/a . .., quv m 

...; (5) or illa {yallina) . . ., quae 
CLA. JC. ACH. In all these marito 
is the dative. The latter part of the 
line is merely a periphrasis for gallus, 
as olenfis uxores mariti; Hor. 
Od. i, 17, 7; for capcUie: s. Virg. E. 
vii, 7; in imitation of ra.v aiya.v a\ri^' 
Theoc. viii, 49. PRA. Vox vltra vires 
urgenda non est : 7iani ef svjfocata 
scepe et majore nisti tninus ctara est, 
et interim e/isa in i//iim soniim erumpit, 
cui Grceci KXayu.o-- homen a ga//orum 
immatvro cantv dederunt; Quint. xi, 
3. LUB. 

92. With i//is understand tantum. 
R. s. Suet. vi, 22. PRA. 

93. ' Is a better actor to be found 
than the GreekP' 

T/iais was a common name in comedy 
for a courtezan. PRA. 

Sustiiiere ' to sustain the part of,' 
synonymous with agere' to act.' MAD. 



S\l\ III. 



OV Jl VKNAL. 



143 



Uxorem couKjedus agit vel Dorida nuUo 
95 Cultani palliolo ? Mulier nempc i]).sa vidctur, 
Non persona, loqui : vacua et plana oninia dicas 
Infra ventricuhun cl tenui distantia rinia. 
Nec tamen Antiochus nec erit mirabilis illic 
Aut Stratocles aut cuni nioUi Demetrius Ilajmo. 

100 Natio comoeda est. Rides.? mcliore cachinno 
Concutitur: flet, si lacrumas conspexit amici, 
Nec dolet : ignicuhim bruma? .si tcmporc poscas, 
Accipit endromiden : si dixeris " .^stuo," sudat. 
Non sumus ergo pares : mehor, qui semper et omni 

105 Nocte dieque potest ahenum sumere vuUum, 
A facie jactare manus, laudare paratus, 



^ 94. Coma>dus was the a c t o r, comi- 
Z rw* the wri t er of comedy. LUB. 

■*" Doris, the daughter of Oce;inus and 
Tethys, w.ts the mother of Theti.= and 
other sea-nymphs bv Nereu.=. LUB. 
PRA. HZ'. Or ' a'Doric girl.^ The 
Spartan pirls were scantily and thinly 

clad ; whence ?aieia^ti»for tra^aipaiMi* «a) 
Ta^ayvfitov* veXh rev <ruiu,aTOi' l!.list. 
Hesych. ii. 

95. ' A sliort mantle and hood,' or- 
dinarilv worn bv this dass of females. 
Mart.'ix, 3;^, l'; xi, 27, 8 ; s. Ov. A. 
A. i, 734; Suct. v, 2. R. 

9(j. Persoiia ^^iruTe* ' a mask,' hence 
' a fictitious chamcter.' R. 

97. ' You would swear it was a 
woman, every inch of her.' 

98. Antioclius,S(ratoclcs,Demetrius, 
and IJcemus were celebrated actor.? of 
the day. Quint. xi, 3. LUB. 

IVic'- in their own co.ntry.' VUA. 

99. Called ' soft' perhaps from per- 
sonating females. vi, 198. LUB. 

100 'A horse-laugh.' UAD. trh fii* 
liyiXas, lyeii 3* l^iftnrxt* yiXwri flut. 
M. iv ; LUB. ffxu\patTi •^v^^eaj; ITi- 
ytXirai to n i/iariov uatti ti; to oto- 
fta, uf oii 0X1 eutufiitof xstTrif^iif toi 
yiXaiTa- Theoph. Ch. ii ; rinu tremulo 
cuncussn cachinnent {corpora) et lacru- 
mis salsis humectent ora genast/ue; 
Liicr. i, 918 f. R. [Hor. a'. P. 429 f. 
" Onc day iord Pylades cracked some 
joke, and laughcd most heartily at it ; 
gentleman Orestes laughetl as much 
to the full. The person who sat next 



him not having heard what was said, 
asked him what they laughed at : I 
don't know, said Orestes, I laughed, 
because my lord laughed :" F. Grgyille 
Max.cxix; s. Ar. Eth. iv, 6 ; lior. E. 
i, 18, 10; PK, on i Kings xxii, 8.] 

102. ' And vet erievesnotin reality.' 
R. Pers. vi, r. PRA. 

103. ' A great coat,' used in winter 
after gymnastic exercises to prevent 
catching coid. vi, 24fi ; Mart. iv, 19; 
xiv, 126. PRA. The tMgo^/Ssy of the 
Greeks were shoes. li. s. 67. 

.iEstuo; i, 71. Such is Osric's cha- 
racter : " Ham. Your bonnet to his 
right use; 'tis for the head. Osk. I 
thank your lordship, 'tis very hot. 
Ham. Nc, believe me, 'tis veiy cold ; 
the wind is northerly. Osr. It is in- 
dificrent cold, my lord, indeed. Ham. 
But yet, methinks it is verj- sultry aad 
hot ; or my coniplexion — OsR. Ex- 
ceedingly, rny lord ; it is very sultry, — 
as 'twere,— I cannot tell how — '" 8haks- 
peare Ham. v, 2. MAD. 

104. ' A match.' MAD. 
' He has ti.e best of it.' 

lOO'. IV, 118; Mart.x, 10, 10; Tac. 
H. i, 36; Plin. xxviii, 2. R. This 
exactly coincides with what we call 
kissing the hand to any one ; as is very 
frequently done when persons see each 
other at a distance, or are passinff in 
( arriages ; which is looked upon as a 
token of friendly courte.sy. This custom 
is mentioned as an action of religious 
woiship paid by idolaters to the host of 



144 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



Si bene ruclavit, si rectuni uiinxit aniicus, 

Si truUa inveiso ciepitum dedit aurea fundo. 

Praeterea sanctum nihil est et ab inguine tutum ; 
110 Non matrona laris, non filia virgo, neque ipse 

Sponsus levis adhuc, non filius ante pudicus. 

Horum si nihil est, aviam resupinat amici. 

Scire volunt secreta domus atque inde timeri. 
Et quoniam coepit Grajcorum mentio, transi 
115 Gymnasia alque audi facinus majoris abollae. 

Stoicus occidit Baream, delator amicum, 

Discipulumque senex, ripa nutvitus in illa. 



heaven. Job xxxi, 27. MA D. [Sopli. Ph. 
666. Compare the senses of l^, mS 

and nmn.] 

Paratiis ' wont ;' vi, 16; 207; ix, 7; 
49; xii, 106; xiii, 108. jK. 

107. Rectiim for recte. FAlt. 

108. This may refer to the vulgar 
smack of the lips, caused by draining 
the very last diop from the golden cup 
turned bottom up wards and orifice down- 
wards. T. Hor. S. ii, 3, 144 ; Mart. ix, 
97, 1. Or to dashing the liquor, leftin 
the bottom of the cup, oa the floor ; 
from which practice arose the amuse- 
ment of aperson"s tossing it intobrazen 
saucers, to find by the sound how much 
his sweetheart loved him. AX. PRA. 
Or it may mean ' a golden stool-pan,' 
snch as was used by luxurious Romans. 
Mart. i, 38. This though it yields an 
indelicate sense is more in unison with 
the preceding line, and also with a 
similar passage of Diodor. Sinop. itff' 

VITTl^at TOV 'li^CCKA.tX fJ.lfjl.OVft,lVOI 7UV EU- 

vropav Ti»85, <!raga.iriTOv; iX.of/.fvoi T^iipiiv 
vrcioixaXov* ov^i Tov; ^et.^iiirTtt.Tov; ixXi- 
yoftsvoi Tou; ?£ xoXaxiviiv cvnaf/Avov; xa.) 
^dvT £T«/v£7v oU i-miori vrooin^ijyiii. pa 
(paviha. xa.1 rav^ov ffiXovoov xaTaipayuv.^ "a 
xai poV 'i(pa7av alrhv h^i(rTnxivvi lav S' 
aTOTci^ri fjLiTa tivo; xaTaxiif/.lvo! , toutiu 
trpoirayaiv Triv piva oiTt' avTM (p^airai. 
" vrohv TO (vfji,iafiLa tovto Xaf.i,^d\ii; ;" 
Ath. vi, 9 ; &c. R. Or ' the golden 
flagon' may be put metaphorically for 
* the rich man's pauneh.' BRI. There 
is a beautiful and well-known metaphor 
of this kind in Ecclesiastes xii, 6. 

109. ' Safe from their lust.' LUB. 

110. Mafrona laris i. e. materfa- 
milias. LUB. The lares were ' the 
household gods.' PRA. 



111. ' The smooth-faced youth be- 
trothed to the maiden daughter.' 
LUB. 

Anfe ' heretofore.' LUB. 

112. ' He assails the grandmother :' 
ase affbrds no protection. Sch. vi, 126; 
viii, 176. R. 

113. ' By theseintrigues they endea- 
vour to become possessed of family 
secrets.' R. 49 ft'. LUB. There is an 
Italian proverb upon this subject, " Ser- 
vo cP altrui si fu., Chidice it suosecreto 
a cbi noU sa.'' FAR. 

1 14. ' Pass on to their schools of phi- 
losophy.' L UB. 

115. Major ' more ample' or ' dig- 
nified,' as that of the Stoics. FE. 

Abolla was a cloak worn by philoso- 
phers, Sch. military men, senators, and 
princes. iv, 76 ; Suet. iv, 35. PRA. 
It here means the philosopher himself. 
MAD. 

116. P. Egnatius Celer was bribed 
to give the false evidence upon which 
Bareas Sora?ius, an exemplary man, 
was capitally convicted under Neio s. 
i, 33; vi, 552; Tac. A. xvi, 21 flf; 
pnrticularly 32; H. iv, 10; 40; LUB. 
R. 

Occidt, IffavaTojiri, see 37; vi, 481 ; 483 
f; so jnefit a.nd deponit ; 186. pignerat; ■ 
vii, 73; c?ndit; vii, ]35 ; punire ; xvi, 
13 ; damnare ' to obtain a person's con- 
demiiation;' Tac. A. iii, 36; iv, 66; 
Sufct. iii, 8. R. [vi, 1.58.] 

1 17. Tarsi/s a city of Cilicia, on the 
banks of the Cydnus, fabled ro be so 
n;imed after Ta^irof ' a heel, hoof, or 
wing,' because either Bellerophon or 
Pegasus lost some feathers from the 
heel ; but the story is variously told. 
Sch. LUB. Or ' Corinth.' GRA. CS. 



sAT. ni. 



Ol' .irVKNAl,. 



1 J.j 



Ad quain (iorgonei delapsa est pinna caballi. 
Non est RoTnano cuiquam locus hic, u])i vcgnat 

120 Protogenes aliquis vel Dipliilus aut Erimarchus, 
Qui gentis vitio numquam partilur amicum, 
Sohis habet. Nam quum facilem slillavit in aurem 
Exiguum de naturic patriaeque vencno, 
Limine submoveor : perierunt tempora longi 

125 Servitii. Nusquam minor cst jaclura clientis. 
Quod porro officium, ne nobis blandiar, aut quod 
Pauperis hic meritum, si curet nocte togatus 
Currere, quum prator lictorem impellat et ire 



Or ' Crete' according to others. Dio 
makes Egu;ttius a native of Berytus 
in Phoenicia. R. 

118. Gorgonei pinna cnballi may be 
merely a peiiphrasis for Peg.'.sus called 
' Gorgonian' as spruDg from the blood 
of Mediisa when slain by Perseus : Ov. 
M. iv, 785 ; and delapsa est may mean 
devolavit. Pegasus alighted on Monnt 
Helicon in Bceotia, where the fountain 
of Hipf ocrene (fons caballinus ; Pers. 
pr. 1 ;) sprang from tbe stroke of his 
hoof. In this case Thebes, on the Is- 
menus, would be the Stoie's birth-place. 
BRI. R. superns detapsn per auras 
Pallas ndest; Ov. M. iii, 101 f. 

Penna is the name for ' a feather' in 
genera), and includes pinnce ' quilis,' 
' pinion feathers,' and plumee ' soft 
downy plumage.' LUB. 

Caballus ' a hack,' GIF. properly, 
' a packhorse,' bui used for ' a horst;' 
generally, x, 60; R. ^as is the cor- 
respondiug German word Gaul; which, 
with cheval, cavallo, cahallo, and 
perhaps COB, comes f;om the same 
root.] Even the steed does not 
escape from the antipathy felt by our 
author to all ihat was Grecian. CS. 
[Per. pr. 1 ; quoted above.] 

119. See2l f R. 

120. Protogenes was a heartless in- 
former under Caiigula. MAD. Dio lix. 
R. 

Diphilus a minionofDomitian. MAD. 

Of Erimarchus nothing is known. 
^ All three names may be fictitious. STiV. 

122. Hahere ' to possess one's aflfec- 
tions;' Virg. E. i, 31 ; iii, 107; Cic. 
E. ix, 16. R. 

Facilis auris ; v, 107. H. 



Instillare auriculis; Kor. Ep. i, 8, 
16; s. Ov. Her. 3, 23. R. 

123. It is possible that Erimarchus 
might have been an African. toltite 
Massylas fraudes : removete bitingues 
insidias et v erba soti spirantia 
virus; Oaud. xv, 284 f. R. This 
metaphor is illustrated by the follow- 
ingpassage; " Upon my secure [s. 196;] 
hour thy uncle stole,\Vi th juice of cursed 
hebenon in a vial, And in the porches 
of mine ears did pour The leperous dis- 
tilment;" Shakspeare Ham. i, 5. 

124. Limine s. i, 96. R. 

125. The loss is so soon supplied. 
PRA.jactura is properly ' the throw- 
ing of goods overboard in a storm.' 
MAD. de iltis potissitnum jactura Jit, 
quia pretii minimi sunt ; Sall. Or. ii, 
ad Cees. lu. Jactura servuti vitis; Cic. 
Otf. iii, 23. 

126. See i, 95 ff ; 100 ff. officium ; ii, 
132. 7^. 

Ne nohis btandiar ' to tell the truth.' 
R. 

127. Ciim tu, taurigeris aniium qui 
fascibiis intras, mane satutator limina 
mitte teras ; hic ego quid faciam ? quid 
nobis, Paulte, retinquis, qui de plebe 
Nnmee, densaque turba sumxis ? quid 
faciet pauper, cui non licet esse 

ctienti? dimisit nostras purpura 
vestra togas; Mart. x, 10; GIF. 
mane vel a media nocte togatus 
ero; Mart. x, 82, 2; LUB. i, 127 ff; 
exigis a nobis operam sinefne togatam ; 
Mart. iii, 46, 1 ; PRA. ii, 18; iii, 7; 
36; iv, 8; x, 74. ' The poor client' 
here may be a retainer of the prsetor. R. 
128. See i, 101. PRA. The prsetor 
had six lictors, the consul twelve. L. 



U 



U() 



THE SATIRKS 



SAT. 111, 



Praecipitem jubeat (liulinn vigilantibus orbis, 
130 Ne piior Albinam ct Motliam collega salutet ? 
Divitis hic servi claudit latus ingenuorum 
Filius: aller enim, quantum in legione tribuni 
Accipiunt, donat Calvime vel Catienie, 
Ut semcl atque iterum super illam palpilet: at tu, 
135 Quum tibi vestiti facies scorti placet, hajres 
Et dubitas alta Chionen deducere solki. 
Da testem Koma) tam sanctum, quam fuit hosjjes 
Numinis Idsoi ; procedat vel Numa vel qui 



These lictor.s, on ordinarv occasious, 
niarched at a slow pace. MAD. 

129. OrhcB- wiclowswithoutchildren,' 
viz. Alhhia aiid Modia ; vigilaittes ' up 
and dressed.' LUE. " The childless 
matrons are lon;;i: since awake." DR Y. 
Or ' the orphans having been waiting in 
vain for the prastor to appoint their 
guardian.' Sch. 

130. ' Shonld be before-hand in pay- 
ing his respects;' which, being the 
greater compliment and the greater 
proof of friend.ship, LUB. would be 
likelj- to supplant less attentive rivals 
in the wills of these rich dowagers. s. 
i, 117. PRA. The two prsetors here 
meant are probably the Ufhaniis who 
judged causes betvveen citizens, and 
the Peregriniis who was the judge in 
caiises between foreigners. MAD. 

13I.7f/c'at Rome;' 160; 180; 332. 
Claudere latiis is ' to walk on the left 
side of a person and give hira the wall.' 
FE. Hor. S. ii, 5, 18 ; P/M. s. Mart. 
ii, 46, 8 ; vi, 68, 4; R. Livv xxiv, 5, 
9. 

132. ' The pay of a military trihune,' 
forty-eight pieces of gold, put for an 
indefitiitely largesum. The foot-soldier 
received twelve pieces, the centurion 
double, the horse-soldier treble, and the 
tribune quadruple. L. G. The Roman 
armv tirst received pay [349 y. k. 
Liv." iv, 59.] 

133. Junia [or Jtilia] Calvina and 
Caticna were celebrated courtezans. 
The former is mentioned, Suet. x, [23 ;] 
GRA. ED. Tac. A. xii, 1; 8. (L.) R. 

134. ' To enjoy her ouce or twice: 
whereas thou,' i. e. Juvenal. MAD. 

135. ' Yv ell dressed.' BRI. Or ' clad 
in the toga ;' s. i, 96 ; ii, 70. FE. Or 
» oidinary,' and therefore ' thoroughly 



dressed' as having no beautv to show. 
s. Hor. S. i, 2, 83 ff; Mart. ii"i, 3. PRA. 
Hfvrere ' to hesitate.' Sch. 

136. These females used to sit in 
' high chairs' in order to be seen the 
better by those who were looking after 
them. s. Sen. Ben. i, 9; Plaut. Pcen. 
i, 2, 54 ff ; Hor. S. i, 2, 101 ff. Hence 
are derived the terms set/arius, sellti- 
/ariiis, se/lariola jmpina and se/laria ; 
Tac. A. vi, 1; Mart. v, 71, 3; Suet. 
iii, 43. Sch. FE. 

Cliione was another well-known cour- 
tezan. Mart. i,35; 36; 93; iii, 30; 34; 
83 ; 87 ; 97 ; xi, 61 ; <fec. PRA. MAD. 
R. 

137. Da ' produce' was a forensic 
term. R. 

The Sibylline books being consulted 
(548 y. R.) for the proper expiation 
ofmauy alarmingprodigies,it wasfound 
that the evils might be averted by bring- 
ing Cybele from Phrygia. The five 
deputies who were sent to fetch this 
protectress (a rude and shapeless stonej 
from Pessinus, were directed by the 
oracle to place her at their return in 
the hands of the most virtuous man in 
the commonwealth, till her temple 
should be prepared. The senate unani- 
mously declared P. Corn. Scipio Nasica 
to be the man ; and with him the god- 
dess was lodged. GIF. Sch. [ix, 23 ;) 
Liv. xxix, 10; PRA. and 14; xxxv, 
10; Plin. vii, 34. Thus the ark was 
received into the bouses of Abinadab 
and Obed-Edom ; i Samuel vii, 1 ; 
II Samuel vi, 10 ff. R. 

138. Ci/he/e is called Idcea parens ; 
Virg. J5."x, 252 ff; Ov. F. iv, 182. 
LUB. This Ida was in Phjjgia,' 
there was another in Crete. ibid. 207- 
PRA. 



SAT. lll. 



()F JUVENAL. 



M7 



SL'!v;ivit Irtpidiiin llau^raiui cx adc .Minnvain : 
110 Pntiinns ad cfnsnm, {dc nunil^ns nliinia lict 

C^ua^slio,) " (^uot jiascit sorvos? Quot possidel ami 
Jugera { (^uani nnilta niagnaque paroijside ca:iiat .''" 
(^uaiituni (juisque sna iiuinornni servat in arca, 
'rauluiu liahet et (i<lei Juies licet el Sanuitliracum 
I4t6 l'^t uostratiini aras ; conteninere Inlinina ])auper 
Credilur atque deos, dis ignosc.ntibus ip.sis. 



Numa Poiupilius, second king of 
Ronie, tlie chief foiin<ler of their re- 
ligion. FJR. 12; Liv. •, 18. PHA. 

139. L. Ccecilius Metellus, cliief 
pontitf, (who had been consul twice, 
tlictator, &c.) ' s:ived the palladium 
from the teniple of Vesta vvhen in 
flames,' but lost his eye-sigbt in eonse- 
qnenee. Sch. s. vi, •2()5. i?. The people 
conferred on him the singular privilege 
of riding to the senate-house in a 
cbariot. Plin. vii, 43; PRJ.[Y, 422.] 

The epithet trrpida is here applied 
to M i n e r V a : which would niore pro- 
perly beiong to the Romans; hcn 
qiiantiint timiiere patren, i/iio tent/iore 
Vesta arsif ! attoiiitee flehnnt ilemisso 
crine niinistree : abstiilerat vires cor- 
poris ijise timor. ( Vestales Metellns) 
fliibitare videljat et pavidas posito pro- 
ciibiiisse genit; Ov. F. vi, 43"; <fec. 
GIF. 

140. QucBrenda pecunia primum esf, 
virtus post ntimos; Hor. Ep. i, 1, 53 f. 
R. Thus they quite reversed the order 
of things, for sit oinne judiciiim, non 
q-uam lociiples, scd f/iialis f/nisf/ue sit ; 
Cic. Off. ii, -20. GRA. [" Is it not a 
subject that ought to crimson every 
woman's cheek with shame, that the 
want of moral qualificationa is generally 
the very last cause of (a suitor's) re- 
jection ?" \Voman's Missionvii, 10.] 

141. A person's fortune is estimated 
by the establishment ' hekeeps.' LUB. 
vii, 76; 93; ix, G7 ; 136; xii, 28. 
R. 

Possitlet [indicates his beiny; of pa- 
trician rank ; Livy ii, 41, 4.] 

142. Jiigcritm was as much land as 
could be ploughed in a day by one yoke 
ofoxen. LUB. 

nitftyPh ' a dish.' T. [St Matthew 
xxiii, 25. ( RPH.)] ' What sort of 
table he keeps.' PRA. 

143. Quia fanti, f/uantum liabcas. 



sis; Hor. S. i, 1, 62; in pretio prctium 
nunr est, ilnt ccnsiis lionores, census 
amiritias, paupcr ubii/ue Jarct ; Q\. F. 
i, 217 f; LUB. aitriim ati/ue nmbitio 
.•iperimen rirfutis ufrit/uc cst, tantum 
habeaji, tniitum ipse.sies, tanfif/ite liabr- 
nris ; Lucil. Sch. " Mens lionesties," 
says Tlarnaby Rich, " aie now mea- 
sured by the Subsidy T?ooke; he that is 
rich is honest, and the more a man 
doth abound in wealtli, so much tbe 
more he doth exceed, and that as wel 
in honesty as in wit;" Irish Hubbub, 
[p. 30.] GIF. 

144. The Thracian Samos at the 
ncrth of the /Egean is now called ' Sa- 
mandrachi.' The U oman /jcnntes ca.me 
ofiginally^from this island. IMacrobius 
says, ' the Samothracian gods' (called 
Cabiri) were Jugi^ter, Juno, Vesta, 
and^Minerva; iii, 4; LC777. Virg."^. 
iii, 12 i~PRA. s. Cumberland, Orig. 
app. de Cabb. G IF. [Deane Serp. Wor. 
p. 231 ff.] 

145 ' To swear by the altars,' i. e. 
' laying your hands on the altars, and 
swearing by the deities to whom the 
altars w^ere consecrated.' GRA. Hor. 
Ep. ii, 1,16; M.4i). xiv, 219 ; Tib. iv, 
13,15; Sil. viii, 105; iJ. St Matthew 
xxiii, 18 ff. 

' To despise,' as if the poor w-ere be- 
neath the notice of the gods. BAH. s. 
Hor. Od. ii, 10, 11 f. Or as if the 
deities would forgive perjiiry, when it 
originated in necessity and not in wil- 
fulness. Scli. 

146. The sentiment in these lines 
seems borrowed from a Greek eomcdy; 
vf^ortffTit aoa, xa) t^ rrstriT aTKrria x-af 
ff9^os iiTd(^^ri. xav Xiyri to evfnpt^o*, ioxli 
Ti ^^ainit To7i axovoviriy xaxaJs tuv ya^ 
TlDriTuv xiiTTiv ovx 'l^^^ti Xoyos' ith^ ii 
TXooToii, xoct ayav ^(votiyo^n doxii ti 
(p^airiif Tolt axovovir afffaXit' l'hil. fr. 
GIF. 



148 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. II r. 



Quid, qnod materiara praebet causasque joconim 
Omnibus hic idem, si fccda et scissa lacerna, 
Si toga sordidula est et rupta calceus alter 

150 Pelle patet; vel si consuto vulnere crassum 
Atque recens linum ostendit non una cicatrix ? 
Nil habet infelix paupertas durius in se, 
Quam quod ridiculos homines facit. " Exeat," inquit, 
" Si pudor est, et dc pulvino surgat equestri, 

155 Cujus res legi non sufficit et sedeant hic" — 
Lenonum pueri quocumque in fornice nali ! 
Hic plaudat nitidi pra^conis fiHus inter 
Piimirapi cullos juvcnes juvenesque lanistie. 



147. See 86; [?pectcator No 150.] 
" Men of all sorts take a pride to gird 
at him ;" as FalstatFsays ; K. H. 4th 
pt. 2d, i, 2. 

148. Hic idem pniiper. LUB. s. 
Theoph. Ch. xix, 3 ; Sen. Ep. 93 ; Suet. 
ii, 73. i?. 

Lacernn; i, 62. PEA. 

149. ' Somewhat shabbv and soiled.' 
PRA. s. Hor. S. i, 3, 31 f; Mart. i, 
104, 5 f. i?. 

Cukens; vii, 192. R. 

150. Vulnns ' a rent;' V. Flae. i, 
480. jR. 

151. Cicntrix ' a seam.' LUB. 

152. Paupertas fecif, ut ridicnlus 
forem ; Plaut. Stieh. i, 3, 20 &c ; liuic 
quantum adjiciunt stu/titiam, negligen- 
tiam, somtiium, et gulam ; Id. Quer. 
magnum pauperies opprobrium Jubet 
quidvis facere et pati; Hor. Od. iii. 
24, 42 f ; LUB. xi, 2 f; v, 157 f ; «y» 
iari •ritias eiiSly d^XieoTieoti h tm fiiu irv/u, 
VTufia' x,ai yap ai <puffii ff^ovoan; jjj, 
■z't*ti; Ss, xardyiXtii; i^»' Crat. in Stob. 
s. the Comia. on St Matthevr v, 3. R. 
[Ter. Eu.ii,2, 13.] 

153. Quidtnrpius quatn illudi ? Cic. 
Am. PRJ. 

They used to sit promiseuously in tbe 
theatres, till L. Koscius Otho, the tri- 
bune, introduced a law, (685 Y. R.) 
bywbichthefourteenrowswithcushions, 
nexttothesenators' seats, werereserved 
forknigbts exclusively. The elder Afri- 
canus had obtained the like privilege 
for the senators, about 130 years before. 
Both these regulations were extremely 
unpopular ; and tbe distinction was 



growing obsolete, when Donutian re^ 
vived it, and appointed overseers of tbe 
theatres to eoforce it. Suet. xii, 8. 
Lectius, one of these functionaries, was 
very ofticious ; perhaps he may be the 
speaker here. (x, 291 ; R.) s. xMart. v, 
8 ; 25 ; Z UB. PRA. GIF. ib. 27; Her. 
i, 54, 84; [Livy ii, 31, 1.] 

154. ' Any respect for the prince or 
the Koscian law.' PRA. s. xiv, 323 ff. 
R. 

155. Seei, 106. 

Et sedeant hic — the theatre-keeper's 
speech is taken up by Umbritius and 
continued with indignant irony. LUB. 
[s. vi, 79.] 

156. ' Men of the vilestorigin or cha- 
racter take the equestrian seats, if tbey 
have but the requisite incorae, no matter 
bow it mav have been acquired.' Hor. 
Ep. iv, 15"f. PRA. MAD. 

Fornix ' a vaulted cellar, a low bro- 
thel ;' xi, 171 ; Hor. S. i, 2, 30. R. 

157. Not only was applause given to 
the peiformers ; but the emperors and 
men of popularity were received with 
plaudits on their entrance. Hor. Od. i, 
20, 3 f. i UB. R. 

Plaudat implies spectet. PRA. 

Nitidus and cultus ' sleek, spruce, 
smart,' the consequence of opulence. 
MAB. R. 

158. The Samnite gladiator wore a 
crest of peacock's feathers, his adversary 
the retiarius endeavoured to throw his 
net over the plume. T. L. cum septem 
incolumis pinnis redit ac recipit se ; 
Lucil. Sch. s. ii, 143. PRA. 

Lanisfa^w&s ' thefencing-master' who 



SAT. III. 



OF JUVENAL. 



149 



Sic libituin vano, (^ni no^ di.stinxit, Othoni. 

160 Quis gcncr hic phicuit ccnsn niinor atcjue jniclhe 
Sarcinnhs inipar ? Quis pauper scribitur hcres ? 
Qnando in consilio est aedilibus ? Agniinc facto 
Dcbucrant olim tcnucs nngrdsse Qniritcs. 
Hand iacilc emergunt, qnorum virtulibus obstat 

165 Res angusta domi ; scd llomae durior illis 

Conatus : magno hospitium miserabilc, magno 
Scrvorum ventrcs, ct liugi cccnnla magno. 
Fictihbus coenare pudet, qnod turpe negavit 
Translatus subito ad Marsos mensaraque Sabellam 



taugbt the gladiators laiiiare ' to maii- 
gle' each other. PRA. 

1.'3!). ' Such was the whiin and 
caprice.' MAD. 

IHO. ' Of less tbrtune than the bride.' 
Theinistocles showed moie seii^^e, sa}'- 
ing that he preferred, for his daughter, 
a nian without inoney to money witliout 
a inan. Plut. LUB. [Spectatof NoSll. 
'• rhu sacred nature of the conjugal 
rehition is entirely merged in the 
worldly aspect of it. That union, 
sacred, indissoluble, fraught with all 
that earth ha.s to bestow of happiness or 
misery, iseiitered upon niuch on theplan 
and principle cf a partnership account 
in mercantile aftairs — eac-h bringiiig 
his or her quantum of worldiy pos^es- 
sions — and often with even less inquiry 
as to moral quaiities, ihan persons so 
situated woul i make. God's ordinanccs 
are not to he so niocked ; and such 
violationsof hisiaws areseverely visited 
uponoffendersagainstthem;" VVoman's 
Mission vii, 10.] 

161. ' To tlie dowry;' Sch. rather 
' le trousseaii,^ ACH. ' the wardrobe 
or outtit of the bride.' 

Quis? nemo. LUB. 160; 208; &c. 
Livy xxiv, 26, 3. 

162. Curia paupcribiis clausa esl, 
dat ceiisus /lonores; Ov. Am. iii, 8, 
65. ' Even the lovvest inagistrates 
would never think of consulting them.' 
T. The ediles were of tvvo soits, 
rurule and plebeian. PRA. s. AD. 

Af/mine Jario ; Virg. G. iv, 167 ; 
.^. i,86; MAD. s x, 218. R. 

16.3. He alludes to the secession of 
thc pleheians to the Sacred iMrunt. 
rior. i, 2.3; LUB. Liv. ii, .32 f; iii, 



50 ff. PRA. 

Tfnueti ' puor ' PRA. [opposed to 
«•«;%;£.";, Her. v, 30, 51 ; vi, 22, 13.] 

164. Eiiiergunt [' keep their htads 
above water.'] 

See vii, 61 f; et geniis et virtus, 
nisi cum i-e, vilior alija est; Hor. S. ii, 
5,8; MAD. piyra ejctulit arctis haud 
uiivjuaiii sese virtus; Sil. xiii, 773; ad 
sumiiias emergere opcs; Lucr. ii, 13; 
R. Livy XXV, 38, i; [Cic. C. ii, 
10, 21;] «.ovvoiTov ya^ ri ov pifSiof toc 
xxXa 'V^ocTTiit d^o^rrynroy) oti a' 1'oXA.Oi 
ya^ 'ZDcirT%Tai Kaidvt^ S/ o^ydtMV. na) 
oid (fiXut xa) ttXoutov x.a) oroXiTiKnt 
luvdficaf Arist. Eth. i, 8. PRA. 
Claudian insinuates that things were 
changed for the better in his days ; 
non obruta virtus ■paupertate jacet : 
lecto.i ex omnibus oris evehis, et meri- 
tum, non <]U(e cunabula, (/ureris; et 
(jualis, non unde satus ; xxii, 121 ff. 
GIF. 

165. ' It is difflcult any where ; hut 
&c.' PRA. 

166. Magno understand constat pre- 
tio. LUB. 

167. ' Servants' appetites,' i.e. ' the 
keep of servants.' Sch. xiii, 162 ff. R. 

1 68. Magnus ille est, f/ui Jicti/ibus sic 
utitur, qucn adnm/um argento ; nec i//e 
minor est, f/ui sic argento utitur, ffuem- 
admoduin Jictilibus; Sen. [E. 5.] LU H. 

Negahit; GRA. FE. HOL. nega- 
bis; VAL. negarit; s. xiv, 134 : GJF. 
but no alteration is necessary, for the 
verb is put indefinitely : ' whieh no one 
would be ashamed of.' /, UB. See notes 
on dtrilin, Her. iii,82, (i/; and i<p^d- 
^nrai, Her. vii, 10, 13. 

169. See xiv, 180. Frugaliry was 



150 



THE SATIRES 



SAT- III. 



170 Contentusque illic veneto duioquc culullo. 

Pavs niagna Italiaj est, si verum adinittiinus, in (jua 
Nemo togani sumit, nisi mortuus. l])sa dicrum 
Festoruni hcrboso colitur si quando thcatro 
Majcstas tandemque redit ad pulpita notum 

175 Exodinm, quum pi'rson:e pallcntis liiatum 
In gremio matris formidat rusticus infans; 
^Equales habitus illic similesque vidcbis 
Orcliestram et populum : clari velamen honoris, 
Sufficiunt tunica; summis a^dihbus albic. 



not 3'et exploded in these parts of 
Italy. BE. ' At Rome every thiri"; is 
extravagantly dear, and yet we dare 
not retrench for fear of being despised ; 
iu the country v.e should have none of 
these prejudices to encounter ; we might 
be poor vvithout becoming the ohjects of 
scom, and frugal without being thought 
ridiculous.' GIF. 

170. Yencto ' of common blue ware.' 
cultdlo ' a bowl or great handled cup,' 
properly ' of earthen ware.' Schol. on 
Hor. Od. i, 31 , 1 1 ; A. P. 434. Vetieti/m 
lufutn ; Mart. iii, 74, 4; s. viii, 6, 2; 
xiv, lOS, 2; Tib. i, 1, 40. R. 

172. The toga was the dress of cere- 
mony, worn by the poor, when they 
paid their respects to the rieh : it was 
also the dress of business. In the 
country the tunic was the usual dress, 
which was les.-< cumbersome, 179. 
Martial says of Spain ignota estiogn; 
xii, 18, 17"; s. iv, 66, 3; x, 47, 5; 51, 
6 ; Pliny of his villa, ibi mdla neces- 
sitas togce\ Ep. ix, J ; vii, 3; both of 
them regarding this circumstance as a 
comfort. But the Romans aUvays 
dressed the remains of their deceased 
friends with the most punctilious care. 
Matt. ix, 58, 8. GIF. L. PRA. 

173. It was many Rges before the 
Romans coukl hoast of a permanent 
theatre; the first was built by Pompey, 
of hewn stone : Tac. A xiv, 20. The 
temporary country theatres were con- 
structed of turf. LUB. Virg. M. v, 
286 flf; MAD. >n gradihiis xedit popu- 
lus dc cespite factis; Ov. A. A. i, 107 
&c ; R. Prop. iv, 1, 15. Our word 
SCENE is derived from <rx>!v») ' a shadv 
bower.' PRA. 

174. ' The solemnity.' LUB. 
Tandem ' at the expiration of the 



year,' or ' at the conelusion of the 
serious play.' Rcdit lor rediit has its 
last syllable lonsr. Pitlpita ' the stage.' 
viii, 195; FE^ LUB. xiv, 257. -R. 
Notuin; in Rome some novelty 
was prodiiced. PRA. 

175. ' The farce' acted after the 
tragedy, to dispel melancholy impres- 
sions. T. vi, 71. PRA. The tiiroiia 
were performed at the begiuniug, and 
the i^jSoXa ' interludes' in the middle 
of tlie drama: principio e.vitus dignus 
e.eodiutnf/ue sef/uetur; Lucil. Sch. Liv. 
vii, 2, [27.] R. 

' The masks' were painted ' of a 
ghastly colour' and had ' wide mouths' 
to allow free scope to the voice of the 

actor. FAR. LUB. arcfAx xl^^riyis vdfc- 
fiiya u; xaraviOf/.lvos tous haras' LuC. 

■r h^x- 27 ; s. Hor. A. F. -J/Z ; Plaut. 
Rud. ii, 6, 51. R. 

176. That women ustd to carry 
children to the theatre appears from 
the following passage ; nutrices piieros 
itifatifes tninuttdos doini ut procureiit, 
tieve specfatutn aferanf, ne et ipsce 
sifiant, et pueri peritent fainc; neve 
esurietdes liic quasi liwdi ohvagiatU; 
PLaut. Pcpn. pr. [28. . .31.] PRA. 

177. Illic ' in country towns.' 

17^. ' The orchestra' was the space 
next the stage, where the senators were 
accomniodated withchairs; vii, 47. The 
rustic theatre had no such orchestra ; 
the word here denotes the place next 
the performers, where the most conse- 
quential countrv-gtntlemen sat. FE. 
PRA. GIF. 

179. ' For the very highest per- 
sonages, the ediles, it is distinction 
enough to wear a white tu n i c ;' LUB. 
FE. whicii would have been no dis- 
tiuction at Rome. Mart. iv, 2. FRA. 



AT. III. 



OF jrVENAL. 



151 



180 Ilic ultra vires habitus uitor : liic aliquid ])lus, 
Quaui satis cst, iutcrduiu alieua sumitur arca. 
Couuuuue i(l vitiuui est. llic viviuuis auibitiosa 
Pauperlate omnes. (iuid tc uioror ? Oninia Romaj 
Cum pretio. tjuid das, ut Cossuui ali([uaudo salutes ? 

185 Ut te resjiiciat clauso Veieuto labello ? 

Ille metit barbam, crinem hic dejionit amati. 
Plena douuis libis veualibus. Accipe et istud 
Fermeutuui tibi liabe : prastare tributa clientes 
Cogimur et cultis augere peculia servis. 



180. ' Beyoud their means.' BRI. 
vii, 13S. R. 

181. ' Aml this extravagance is at 
the expense of others;' vi, 351 ff; by 
either hiring, borrowing, or pilfering. 
LUB. 

182. ii, 46. LUB. [Adventurer No 
119.] 

' Arabitiou.s of living beyond our in- 
oorae,' in onler to be thouijht richer 
than we really are. LUB. vi, 352; vii, 
60 ; Theoph. Ch. xxi. R. ED. 

183. ' \Vhy should I detain you?' 
whence the forni of adjourning the 
.senate " NU ros moror, Pa/res Con- 
scripti;" LUB. iic te morer, audi guo 
rciii dediicaiii ; Hor. S. i, 1, 14 f ; MAD. 
[iv, 144; Livy i, 53, p.] 

' You pay dearly for every thing at 
Rome ;' 8. 166 f. Z/ UB. [Romce omnia 
veiialia essc, Sall. J. 8.] 

184. ' What does it not cost you to 
bribe the domestics of Cossus to admit 
youto his morning levee!' LUB. Dif- 
ficiles culitus prinios liahet. " Haud 
mihi deero : tnuaeribus servos corrum- 
pnm: non., hodie si exc/usus fitero, 
dcsistam ;•' cV'v TTor. S. i, 9, 56 ff ; FRA. 
VTO iv^u^if Kny.oo; (TWji^ovt/ kcci ovofiax\'/i 
To^i AifiuKcu rarrifittov Kce) /iiafoi tiKouvtcc 
tJJ,- /i>r4f/.ri; tou OfOftecTos' Lucinn a". T. 
ij-j fiiirfi autotToit. li. \N e may suppose 
ii.unlius Cossus to have been a wealthy 
nobleman of the day. MAD. 

185. Fahriciiis Vciciito; iv, 113; vi, 
82 ff; T. Tac. xiv, 50; Piin. Ep. iv, 
22; PRA. Mart. x, 10, 5; Suet. vi, 
37; Senecade Hr. Vit. 2. jK. 

Clauso lahct/o ' without once deign- 
ing 10 open hi.*; lip.-*.' PRA. 

186. The wealthier Romaiis, on ar- 
riving at nianhood, dedicated the fir.st 
shavings of thcir beard and pollings of 



tlieir hair to some deity : many to the 
Pythian Apollo, others to /E.sculapius, 
others to tiie river gods of their country: 
Mart. i, 32; ix, 17; 18. Nero en- 
closed his in a golden ])ix adorned with 
pearls, and offered it with great state to 
Capitoline .Tove. Suet. vi, 12. Dio. The 
day of dedioation was kept as a festival, 
and coraplimentary presents were ex- 
pected from friends and clients, as on 
birthdays. Here the poor client has 
to pay the same corapliment to the 
patron's minions, in order to gain the 
ear of their lord. Il/e and hir are two 
patrons. LUB. FAR. PRA. GIF. 
See Hom. II. H' 141 ft'; and Schol. on 
Pind. P. iv, 145. 

Metit ' has it shaved ;' deponit ' has 
it cut.' HEI. ACH. s. 116. 'J'he hard- 
ship, however, would be aggravated if 
we read amatus, implying that there 
was more than one favourite to be 
courted in each great maii^s house. 
R. 

187. The Ubum was a kind of gin- 
gerbread, made of flour, honey, and oil : 
PRA. or, according to Athena?us, 
^XctKou; \k yaXocKTOi iToia» n xeci ftiXi' 
Tos' iii, 6t). R. 

These ' eakes' were sent in such 
quantities as ' to be sold.' PRA. 

188. ' Take this if you can digest it, 
and let the leaven work within your 
.spleen.' Sch. LUB. MAU. s. i, 45; 
Pers. i, 24 ; Plaut. Merc. v, 3, 3 ; Cas. 
ii, 5, 17; Aul. iii, 4, 9. R. 

189. C'u//isi.e. amatis, 186; R. s. 
158. It may also mean ' respectfully 
courted:' MAD. ' pampered menials.' 

Pccu/ia ' the vails or perquisites.' 
MAl). ' Tliat property of a servant or 
child, over which the m:ister or parent 
had no power.' LUB. 



152 



THE SATIRKS 



SAT. 111. 



190 Quis timet aut timuit gelida PraDneste ruinam 

Aut positis ncmorosa inter juga Volsiniis aut 
Simplicibus Gabiis aut proni Tiburis arce? 
Nos urbera colimus tenui tibicine fultam 
Magna parte sui. Nam sic labentibus obstat 

195 Villicus et, veteris rimaj quum texit hiatum, 
Securos pendente jubet dormire ruina. 
Vivcndum est illic, ubi nulla incendia, nulli 
Nocte metus. Jam poscit aquam, jam frivola transfert 
Ucalegon ; tabulata tibi jam tertia fumant: 

200 Tu nescis. Nam si gradibus trepidatur ab imis, 
Ultimus ardebit, quem tegula sola tuetur 
A pluvia, molles ubi reddunt ova columbae. 



190. Preenestc, being here ferainine, 
ccmes from the nominative Prcenestis, 
GV. a town of Latium, now ' Pales- 
trina.' It was ' cool' from its waters, 
as well as from its situation on a hill : 
PRA. frigidiini Pranesfe ; Hor. Od. 
iii, 4, 22; R. altmn; Virg. JE. vii, 
682; MAD. [Livy vi, 9, a.J 

Ruinam ; s. 7 f- 

191. Now'l5olsena,'acitvofTuscanv. 
PllA. [Livyv, 31,d; ^L>i), R. p. 126.] 

192. Galii, a town of Latium be- 
tween Eome and Fraeneste. R. [Its 
ruins bear the name of Campo Gabio. 
PRA.] ' Siraple,' from being a dupe 



in Eote on 123.] 

Pendcnte ' impending.' FE. 

197. lllie ' in the country;' s. 190; 
223 f. R. 

198. The re]ietition of the word/owi 
three times, denotes the progress of the 
fiie. [s. Virg. quoted below.] 

' Having saved his vahiables in the 
first iustance, he is now moving his 
lumber, without ever thinking of giving 
the alarm to his poor lodgers.' R. 

199. The name of Ucalegon is intro- 
duced from Virgil's deseription of Troy 
in flamcs ; Jam Deiiiliohi dedit ajiipla 
rninam, Vnlcano superante, domus ; 



to the artifices of Sextus Tarquinius. jam -proximus ardet Ucalegon; &. 



Flor. i, 7; LUB. Liv. i, 53 f; VRA. 
or ' unadorned' i^ch. s. simplex tnundi- 
tiis; Hor. Od. i, 5, 5. 

Tilur, now ' Tivoli," on the Anio ; 
a town of Latium, built on r. steep 
aeclivity : hence called supinum ; Hor. 
Od. iii, 4, 23. Sch. PRA. MAD. 

Jrx denotes (1) ' a height.' (2) ' a 
citadel,' (3) ' a city' in general. R. 

193. Tibicen ' a prop or shcre.' LUB. 
[Livv vi, 1, 2.] 

194. [Livy ii, 44, 6.] 

195. ' The steward,' MAD. or ' the 
city surveyor ;' s. iv, 77 ; FE. or ' the 
landlord,' or ' the edile;' R. or ' the 
village mason.' ACH. 

' After closina; the crack in the walis 
with a little plaster.' Seh. 

196. ' Without apprehension ;' though 
not futos^ secured irom danger;' fufa 
sceli-ra esse possunt, serura non pos- 
sunt; Sen. E. 97. [s. Ov. Tr. ii, 157; 
Soph. (E. R. 694 ; Shakspeare quoted 



ii, 310 ff. Sch. [Hor. E. i, 18, 84. 

' The third fioor whieh you occupy ' 
The rich used to let the upper rooms of 
their houses to poorer people: cwna- 
cula; X, 18; scalis liabilo tribus, sed 
altis; Mart. i, 118, 7; LUB. s. vii, 
118; Hor. Ep. i, 1, 91; Plaut. Amph. 
iii, 1, 3; Suet. ix, 7; R. (St Mark 
xiv, 14 f; St Luke xxii, 11 f.] 

200 ' You are sound asleep, and un- 
conscious of your danger.' MAD. 

' If the bustle and alarm (i. e. the 
fire) begin at the bottoin of the stairs;' 
xaTflj/SaSjiv ' down-stairs,' Arist. Ach. 
386 ; as npposed to ava/3aS«» ' in the 
garret;' Ibid. 385, 374 ; Pl. 1123. 

201. ' He will be burnt, though last 
of all.' LVB. 

Tegula ' the tiiing.' 

202- The roof was used as a duve- 
cote. Sch. Perhaps there is an allusion 
to the etymology of v^i^uot from u^t^ 
and uit ' an egg.' R. 



s\'r. iii. 



OF JUVENAL. 



15li 



Lectus erat Codro Procula ininor, urceoli sex, 
Ornaiiii-ntum abaci, nec non et parvulus infra 

205 Canlluirus et recubans sub eodeni niaruiore Cliiron, 
Jamque vetus Gvaecos sewabat cisla libellos 
Et divina Oj)ici rodcbant carmina mures. 
Nil babuit Codrus: quis enim negat ? et taraen illud 
Perdidit infelix totnm nihil : ultimus autem 

210 .Erumna! cunmlus, quod nudum cl frusla rogantem 
Nemo cibo, nemo hospilio tectoque juvabit. 
Si magna Asturii cecidit doraus : horrida mater, 
Pullati proceres, diffeit vadimonia praetor. 
Tunc gemimus casus Urbis, tunc odimus ignem. 

215 Ardet adhuc ; et jara occurrit, qui marmora donet, 
Conferat impensas. Hic nuda et candida signa, 



203. See i, 2. GliA. 

' Not large enongh for his bettev half.' 
Lecttis mi/ior, tirceoli, parvii/iiti can- 

tharus, libelli, all diminutiNes. GIF. 

8. Arist. Bh. iii, 2, 6. 

' Littie jugs.' See Piin. xxviii, 2; 

xxxiii,ll; xxxiv,3; xxxTii,2 ; Hor. 

S. i, 6, 116 f. R. 

204. ' Of his sideboaTd ;' ' of a mar- 
ble shelfor slab;' s. 205. R. 

205. ' A can:' gravis attrita peiide- 
bat cantharus ansa; Virg. E. vi, 17. 
PRA. 

' A reclining figurt.- of the centaur 
Chiron, made of the same marbie, sup- 
pcrted the slab.' The rich used more 
costly materials than marble: xi, \-22 
ff FE. R. Codrus is the more to be 
pitied, as he was evidently an antiqua- 
rian, and no doubt attached a great 
value to everv article in this catalogue. 
GIF. 

206. ' The few Greek books which 
he had, were now consigned to the 
custody of an old chest.' LUB. 

207. Dia joemata; Pers. i,31. R. 
The Opici or Osci were an Ausonian 

tribe, on the banks of the Liiis, in 
Latium and Campania; who, on their 
admission among tbe Romans, iiitro- 



duced many barbarous innovations into jiistitium. LUB. 



208. ' Codrus in short had nothing.' 
GIF. s. St Matthew xiii. 12; [HAR, 
O. ii, 4;] SS, on ix'» °- 1»- '^- ^e« 
note on ixofiri ti' Her. vi, 22, 13. 

210. Cvmulus, that which is over 
and above measure, being piltd on 
when a measure is already brim-fuli, ^ 
so as to rise in a heap above thc rim 
of the vessel. In french, conihle; 
MAD. "ce qui reste enfaite au-dessus 
des hords ^''une mes^ire, apres que le 
mesureur Va remplie:"' Nodier et 
Verger. [" La fortune, pour co7nble 
de maux, me l'a enleve;'' Abp Fenelon 
Te. iv, 32 ; " Ln mort de son fils fut 
te preiiide de ses malheiirs : Catlippe y 
mit le comhle;" Rollin H. A. xi, 3, 
353; s. St Luke vi, 38.] 

Frusta ' broken victuals.' MAD. - 

212. ' Each matron puts on weeds.' 
In a public mourning for any signal 
calamity, ' the ladies la'd aside their 
ornaments, the senate put on black, 
and the courts of justice postponed 
all business.' Livy xxvi, 29, 3. Tiie 
rapid degeneraey of manners under the 
emperors renders it probable that there 
is no very great exaggeration in this 
desciiption. GIF. PRA. ED. 

213. This postponement was called 



Ihe language and manners of that 
pcople. Dionys. H. i, 89; s. vj, 455; 
Gell. ii, 21; xi, 16; xiii, 9; Plin 
xxix, i ; Apoll. Sidon. ep. vii, 3 ; Virg. 
JE. vii, 730; LUB. L. MAD. MNS. 
R. [Livy vii, 2, 28.] ' barbarians, 
goths.' 



2T4. ' We lament it as a national 
calamity: we execrate the very name 
of fire.' LUB. It was customary with 
mourners to extinguish theirfires. Sch. 

215. ' The fire is yet raging.' f.UB. 
Occurrit ' comcs forward.' /t. 

216. Understand penunias ; ' begs 



154 



THE SATIRKS 



SAT. III. 



Hic aliquid praeclarum Euphranoris et Polycleti, 

Hffic Asianorum vetera ornamenta deorum, 

Hic libros dabit et forulos niediamque Minervam, 

220 Hic modium argenti. Meliora ac plura reponit 
Persicus orborum lautissimus et merito jam 
Suspectus, tamquam ipse suas incenderit sedes. 
Si potes avelli Circensibus, optima Sorae 
Aut Fabrateriae domus aut Frusinone paratur, 

225 Quanti nunc tenebras unum conducis in annum. 
Hortulus hic puteusque brevis nec reste movendus 
In tenues plantas facili diffunditur haustu. 



y- 



to contribute towarJs the rebuildiiig.' 
LC/B. 

' Of Parian marble.' VRA. s. Plia. 
xxxiv, 5 s 10. li. 

217. ' Some master-piece of Euphra- 
nor the sculptor and paiuter, or Poly- 
cletus the statuary.' LUB. Quint. xii, 
10; Plin. xxxlv,"8; PRA. xxxv, 11; 
s. viii, 103. R. 

218. ' Nor will the fair sex be less 
attentive.' T. 

j4sianorum ' taken long since in some 
of the victories gained in Asia.' R. 

219. ' Books and book-cases and a 
bost of Minerva.' LU B. R. 

220. ' A bushel' used indefinitely. 
MAD. " The worthies of antiquity 
boughttherarestpictures with bushels 
of gold, without counting the weight 
or the number of pieces ;" DKF, 
DufresHoy. 

' He replaces in the room of whaf he 
has lost by the iire.' R. 

221. AstiiriKs we may suppose to be 
called Persicus in consequence of his 
oriental origin : s. 72; MAD. or from 
his luxurious style of living ; Hor. Ud. 
i, 38, 1. Sch. Hence the presents in 
218. MNS. [s. X, on S. B. ii, 21. 
{PRA, on viii, 14. )J He receives so 
much both ' because he is childless and 
because he is very rich.' ACH. Ob- 
serve the contrast between his fate and 
that of Codrus. MAD. 

222. Knijtta dimius fuerat tihi, Ton- 
giliane, ducenis: ubstutit hanc niminm 
casus in Urbe frequens. Collatum est 
decies. Rogo, noii potes i/jse videri in- 
ce?idisse tuam, Tongiliane, domum? 
Mart. iii, 62. LUB. The court paid 
to the rich waa so notorious, that 



Asturius might have set his own houHe 
on fire, with the certainty of being 
amply imdemnified. MAD. 

223. ' If you can tear yourself away.' 
The Romans were quite mad after the 
sports of the Circus : (pojmlus) nunc 
duas tantum res anxius optat, pane m 
et Circenses; x, 79 tf; BRI. vi, 
87; viii, 118; xi,63; 193 fl"; xiv, 262 
ft"; Plin. Ep. ix, 6. R. They spent the 1 
whole day there. Augustus (for evea ( 
in his time the phrensy had begun '^ 
to manifest itself) said with some J 
spleen to a knight who was taking his 
meal on the benehes, " If I wanted to 
dine, I would go home.'' " And so 
you might," replied the man, " for 
you would not be afraid of losing your 
place!" Succeeding emperors were 
more indulgent : some of them had 
regular distributions of bread and wine 
made to the ditterent orders. GIF. 
See66; Dionys. A.R. vii, 70 — 7S; Liv. 
vii, 2; Ov. F. iv, 389 ff; AX. PRA. 
Livy xxii, 9, 8. 

224. These towns are now called 
' Sora, Falvaterra, and Frusilone.' PR.i4. 
Silius mentions these three towns toge- 
ther; viii, 396 ; 398; 400. R. 

225. ' You can buy a house there, for 
one year's rent of a dark hole (Mart. ii, 
14, 12; R.) in the city.' LUB. PRA. 
nunc ' in these dear times.' MAD. 

226. Hic ' in these conntry towns 
{LUB.) there is a small garden at- 
tached to each house.' R. 

' The springs are so high that no 
bucket and rope aie required ;' a great 
acquisition in a country where so much 
watering was wanted as in Italy. 
MAD. 



SAT. III. 



OF JUVENAL. 



155 



Vive bideutis amans et ciilti villicus Imrli, 
Unde epulum jxissis centum dare l^ytliagoreis. 

230 Est aliquid, quocumque loco, quocumque recessu, 
Unius scse dominuni fecisse laccrt;c. 

Plurimus hic ;vger moritur vigilaudo : sed illum 
Lauguorcm peperit cibus iuq^erfectus et h;crens 
Ardenti storaaclio, Nam quio meritoria somnum 

235 Admittunt ? Magnis opibus dormitur in Urbe : 
Inde caput morbi. Redarum trausitus arcto 
Vicorum in flexu et stautis convicia maudra; 



228. ' Devote vour life to your tield 
and jour garden.' 

' Of the pitch-fork' i. e. ' of hus- 
bandry.' LUB. bidente vides onerafos 
arva colentes; Ov. Am. i, 13, 15. 11. 

229. ' From theproduceofwhichgar- 
den.' LUB. 

The Pythagoreans abstained from 
meat (owing to their belief in the me- 
tempsychosis, R.) and observed a vege- 
table diet. LUB. xv, ITI ff. PRA. 

230. See i, 74. est a H q u i d fatove 
suo ferrote cadentem in solida moriens 
ponere corpus humo ; et mandare snis 
alirjuid^ spcrare sepu/cra, et non cequo- 
reis pisciius esse cibum; Ov. Tr. i, 2, 
53 ff. R. 

231. " We asked Dr. Johnson," 
says Boswell, " the meaning of that ex- 
pression in Juvenal, unius dominum la- 
certce. Johnson — Ithink it clear enouph; 
it means as much ground as one raay 
have a ohance of finding a lizard upon." 
And 80 it does! and this, the Doctor 
mighthave added, is very little in Italy. 
GIF. Sch. LC7B. The green lizard is 
very plentiful in the gardens of Italy. 
Hor. Od. i, 23, r f ; MAD. Plin. H. 
N. viii, 39 ; ?RA. s. Mart. xi, 18. R. 

232. ' Very many an invalid dies for 
wantofsleep.' otia mesomnusquejuvat, 
y«<F viagna ncgavit Roma mihi ; Mart. 
xii, 68, 5 f. LUB. 

233. ' Undigested food clogging the 
feverish stomach ;' LUB. ' occasioning 
the heart-burn.' MAD. 

234. With meritoria, eedifinia may 
be understood ; ' rooms let for hire' 
either as ' workshops' Sch. or as ' fem- 
porary lodgings.' MAD. Iftheformer, 
the meaning will be that the incessant 
din of the artizans at work (Mart. xii, 



57 ; /?.) effectually precludes sleep. 
LUB. PRA. In'the latter case, it 
implies that as no one would take per- 
raanent iodgings in the noisiest parts of 
the city, the spare rooms in those quar- 
ters were let out by the night ; wbere 
you might get a bed, but as for sleep, 
that was quite out of the question. 

235. Dormitur impersonally, as tre- 
pidaiur, 200. MAD. 

' A person of large propt rty may be 
able to obtain a mansion sufFiciently 
spacious to have bed-chambers remote 
from the noise and bustle of the streets, 
or at any rate to overawe the neighbour- 
hood into siience.' Sch. LUB. PRA. 
MAD. 

236. ' The rumbling of carts and 
carriages interrupted only by the vo- 
ciferations and mutual abuse of the 
drovers blocked up by stoppages.' LUB. 
PRA. MAD. s. Mart. v, 22. [" In the 
metropolis, instead of thatsolemn still- 
ness of the vacantstreets, which might 
suit, as in our fathers' days, with the 
sanctity of the day, the mingled racket 
of worldly business and pleasure is 
going on with little abatement; and in 
the churches and chapels which adjoin 
the public streets, the sharp rattle of 
the whirling phaeton, and the graver 
rumbleof the loaded wagon, mixed with 
tbe oaths and imprecationsof thebrawl- 
ing drivers, disturb the congregation, 
and stun the voice of the preacher ;" 
Bp Horsley ."^erm.] 

237. ' The narrow crooked streets' 
were owing to the great fire at Rome ; 
Nero endeavoured to remedy the evil 
by another fire. Liv. v, 56 ; Suet. vi, 
.38; PRA. Tac. A. xv, 38, 43; Flor. 
i, 13; Diod. xiv, 116. U. 



156 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



Eripient somnuin Druso vitulisque marinis. 

Si vocat officiunij turba cedente vehetur 
240 Dives et ingenti curret super ora Libm^no 

Atque obiter leget aut scribet vel dorraiet intus ; 

Namque facit soranura clausa lectica fenestra. 

Ante taraen veniet : nobis properantibus obstat 

Unda prior : raagno populus premit agmine lumbos, 
245 Qui sequitur. Ferit hic cubito, ferit assere duro 

Alter ; at hic tignum capiti incutit, ille metretam. 

Pinguia erura luto ; planta raox undique magna 

Calcor et in digito clavus mihi militis haeret. 



Mandra ' a pen for eattle,' ' the cattle 
themselves,' ' ateamof hoi>es ormules.' 
PRA, The tcenitive case of the ob- 
j e C t : ai' vravrai (iov\of/.i)io; rov ' A^iWia 
rijs c^ytjs n^ viuTof Arist. Eh. ii, 3, 
3 ; s. note on taurovj Her. i, 129, [56 ;) 
Livy xxvii, 7, 3- 

238. Ti. Claudius Drusus Ccesar 
was very lethargic : Suet. v, 5 ; 8. 
but in all likelihood some weli-known 
eharacter of the day is here intended. 
' Seals' are also very drowsy animals. 
\71uUum animal qroviore souino prcmi- 
^7/r,l Plin.H.N.i'x,15. Pi?^.iZ7j5. i?. 
[•' In situations where they rarely ex- 
perience disturbance, they sleep very 
profoundl)' and are easily surprized."] 
The humour in coupling Drusus with 
these sleepy creatures and placing the 
latterwithin ear-shot of the muleteers 
and coaohmen in the heart of the city, 
is quite overlooked by the majority of 
Commentators ; GIF. uho, by intro- 
ducing the alteration (1) so)nnos nrso, 
8. Plin. H. N. viii, 36. (BRl.) or (.2) 
vetKlisfjue mariris, (GV.) entirely de- 
stroy the v^iiua <ra^a Teoo^oxlav so com- 
mon in Anstophanes and other comic 
write^^s: neither is the correction vitu- 
lisve (JC.) necessary, notwithstanding 
the absurditj- o{ que. 

239. Officium; ii, 132. ' The rich 
will move rapidly, without impediment, 
to the levees of the old and childless ; 
while the jmor, w]\ose sole support pro- 
bably depended upon their early ap- 
pearance there, have to .struggle at 
everv step through dangers and difficul- 
ries.' GIF. 

240. ' The crowd, as they make way, 
will look up at the ereat man in his 
litter ; so that he wil! be carried above 



their faces.' MAD. illos humeri cer' 
vicesque servormn super ora 7iostra 
vehunt ; Plin. Pan. 24. PRA. quos 
supra capifa liominum supraque turbam 
delicatos lecfica suspendit; Sen. R. 

The tall and sturdy natives of Li- 
burnia, bordering on the north-eastern 
shore of the Adriatic, were much em- 
ployed at Rome as chairmen, <fec. LUB. 
PHA. vi, 477 ; iv, 75; longorum cervice 
Syrorum ; vi, 351 ; R.horridus Libur- 
rius; Mart. i, 1, 33. BCE. 

241. Obiter ' by the way,' ' as he 
goes.' LUB. vi, 181 ; R. U -ra^ot^^' 
Cic. ad Att. v, 20 ; o&ou vraei^yor 21 ; i» 
■ra^i^yu- ad Q. F. iii, 9. PRA. 

242. i, 65. R. The windows of lit- 
ters had curtains. LUB. [^somnum 
suadebit inire, Vir. E. i, 56.J 

243. ' He vvill arrive before us, with- 
out interruption to either his rest, hia 
business, or his studies.' LUB. 

' Make vvhat haste we can.' MAD. 

244. ' The tide of people.' PRA. 
Virg. G. ii, 462; Sil. iv, 159; R. 
xZfta ^tpcralov s. BL, on .•Esch.Theb.64. 

Premit ; prcecedentibus instans-; 
Hor. Ep. i, 2, 71. 

245. ' With the hard pole of the lit- 
ter.' vii, 132. Martial uses asser for 
'thelitteritself.'£C7'^. 

246. ' A ten-gallon cask' fitr^riTnf. 
GRA. 

247. Understand mea fiunt. R. s. 
iii, fiS, note. 

He now gets jostled among a party 
of soldiers. P/l.L magna (s. xvi, 14; 
R.) ' of a grenadier.' 

248. ' In my toe.' LUB. 

The soldiers' boots were stuck full of 
large holinails. xv, 24 f ; LUB.s. Plin.. 
ix, 18; xxii, 22; xxxiv, 19. R. 



SAl. III. 



OF JUVKNAL. 



157 



Nonne vides, quanto celebretur sportula fuiuo ? 

250 Centum conviva^ : scquitur sua quemque culina. 
Corbulo vix ferrct tot vasa ingentia, tot res 
Inipositas capiti, quas recto vertice portat 
Servulus infelix et cursu ventilat ignem. 
Scinduntur tunica; sarta; : modo longa coruscat 

255 Sarraco veniente abies atque altera pinura 

Plaustra vehunt, nulant altae populoque minantur. 
Nam si procubuit, qui saxa Ligustica portat, 



24i). • Is frequented.' LUB. 

Here the sceiie sh ifo. The difficulties 
of the moruing are overpast, and tbe 
streets cleared oi' the shoals of levee- 
hunters. Nevv perils now arise, aud the 
poor are obstructed ia the prosecution 
of their evening business by the crowds 
of rich clients returning with their 
plaves from the doie of suppers at their 
patrons' houses. The ' kitchen' was a 
larger kind of chafing-dish, divided into 
two ceils, in the uppermost of which, 
they put the meat, and in the lower, 
fire, to keep it warm. How oFten have 
I been reminded of the sportula 
(Sirr»a> i« vTvoih- T.) by the firepans and 
.«uppers of the Neapolitans! As soon 
as it grows dark, the streets are filieJ 
with twinkling fires glancing about in 
every dircction on the he;;ds of these 
modern Corbulos, and suddenly dis- 
appearing as they enter their houses 
with their frugal ineal. GIF. s. i, 95 f. 
PRA. 

250. Focum ferentis suberat ampho- 
rce ccrvix ; Mart. xii, 32, 4 R. tii- 
multiis est co(juorum,ipsos cum opsoniis 
focos transferentium : /loc cniin jam 
tuxuria commenta est, ne r/uis intepescat 
eibus, ne quid palato jam gtiloso {cal- 
toso 9) paruni ferveat ; ccenam c uli n a 
proser/uitur; Sen. Ep. 79 s 78. 
PRA.fumus 249, and ignis 25.'?, relate 
to this portable kitchen. 

251. Ne ( Domitius)X'orvulo omnium 
ora in se verteret, corpore ingens, ver- 
bis magnificus, et, super ewperientiani 
sapisntiainque , etiam spec.ie inanium 
validus \ Tac. A. xiii, 8. A distin- 
guishedgeneral in Armenia underNero. 
LUB. Amm. Marc.xv. /'/M Having 
excited the tyrant^s jealousy by his 
xucces.-ies, he was decoyed to Cenr-hrea?, 



condemned unheard, and fell ou hisown 
sword. GIF. 

252. ' 'With his head uprigbt, leat the 
gravy should be spilt.' LUB. 

Some mss have quot. R. 

253. ' A poor littie slave (as opposed 
to ' the gigantic Corbulo'), by whose 
rapid motion through the air the fire is 
fanned.' MAD. 

254. ' The patched tunics of tlio poor 
get torn in the squeeze.' PRA. 

Nowfoilows an indirect attack on the 
mania of the emperors for building. An 
evil which Juvenal livcd to see abated : 
for Trajan was tam parcus in cedifi- 
cando, f/uam diligens in tuendo. ilaque 
non ,ut ant e, immanium transvectione 
sa.iorum urbis tecta qualiuntur : stant 
iecureg domus, necjam tcmpla nutantia ; 
Piin. Pan 51. GIF. longovehiculorum 
ordine pinus aut abies deferebatur vicis 
intrementibus ; Sen. Ep. 90. LUB. 
Its swaying to and fro made it dan- 
gerous. MAD. s. Hor. Ep. ii, 72 ff; 
S. i, 6, 42 f. GRA. There had been a 
law to prevent the nuisanee of these 
loaded wagons passing and repassing 
after sunrise, or before four o'clock in 
the afternnon, (when the Romans were 
supposed to be at dinner,) unless it were 
for the construction or repairs of tera- 
ples, puolic works, &c. Either this law 
had fallen into disuse ; HB. or timber- 
carriages in the einperor's service 
wouid fall under the above exception. 

255. Sarraca Boolce ; v, 2."3. MS. 
[Hor. E. ii, 2, 73.] 

256. ^ee Virg. AL. ii, 626 ff. 7?. 

257. Immense ' blocks of Ligurian 
marble' from f^una and the neighbour- 
bood. GRJ. Strab. v, p. 153; Plin. 
xxxvi, 6; 18; Sil. viii, 482; Suet. vi, 
60. R. s. Mart. v, 22. [Sa.ru?» denote» 



158 



THE SATlllES 



SAT. 111. 



Axis, et eversura ludit super agmina raontem, 

Quid superest de corporibus ? quis merabra, quis ossa 

260 Invenit ? Obtritum vulgi perit omne cadaver 
More animse. Domus interea secura patellas 
Jam lavat et bucca foculum excitat et sonat unctis 
Striglibus et pleno coraponit linlea gutto. 
Ha3C inter pueros varie properantur: at ille 

265 Jam sedet in ripa tetrumque novicius horret 
Portbraea nec sperat coenosi gurgitis alnura 
Infelix nec habet, quem porrigat, ore trientem. 



' a stone of large size:' s. Vir. M. i, 
637; ii, 307; G. ii, 522; 156; Ov. 
M. iii, 226; Plau. Mo. iii, 1, 146. 
DN.'\ 

258. Ajcis ; the part for the whole. 
LUB. 

' Thetroopsof foot-passengers.' LUB. 

Hyperbole. L UB. rapido cursu media 
agmina riimpit : vettiti montis saxii m 
de vertice preeceps ctim ruitj. . . fertur 
in ahruptum magno viotis improlus 
actu exsultatque solo ; silvas, armenta, 
virosfjue involvens secum : Virg. yE. 
xii, 683 ff. 7nontibus (' immense 
marble columns') aut alte Graiis effulta 
nitebant atria ; Stat. Th. i, 145 f. R. 

260. ' Crushed to atoms.' Sch. 

261. ' Because not a particle of it is 
visible.' Sch. 

Interea ' while the master (foUowed 
by his slave with the supper) has come 
to rhis uutimely end, his unconscious 
domestics are making preparatioiis for 
his meal and his previoiis bath.' L UB. 
[St Luke xxi, 34. J 

262 . Ipse genu posito Jlammas exsus- 
citat aura ; Ov. F. v, 507. -R. 

' Makes a clatter.' ' The scrapers' 
were of nietal aud were ' oiled' to pre- 
vent their hurting theskin. GRA. 

263. For strigilibus. GRA. Pers. 
V, 126. PRA. 

Guttus was ' an oi!-fiask' made of 
horn, with a narrow neck, which 
dropped the oil over the bodv after 
bathing. PRA. LUB. 

264. Pueros ' the servants.' ipaiT-J 2s 
01 •aa.Xaiai. traj^tviwv i^yov ihai ri eivo- 
X,oM, xa) avl^uy Ss viaiy, <wv x.a) vTn^iTiTv 
ohv xa) iral^if o'i ^ oZXo i, xai -rai^i- 
irxai, S/a To t»} ^aiiixiis fikiKiat v^rv^irn- 



Tixov Eustath. oD Hom. 11. A, p. 438. 
St Luke xii, 45 ; SS. vi, 151 ; Hor. 
Od. i, 381. Gar(:on, in French, 
serviteur dans un lieu piihlic. Our 
own word knave originally signiired 
' a boy,' and afterwards ' a servant;' 
both which senses are now obsolete. 

Ille i. e. servulus infelioc according to 
most Commentators : but see note ou i, 
62. 

265. See ii, 149 fif; Virg. &. vi, 
313 ff; Prop. ii, 27, 13 f. R. ' He 
takes aseat,(because he has a hundred 
years to wait, PRA.) oii the banks of 
the Styx or Acheron.' PI. 

Novicius ' by the end of the century 
he will become used to the grim ferry- 
man :' but omne ignotum pro magnifico : 
Tac. iTTVyvov kti Tco^S/Aria Ka(i.ovTOi*' 
Theoc. xvii, 49; Seu. H. F. 764 ff. R. 

26(). Portitor horrendus terribili 
squalore Charon ; turbidus cceno 
gurges ; Virg. I. c. 

' He has no hopes,' because he is 
unburied. R. 

Tunc alnos primutn fiuvii sensere 
cavatas ; Virg. G. i, 136; torrentem 
undam levis innatat a l n ii s missa 
Fado; ib. ii, 450 f. R. 

267. Triens is here put for obolus. 
Lue. Dial. Mort. 9 ; s. Diod. ii, 5 ; PUA. 
Prop. iv, 11,7. Tt was the fare for 
the passage, naulum ; viii, 97; avii 
Tov llloXot 'i-^av <ra vo^6(i.ia xaTufiaXtTf 
Luc. Cat. 18. R. Ihis lale uotion the 
Romans had adopted from the Greeks ; 
though not a general custom, thevulgar 
adhered to it most scrupulously, and 
dreaded nothing more than being con- 
signed to the grave without their far- 
thing. GIF. 



SAI. III. 



OF JU^^NAL. 



15» 



Rcspice uunc alia ac diversa pericula noclis: 
Quod spatiuni tectis suhliniibus, undc cerebrum 

'270 Tcsta fcrit; quolics riiuosa ct curta lcncslris 

Vasa cadant ; quanto pcrcussum pondere signent 
Et laedant siliccm. Possis ignavus haberi 
Kt subiti casus improvidus, ad ccenam si 
Intestatus eas. Adeo tot fata, quot illa 

275 Noctc patent vigilcs, tc prietereunte, fenestrse. 
Ergo optcs votumque fcras niiserabile tecum, 
Ut sint contenta^ patulas defundere pelves. 

Ebrius ac petulans, qui nullum forte cecidit, 
Dat poenas, noctcm patitur lugentis amicum 



268. Now foilows an aniinated and 
faithful picture of the evils of night: 
these are nearly the same in every over- 
grown capitai, which is not protected 
by a night-watch or a vigilant police. 
GIF. 

2G9. Thehigher thehousethegreater 
the danger. LUB. f/umn areee compla- 
natee recipere iion possent (antom mul- 
tiludinem aU hftbitandum in Urbe, atl 
auxi/ium coacti sunt Rotnaui atl alli- 
tudinetn {hdium devenire ; Vitr. ACH. 

270. ' Thepotsherd.' MAD. 
Curta ' mutilated, broken ;' Ov. F. 

ii, 645. R. 

271. ' From the force with which 
they come upon the flint pavement, you 
may judge a fortiori of the little chance 
your head would have.' PRA. 

272. 'Remiss.' 

273 ' Going out in the evening is a 
servioe of such danger.' 

274. ' So clear it is that:' atleo 
qnanto reruni tninus, tanto mitius cu- 
pidilalis erat; Liv. pr. jF. guot sunt 
corpore plumce, tot vigiles ortili 
iubter; Virg. JE. iv, 181 f. 

21a. Viyiles ' where the inmates are 
awake ;' L UB. a-s pervigiles popince ; 
viii, 158; vigiles hicerntv ; Hor. Od. 
iii, 8, 14. R. 

276. Tu prece poscis emaci ; Pers. 
ii, 3 ; because in a ' vow' there is a sort 
of bargain raade with the deity or party 
to whom it is addressed. GRA. 

Feras tecum \ Quint. Decl. iii, p. 38. 
R. 

277. ' You are willing to compound 
for the contents of the pots and slop- 
pails, 80 that the utensils themselves 



are not launched on your head.' Un» 
derstand feuestrce. GRA. 

Pelves 'foot-pans' ^oSanrrri^ts , Sch. 
which were not applied to that purpose 
exclusively: MAD. but tu^s"» ri »a) 
iteu^ieit Ka) -rohas i*a^eiiZ,ia6af Her. ii, 
172. 

278. A vivid picture is now presented 
of the wanton insults to which the poor 
were exposed from the midnight frolics 
of drunken bullies. Nero was one of 
the first of thesedisturbersof the public 
peace. Tac. xiii, 25 ; Suet. vi, 26. 
Under shelter of his example private 
persoDS took the opportunity to annoy 
the public : every quarter was filled 
with tumult and disorder, and Rome, 
at night, resembled a city taken by 
storm : s. Dio. Otho, Commodus, Helio- 
gabalus, Verus, &c were also addicted 
to the same brutal joke. Suet. viii, 2. 
Plin. xiii, 22 s 43. Xiph. GIF. R. 
PRA. [Livy iii,]3,2; Speetator Nos. 
324; 332. " Divers sects of vitious 
persons of particular titles passe un- 
punished or unregarded, as the sect of 
Roaring-boyes, Boneventors, Brava- 
dors, Guarterers, and suchlike. . .They 
entered intomany desperate enterprises, 
and scarce nny durst walke the streets 
with safety after nine atnight;'' The 
Five Yeares of King lames, by Sir 
Foulk Grevill, late Lord Brook, p. 3.] 

' He looks upon it as a very bad 
night's spcrt unless he had threshed 
somebody ; so that he cannot sleep for 
vexation.' LUB. 

279. ' He passes as restless a night 
as Achilles mouming the loss of Pa- 
troclus.' LUB. 



!60 



TIIE SATIRES 



s.AT. iiy. 



280 Pelidae, cubat in faciein, mox deiude supinus." 
Ergo non aliter ])oterit dorinire? " Quibusdam 
Soranum rixa facit : sed quaravis improbus annis 
Atque mero fervens, cavet hunc, quem coccina laena 
Vitari jubet ct comitum longissimus ordo, 

285 Multum praeterea flammarum et a^nea lampas. 
Me, quem luna solet deducere vel breve lumen 
Candelse, cujus dispenso et tempero filum, 
Contemnit. Miserae cognosce prooemia rixae, 
Si rixa est, ubi tu pulsas, ego vapulo tantum. 

290 Stat contra sfarique jubet; parere necesse est. 
Nam quid agas, quum te furiosus cogat et idem 



280. "AXXot' i->ri vrXtv^a; xa.rax\'ifii- 
ves . aXXoTS S' aSri vxfies, aXXoTl ci 
Vprjvrii' rin S' o^^o; avairras k t- X Ho:ii. 
II. n. 10 ff ; tHA. Sen. de Tr. An. 2. 
R. 

281. Ergo &c. This seem:^ to be a 
qucstion on the part of Juvenal. LUB. 
s. Plaut. Amph. i, 1. PRA. The verse 
is probabl y spurious ; it might be omitted 
without prejudice to the sense. HEI. 

282. This is very similar to a passage 
in the Proverbs : " Enter not into the 
path ot' the wicked, and go not in the 
way of evii men ; for they sleep not es- 
cept they have done mischief ; and their 
sleep is taken away unless they cause 
sometofall;" iv, 14; 16. FIlA. 

hnprobus 'daring;' Virg. lE. xi, 

612. 11, ci vioi ra Wn lliri (piXosncoi Wlo- 
*/C^' >"*£ i^ri^ufiiT h viortts h Se vi'x« ute^- 
tX,'^ Tis. Ka) iiiXvidii ua^zi^ y^i "' 
eivMumoi o'vru oi/ih^/u.oi liffiv oi "'loi u^o 
r^S (pvffio.*$ }iai iivdfiitOTipoi' ^vfjt,ouOits yap 
xa) tvix^ri^ts u> ro /aiv fi» (po&iTcfai, r^i 
Se ffappiTv, iToiCi' ovri ya^ o^yi^ofctvos ov^i)s 
(fofiiTrar ri ri IXt/^£/v uyaSov ri, ^appa- 
Xeov iirri xai ra aiiK^fiara aoiKovffiv tis 
vfi^iv Arist lih. ii, 14, 2. 

283. ' He has just sense enough left, 
to steer clear of the scarlet cloak which 
marks the rich nobleman.' LUB. vii, 
135 f; vi, 246. ;^XaTta, hyacinthina 
Itxna: Pers. i, 3i ; Tyrioque ardrbat 
murice lcBna ; Virg. Ai. iv, 262. Sch. 
R. From the cloak being worn, we 
may infer that these outrages were 
more common in the long winter nights. 
HEI. 

284. Comitum ; i,46,note. fiXorovus 
Xxivieu, (leeXXa* Ji hytieieci, vra rut ei 



Kirotiv •rr^oouSovf/.tvov xai uo^ori^ riva, wofe.- 
triiv avaTXn^ovvra' Luc. tr r l fiiof. 
<rvv'ovT 10. R. 

285. ' Flambeaux and a brouze can- 
delabrum.' LUB. These were the ex- 
clusive insignia of the rich : the latter 
was carried before tribtmes ; Piin. 
xx.xiv, 2. PRA. Cic. Ver. iv, 26. R. 
In Guernsey, persons of the first class 
in society are distinguished at night by 
having two candles carried in their 
lanterns ; whereas others hare but 
one. 

286. * To eseort on my way.' 

287. His trimming and parting the 
wick, to prevent his rushlight s going 
out or burning too fast, Sch. would 
probably hasten the catastrophe he was 
so anxious to avoid : BRI. p.?,frangere 
dtim metuis^ frangis crystallina; pec- 
cant securtE nimium sollicitceque manus ; 
Mart. xiv, 111 ; Livy xxvii, 50, 3. 

288. ' The prekideof the fray.' LUB. 
s. V, 26 fi'; XV, 51 ff. [h axu^is Xvrru 
•rXtTov. 'n ri^Tti. croXv ] rov xaKus Xiytiv 
ya^ a^X,'l yiyvir. av V t'i'rfi; ava^. tv6vi 
uvrrixovcras h^n Xoi^o^iTirSai Xinrtrai. CiroL 
rvTTrtirSai %'thiixrai xai ^a^oivtTv reivra 
ya^ xara (pviriv "^iifivxtv o'vrus' xai ri 
fiavrtus i^ti ; Alex. in Ath. x, 5 ; [or 
17, 421.] R. 

289 ' Where the beating is all ou 
one side.' MAD. ego vapulando, ille 
vcrbe7'ando, iisqne ambo defessi snmus ; 
Ter. Ad. ii, 2, 5. Sch. [Livy i, 25, 5.] 

2ft0. [Livy iii, 60, k.] 

291 ," Ktp^uv V «V y i6'iXoi ir^es x^iiffffevecs 
uvripi^i^tiv vixtis Ti ffT'i^irai, •r^es <r' 
a'lir^tiriv oLXyta <rairx^'' Hes. O. D. 210 
f. ACH. 



SAT, III. 



OF JUVENAL. 



161 



Forlior? " Unde venis ?" exclamat; " Ciijus aceto, 
Cujus concho tuincis ? (juis tecuni scctilc povnini 
Sutor et elixi vervccis labra conicdit? 

295 Nil mihi rcspondes? Aut dic, aut accipe calcom ! 
Ede, ubi consistas: in qua te qua^ro proscucha?" 
Dicere si tentes ahquid tacitusve recedas, 
Tantumdem est ; feriunt pariter : vadimonia deinde 
Trati faciunt. Libertas paui)eris hvcc cst : 

300 Pulsatus rogat et pugnis concisus adorat, 
Ut hceat paucis cum dentibus inde revcrti. 

Nec tamen h;vc tantum mctuas : nam, qui sjjoliet te, 
Non derit, clausis domibus postquam omnis ubique 
Fixa catenatae siluit compago tabernae. 



292. These insolent questions are put, 
in hopes to pick ;i quarrei. PRA. jurgii 
(•ausain iniulii ; Phsed. i, 1,4. 

Acetum ' sour vvine.' FRA, s. SS, on 

293. ' Beans boiled in the shell :' a 
commou dish among the poorer people, 
which was very filling. Mart. v, 39, 
10;vii, 78,2; xiii, 7 ; PRA. 14,131. 
inflantes corpora fabce ; Ov. F. Med. 
70. R. 

There were two kinds of leek, sectile 
an;i rapitatum : Plin. xx, 6; GRA. 
BRI. of which the former was the 
coarser sort. PRA. s. xiv, 133. MAD. 

294. Sutor is used for any low fellow ; 
zs cerdo,\v, 153; viii, 182; R. Mart. 
iii, 59. 

Sheep's heads were among the parts 
given away to the poor, LUB. at the 
Saturnalia an'I other festivais. F. 
Mart. xiv, 211. PRA. 

295. ' Speak or he kicked.' GIF. 
iffiin ufi^is To PiXaTTtiv xa) XuriTv ip' oit 
aiff^u^n iar) ru irdiT^oiiTi. fih "tu ri yi 
ttlTai avTCf aXXo ti o n iytttro. aXX' oTus 
Mn Arist. Kh. ii, 2, 3. 

29(). ' Tell nie where you take up 

your stand :' implying that he was one 

of the fraternity of regular beggars. 

MAD. consiitere ; Plaut. Curc. iv, 1. 

/' jR. r^ottuy^a) were Jewish oratories or 

l houses of prayer; Sch. wliicli were 

) usualiy built without the walls of a 

/ town bv the river or sea side. SS. See 

j notesonl3fl"; iv, 117; [St Luke vi, 12.] 

( This w an insinuation that the poor 



man was not only a beggar, but (what 
was worse) a vagabond Jew. MAD. 
[tlic, qua te parte refjuiratn, Mar. vii, 
73, 5.] 

297. S/ for sive. L UB. 

298. ' 'Tis all one.' MAD. [' no 
odds.'J pariter ' just the same ; whether 
you speak or no.' R. see note on S/ttittf 
Her. vii, 120, [89.] 

' Theu they pretend to be the party 
aggrieved, and insist on your finding 
bail for the assault.' LUB. 

299. ' Counterfeiting a violent pas- 
sion.' MAD. iim) h o^yh, opt^is fitroi 
Xvrris rifiui/ias lfaivo//,itr,s . ^ia <paivofii\ti* 
okiyu^iav Toiv tis avTot h tis avrou Tiva, 
fit) w^oanxovTus' Ar. Rh. ii, 2, 1. sic 
Jictis causis innocentes opprimunt ; 
Phffid. i, 1, 15. 

' This isyour boasted liberty !' MAD. 

300. Witli rogat understand veniam, 
LUB. 

Adorat ' humbly prays.' R. 

301. ' That the gentleman will be so 
good as not to knock out all his teeth.' 
PRA. [vi, 414 f; Eur. C. 637 f.] 

302. Now come the dangers from 
robbers. LUB. 

303. All the houses being shut up 
and tlie shops closed, there is no help 
to be had. LUB. Livy xxiii, 26, 
1. 

304. The shutters were fastened by 
a strong iron chain running through 
cach of them. Sch. Burglary was one 
of Nero's scanJalous practices: taber- 
nulas eiiam effringere et expilare : 



162 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. III. 



305 Interdum et ferro subitus grassator agit rem, 
Armato quoties tutae custode tenentur 
Et Pomtina palus et Gallinaria pinus. 
Sic inde liuc omnes, tamquam ad vivaria, currunt. 
Qua fornace gvaves, qna non incude catenae ? 

310 Maximus in vinclis ferri modus, ut timeas, ne 
Vomer deficiat, ne marraD et sarcula desint. 
Felices pi-oavorum atavos, felicia dicas 
Saecula, quae quondam sub regibus atque tribunis 



quintnna domi comtituta, ubi partce et 
ad licilationcm dividendcc prcedcn pre- 
tium asiiinneretur ; Suet. vi, 20 ; L UB. 
Tac. A. xiii, 25. R. 

305. 'A bandit or bravo' LUB. 
' does your business.' MAD. s. Suet. 
ii, 32; 43. li. 

306. When the banditti became so 
numerous in any spot, as to render tra- 
velling dangerous, it was usual to de- 
tach a party of military from ihe capital 
to scour tlieir retreats : the inevitable 
consequence of which was, that they 
escaped in vast numbers to Rome, 
where they continued to exercise their 
old trade of plunder and blood, and, 
probably, with more security and effect 
than before. GIF. Sch. [" The vigi- 
lance of the metropolitan police appears 
to have had the effect of driving into 
the provinces many of the most accom- 
plished London sliarpers, not a few of 
whom, there is reason to believe, are 
resfding at present in this town. . . More 
than a dozen well-knuwn characters of 
this kind were recognized one "vening 
in High street; and there have been 
VFithin the last ^ev! days some instances 
of the picking of locks and of pockets, 
which indicate a degree of expertness 
which scarcely belongs to our most ac- 
complished ShetKeld thieves." Shetfield 
Mercury.] 

307. ' The Pomptinemarsh' in Cam- 
pania(yje4'^//(?m Pmntini uligine cumpi; 
Sil. viii, 381; Mart. x, 74, 10; xiii, 
il2;) was tirst drained, partially, by 
Ap. Claiidius, 441 \. r. then more 
cnmpletely by Corn. Cethegus, 590 
Y. R. ( Liv. Ep. xlvi ;) Julius Csesar in- 
tended to execute this amnng other 
public works (Suet. i,44 ;) and Augustus 
partly cirried his intention into effect. 
(Hor. A. P. C5.) The work was re- 



sumed by Trajan (Dio), by Theodoric 
(Cassiod. V. E. ii. 32 f ;), and in later 
times hy Sixtus V and Pius VI. But 
after all that has been done, its vapours 
are too deleterious to admit of any per- 
sons now harbouring there. VTLA. GES. 
A. R. GIF. 

' ihe Gallinarian forest' was in the 
same neighbourhood ; 2x» avui^os xa) 
afc,u,a^'/iS , ?ivTa.XXiva^ia¥ uXtit xaXaurf 
totrab. V, p. 168 ; Oic. Ep. ix, 23. 
R. 

308. Vivaria ; iv, 51 ; ' preserves, 
stews, or vivaries :' MAD. Hor. Ep. 
i, 1, 79. R. 

' Where they will have abundance of 
sport;' GRA. or ' where they will 
fatten.'i?75. 

309. ' Though there is no forge or 
anvil but rir.gs %vith the clank of chains : 
yet all is ineffectual for the suppression 
of crime. ' LUB. 

310. Modus ' proportion, quantity.' 
LTnderstand consiimitur. LUB. 

311. ' Mattocks and hoes.' The for- 
mer word still exists in Italian and 
Spanish ; marre, in French, denotes the 
hoe used in vineyards : i?. and from the 
latter word comes our English verb 
SARCLE, ' to weed corn.' 

312. See xiii, 34 ff. li. Pater, avus, 
proavus, abavus, atavus, tritavus ; 
Piaut. Pers. i, 2, 5; F. the seventh 
generation would be tritavi pater, and 
the next proavi atavus. It is here put 
for ' our forefathers' indefinitely. MAD. 

313. The militiry tribuneswith con- 
sular power were first appointed 310 
Y. R. sixty-five years afterthe abolition 
of the regal govemment ; ( Liv. iv, 7 ;) 
Sch. and tribunes of the commons, six- 
teen years after the same event. (Liv. 
ii, 33.) LUB. Augustus and the other 
emperors assumed to themselves the 



SAT. 111. 



OF JUVENAL. 



163 



\ iilcnmt uno coiitcntain carcero Roniani ! 

315 His alias poterani vt phnis subncctc-if causas ; 
Sed junuMita vocaul et sol iucliuat: cuuduui cst. 
Naui niihi couiniota jam duduui mulio virga 
Aduuit. Ergo vale nostri uicmor et, ([uotics te 
Roma tuo rciici propcranteui rcddct A(|uino, 

3*20 Me quoquc ad Helvinam Cererem vestramque Dianam 
Convcllc a Cumis. Satirarum ego, ni pudct ilhis, 
Adjutor gelidos vcniani caUgatus iu agros-" 



latter title. li. On the trifjutiicia po- 
fesfas see CW, L. ix, p. i^G ff. 

314. Tliis prison was built by Ancus 
Marcius; Liv. i, 33. GRA. Servius 
Tiillius adileil the duniieon, called from 
him Ti(llianuiii \ Calp. Dccl. 5; Tac 
A. iv, 29; L.Sall. B. C.oS.Sch. The 
next prisou was built by Ap. Ciaudius 
the decemvir. Liv, iii, 57; Plin. vii, 
3(5 ; V. Paterc. i, 9. J^. 

315. ' Caases for leaving Rome.' 
I.UB. 

31(j. ' They summon me to be mov- 
ing.' LUB. s. 10. PRA. 

The carriage, as soon as it was loaded, 
.«et out and overtook L^mbricius; and 
now it either was waiting, MAD. or 
had got some distance on the road. 
R. 

Inclinare meridiem sentis ; Hor. Od. 
iii, 28, 5 f; MAD. Livy xxv, 34, 6. 

317. ' The muleteer gives a hint, by 
smackinghis whip.' Z/L^i?. viii, 153. H. 

318. S/A- /icet Jeli.r, ubiciimqiie ma- 
vis, et memor nostri, Gn/atea, vivas; 
Hor Od. iii, 27, 13 f. MAD. 

319. Poets were fond of periodical 
retirement into the quiet and repose of 
the country ; me q iiot ies r efi cit 
ge/idits Digentia ririi.s; [Hor. E. i, 18, 
104. j Af/iiini/m, a town of tlie Vol- 
scians, was the birth-place of Juvenal. 
Sch. 

320. Ceres and £)/a«a wereespecially 
worshipped at Aquinum : therefore they 
here stand for the town itself. The 
origin of the epithet ' Helvine' is un- 
certain : (1) from the Helvii, a people 
of Gaul ; Ca;s. B. G. vii, 7 ; 75 ; B. C. 
i, 35 ; Plin. iii, 4 ; xiv, 3. Sch. (2) 
from a fountain of the name in the 
vicinity ; PRA. (3) and the name of 
this, Eluinns, from ' washirig off con- 
taminations previously to initiation :' 
L UB. or (4) from the ' yellow (helvus) 



colour' of the ears of corn. SCO. BRO. 
He/viis [whence the German ()e/b] is 
akin to yi/vus ' dun,' in etyraology and 
in signification : both the initials are 
blended in the Dutch g/ie/e urre. " A 
sweaty reaper from his tillage brought 
First-fruits, the green ear and the y el- 
low sheaf ;" Milton P. L. xi, [434 f;] 
J/ara Ceres ; Virg. G.i, 96; [Ov. A, 
iii, 10, 43.) 

321. Conve//e s. 223. 
Cumis s. 2. PRA. 

' Unless they scom my poor help.' T. 

322. Afjiiinum was ' cool' from its 
hills, woods, aiid streams. PRA. 

Cn/igatus ' in military boots ;' LUB. 
BRl. ' equipped for our eampaign ;' 
PRA. HOL. ' armed at all points.' 
MAD. GIF. Dio says that Caligula 
wore the shoe from which he derived 
his name, to mark his renunciation of 
his forraer town shoes ; oIvt) tu» da^ri- 
Kuv u9tSnfi,a.ru*. LTmbricius may here 
avow a similar determination. He 
promises that he will not appear in shoes 
of a town make; that there shall be 
nothing about him, even on his feet, to 
remind Juvenal of the detested city. 
IR. " lu country shoes I'll come." 
BDH. 

Thereissomethingexquisitelyheauti- 
ful in this conclusion. The little circum- 
stances which accelerate the departure 
of Umbricius, the tender farewell he 
takes of his friend, the compliment he 
introduces to his abilities, and the af- 
fectionate hint he throvvs out, that, in 
spite of his attachment to Cumse, 
Juvenal may command his assistance 
in the noble task in which he is en- 
gaged, all contribute to leave a pleasing 
impression of melancholy on the inind, 
and interest the reader deeply in the 
fate of this neglected, hut virtuous and 
amiable exile. GIF. 



S A T J R E IV. 



ARGUIVIENT. 

In this Satire, which was probahly written uniler Nerva, Juvenal indulges 
his honest spleen against two most distinguished culprits; Crispinus, 
already noticed in his first Satire, 1 . .27 ; and Domitian, the constant 
objeet of his scorn and abhorrence, 28.. 149. 

The suddeu transition from the shocking enormities of Crispinus, J..10; 
to his gluttony and extravagance, 11 flf; is certainly inartificial, but 
appears necessary in some degree to the completion of the Poefs design, 
the introduction of Domitian, 28. 

The whole of the latter part is excellent. The mock solenanity with which 
the anecdote of the enormous turbot is introduced, 37 fi^; the procession, 
or rather the rush, of the aifrighted counsellors to the palace, 75 fl"; and 
thc ridiculous debate 1 19 ft'; (as to whether the fish should be dressed 
whole or not, 130;) which terminates in as ridiculous a decision, 136 ff; 
(that a dish should be made for it, 131 ; according to the sage advice of 
Montauus) — all show a masterly hand. 

We have, indeed, here a vivid picture of the state of the empire under the 
suspicious and gloomy tyranny of Domitian; of his oppressive system of 
espionage aud rapacity, of his capricious severity and trifling, and of the 
gross adulatiou in which all classes sought a precarious security. 

Many masterly touches are giveu in the brief allusions to the character 
and couduct of the chief courtiers as they pass in review : the weak but 
well-meaning Pegasus, stoic, and bailiff of Rome, 75 ff; Crispus the 
complaisant old epicure and wit, 81 ff ; Acilius, aud his ill-fated young 
companion, 94 ff; Rubrius the low-horn ruffian, 104 fl'; Montanus the 
unwieldy glutton, 107; Crispinus the perfumed debauchee, 108 f; 
Pompeius the merciless sycophaut, 1 09 f ; Fuscus the luxurious and 
incompeteut general, 111 f; CatuUus the blind hypocrite, extravagant 
in his praises of the finny monster, 113 ff; and Veiento the timeserving 
fortune-teller, 113; 123 ff. 

And we cannot but admire the indignant and high-spirited apostrophe, 
with which our Poet condudes, reflecting on the servile tameness of the 
patricians as contrasted with the indignantvengeance of the lower orders, 
150.. 154; an apostrophe which under some of the emperors would be 
fatal, and under none of them safe. GIF. R. 



SAT. IV. 



llli: SATIUKS OF JUVENAl.. 



105 



EcCE itcruin Crispinus ! ct ist milii siupc \ ucanclu.s 
Ad partes, monslruin nuUa virtutc redenitum 
A \ itii.s, ;cgcr solaquc libidinc fortis : 
Pclicias viduce tantuiu aspernatur adultcr. 
5 (^uid refert igitur, quantis juraenta fatigct 

Porticibus .? (juanla nemorum vectctur in umbra ? 
Jugcra ([uot vicina foro, quas eracrit xdes .<* 
Nemo raalus fclix ; minime conuptor et idem 
Inccstus, cum quo nui^cr vittata jaccbat 
10 San<fuine adhuc vivo terram subitura saccrdos. 



1. JScrc deiiotes surprise ; LUB.ecce 
Crispinus miniino nie profocat ; Hor. 
S. i, 4, 13 f. li. 

' Again' i, 20; LUB. uiitlerstand 
adest. H. 

Mihi for n nie. Sch. 

2. A metaplior frotn the the.itre, in 
which actors were called when it was 
their turn to appear on the stage. Sch. 
Kerniros ad jjartcs paratus \ Liv. iii, 
10. R. 

' A slavetovicewithnooneredeeming 
virtue;' LUB. s. Pers. v. PRA. 

3. ' Feeble both in body and mind.' 
R. 

Isfi VII Isi atque ejcpoliti ct nits- 
quam, nisi in libidine, viri; 
Sen. Cout. i, p. 62. R. 

4. ' To corrupt virgin inuocence, to 
invade the sanctity of the marriage 
bed, is his deliglit : intrigues with 
widows, therefore, have too little tur- 
pitude in them to gratify his singular 
depravity.' GIF. 

5. Nain grave fju id prode st pon- 
dus mihi divitis atiri? arvaque si 
findant pinyiiia iitille bovcs .' rjuidve 
do m iis prodest Phri/giis innixa culum- 
nis :' et neinora in domibiis sacros 
imitantia lucos ? ct (luce pra:tereapopu- 
lus miratur ? non opibns mentes homi- 
num curcE<fue levantur; Tib. iii, 3, 11 
&c. It. 

The luxurious Roman.s buiit long 
coverid ways in thcir grounds, that 
they might not be deprived of their 
exercisc in bad weather : s vii, 17H. . . 
181 ; LUB. Mait. i, 13, 5 ff; v, 20, 8 ; 
Plin. Ep. v, G, 17. R. 

Ef/uos fatigat; Virg. JE. i, 310. 
GRA. 

6. Quid i//a /inrticus rcrna scinper? 



quid iila mullis gestatio ? Flin. Ep. i, 
3. PRA. 

Nemora ' shrubberies and groves.' 
Plin. Ep. ii, 17; L. n e m n s iii/er pul- 
cra mtuin tccta ; Hor, Od. iii, 10, 6 f. 
R.Ji, 75.] 

7. Land in the imvnediate vicinity of 
the foiuin was of course exorbitantly 
dear. LUB. s. i, 105 f. MAD. The 
forum of Augustus, whieh is here mtant, 
was the most frequented part of Wome, 
i, 192 : therefore the purchase of pro- 
perty in land or houses near this spot 
shows theenormous wealth of thisodious 
upstart. There is also, probably, a 
covert allusion to his presumption in 
imitating the Cspsars whose palaeeand 
gardens ot many acres were in this im- 
mediate neighbourbood. GIF. 

8. Nemo potest esse fetix sine vir- 
tiite; Cic. '' Virtuealoueis happiness 
below;" Pope Ess. on Man, iv, 310. 
" Virtue must be the hapj)iness, and 
vice the misery, of every creature;'' 
Pp Butler Intr. to Anal. See also 
Lord Shaftesbury's Inq. concerninir 
Virtue, pt. II. 

9. Such was the respect for religion, 
that the seducer of ' a vestal virgin' was 
considered ' guilty of incest,' and placed 
upon a par, in criminality, with the vio- 
lator of allnatural decorum. GIF. The 
guilty vestal was also considered in- 
cesta; Ov. F. vi, 459. 

Priests and priestesses wore fillets 
round the head. LUB. 

Nuttaque dicetur vittas tcmerasse 
sacerdos., ncc viva defodietur 
humo ; Ov. F. vi, 457 f ; iii, 30. R. 

10. This solemnity is thus descrfbed 
by Plutarch : Atthe Colline gatewithin 
the city, there was a subterranean ca- 



166 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. IV. 



Sed nunc de lactis le\ ioribus : et tamen alter 
Si fecisset idem, cadcret sub judice morum. 
Nam quod turpe bonis, Titio Seioque, decebat 
Crispinum. Quid agas, quum dira et fcedior omni 
15 Crimine persona est? Mullum sex millibus emit, 
.-Equantem sane paribus sestertia libris, 
Ut perhibcnt, qui de magnis majora loquuntur. 
Consilium laudo artificis, si munere tanto 



vern, in wliich were placed a bed, a 
lamp, a pitcher of water, and a loaf. 
The ofTender was thenbound alive upon 
a bier, and carried through the forum 
with great silence and horror. Wheii 
they reached the place of iuterment, 
the bicr was set down, and the poor 
wretch unbound ; a ladder was then 
brought, by which she descended into 
the exeavation ; when, upon a signal 
given, the ladder was suddenly with- 
drawn, and the mouth of the cavity 
completely tilled up with stones, eavth, 
drc. V. iv, 6". 'VNhether the vestal de- 
bauched by Crispiniis actually sufifered 
is doubtful. But Domitian did put Cor- 
nelia and severnl others to death. Suet. 
xii, 8 ; Dionys. ii, 65 ; viii, 90 ; LUB. 
PRA. GIF. R. see Marmion, cant. ii, 
note 17. 

11. Understand agimiis. PRA. 

12. ' And yet any other individual 
would forfeit "his life to our imperial 
censor for a like ofifence.' Plin. Ep. iv, 
11. LUB. As Celer, who was guilty 
6f incest with Cornelia, (see above) 
was scourged to death. PRA. Liv. xxii, 
67. li. On the censorship exercised by 
Domitian (censor maxiiiie principiim- 
f/iie princeps ; Mart. vi, 4 ; PRA.) see 
the notes on ii, 29 ff- 

Cadere is opposed to stafe injiidi- 
cio ; [" The ungodly shall not be able 
to stand in the judgement ;" Psalm i, 
6.] And sub means ' before,' as vii, 13. 
R. 

13. Ille criicem sceteris jiretium tulit, 
hic diadema; xiii, 105; s. viii, 182; 
xi, 1 fif; 174 flf. Titiiisa,TiA Seiuswere 
fictitious personages,like our John Doe 
and Richard Roe, and like theni inserted 
in all law-processes : roTs Ti lt'01/.affi tou- 
TOit aWu; Kiy^^ntrai xoivoT; evffi*, uff^t^ 
01 vo/MKOi Vaiov, "Sriiov. xa) Ti<naD' Plut. 
M. XX, :H). GIF. LUB. U. 

14. " When the actor's person far 
exeeeds, In uative loathsomeness, his 



foule^^t deeds," GIF. ' one is at a loss 
how to treat hini.' MAD. 

15. See V, 92 ; Plin. ix, 17 ; Varr. R. 
R. iii,17; Cie. Att. ii, 1 ; Parad. 5; 
Ath. i, 5 ; vii, 21 ; iv, 13. PRA. ' Sur- 
mullet ; s. vi, 40 ; Mart. ii, 43, 11; vii, 
77 ; xiii, 79 ; iii, 45, 5 ; x, 31 ; xi, 51, 
9; Macr. Sat. ii, 12; Suet. iii,34; R. 
Hor. S. ii, 2, 34 ; Sen. Ep. 95. MAD. 
' A muUet' is w(/^^///*. SurmuUets were 
very plentiful and cheap, but seldom 
weighed above 2lbs. In proportion as 
they exceeded this they grew valuable, 
till at last they reached the sum men- 
tionpd in the text (about £50), and 
even went beyond it. The fish seems 
to have grown larger in the decline of 
the empire, as if to humour the caprice 
of this degenerate people. Horace 
thought a surmuliet of 3lbs. something 
quite out of the common way ; the next 
reign furnislied one of 4ilhs ! here we 
have one of filbs I ! and we read else- 
where of others larger still ; one of 
80lbs ! ! ! (unless there be an error in 
the figures) was caught in the Red Sea ; 
Plin. ix, 18. They seem afterwards to 
have goneout offashion,for Macrobius 
sj eaking with indignatiou of one that 
was purchased in the reign of Claudius 
by Asinius Celer for 56/. lOs. adds pre- 
tia hcec insana nescimus. The surmuUet 
of 4jlbs was oue that was presented to 
Tiberius. The emperor sent it to mar- 
ket, observing that he thought either 
P. Octavius or Apicius would buy it. 
They did bid ngainst each other, till it 
was knocked down to the former for 
40/. s. 23. GIF. 

16. Saiie ' forsooth,' ironicallv. LC/JB. 
Phffid. iii, 15, 12. R. ' Wefl ! and 
that was only a thousand a pound.' 

17. Juvenal merely gives the story as 
he heard it, without vouching for its 
correctness ; ivaee fama vires acquirit 
eundo; Virg. JE. iv, 175. GRA. 

18. [' Of the eraftsman.'] ' I grant 



SAI. IV 



OF JUVENAL. 



167 



Prsecipuani in tabulis ceram senis abstulit orbi. 

20 E<?t ratio ulterior, magna; si misit amicae, 
Qu;e veliitur clauso latis specularibus antro. 
Nil tale exspectes : emit sibi. Multa videmus, 
Quie miser et frugi non ftcit Apicius. Hoc tu 
Succinctus jnitria quondam, Crispine, papyro ^ 

25 Hoc pretio squanue } Potuit forlasse minoris 
Piscator, quam piscis, emi. Proviucia tanti 
Vendit agros; sed majores Appulia vcndit. 



you his artifice wa.s praiseworthy as a 
masterly stroke.' MAD. s. St Luke 
xvi, 8. 

19. See ii, 58. PRA. pra-ripita cera 
' the principal place in the will' and 
consequently ' the bulkof the property.' 
The chiefheir wasnameci in thesecond 
line of the first table. Hor. S. ii, 5, 53 
f; s. Suet. i, S3 ; vi, 1". R. MAD. 

20. ' A still better reason : for then 
he may obtaiu her favours as well as 
her fortune.' s. ii, 58 S; PRA. iii, 
129 tf. MAD. 

21. Instead of giass, they used for 
the panes of their windows thin plates 
of mica or I\luscovy talc, which was 
called /api.s- speriilaris; fPJi. H. N. 
xxxi, 7;] SM. the larger these panes, 
the more expensive would the win- 
dows be. MAD. i, 65; Plin. H. N. 
xxxvi, 22; 26; Sen. Ep. 86; 90; 
de Prov. 4; N. Q. iv, 13; hibernis 
ohjecta Notis spcciilaria puros ad- 
mittiirit soles et sine fcecc diem : at 
mi/ii cella ilaliir, >ion tota claiisn 

fenestra; Mart. viii, 14,3-5 ; Plin. 
Ep. ii, 17; PK^. -R. The satire per- 
haps is aimed at the afFectation of the 
lady, who pretended to conceal herself 
in a vehicle, which, from it* splendour, 
must have attracted universal notice. 
GIF. 

22. ' If you expect any such thinsj, 
you will be mistaken.' MAD. 

After videim/s understand Crispinm» 
fecisse. R. 

23. ' Compared with him, Apicius 
was mean and thrifty.' See note on 
15. Among several epicures of this 
name, one wrote a book on cookery. 
Sch. Plin. ii, 6; viii.fll; ix, 17; x, 
48 ; Sen. Ep. 95 ; L UB. Id. Helv. 10 ; 
Dio Cass. 57. The Apicius who is 



above mentioued, after spending a for- 
tune in gluttony, destroyed himself. 
PRA. s. xi, 3 ; Tac. A. iv, 1 ; Mart. 
li, 69; iii, 22. R. 

Hoc ; understand fecisti. L UB. 

24. ' Erst girt round the loins with 
the papyrus matted or stitched to- 
gether.' i, 26; Plin. xiii, II; PRA. 
s. viii, 162. The papyriis is called 
patria, as the siliiri are called mimici- 
pes, 33. y "E^ai, ^nuvK ^ncctt vtXp 
auxiios Twrv^u, fiiSu /ioi ^iuxottiTu' 
Anacr. iv, 4; Hor. S. ii, 8, 10; 
Phajd. ii, 5, 11 ff; B(E, p. 283 ff. R. 
The savages of tJie newly-discovered 
islands, and the countrynicn of Cris- 
pinus at the present day, are said to 
wear this sort of dress Rear-Admiral 
Perree says, •'■ Laferocite des habitans 
est pire qiie les sanvages ; majeure 
pariic habUles ea paille ;''' Tntercepted 
Letters. GIF. 

25. Understand emiintiir. LUB. 
si/uamiv, conteraptuously, for ' the 
fish.' Sch. 

26. Asinius Celer e consulnribus, 
hoc pisce prodigus, Cnio principe unttm 
mercntus octo millibus numum : quce 
reputatio aiifert transversum animum 
nd contemplat ionem eorum, qui in con- 
r/iiestione lu.rus, coqiios emi singulos 
pliiris fjuam eqiios quirifabant : at nunc 
ciKiiii triumphorum pretiis parantiir et 
coi/uorum pisccs; Plin. ix, 17. R. 

27. ' You can purchase still larger 
estates in Apuliafor the money : landed 
property being at a discount in Italy, 
especiaily in the wilder parts of it ;' but 
s. ix, 55; HNN. agri suburbani tan- 
titm possidet, ifuantitm invidiose in de- 
sertis Appuliue possideret; Sen. 
Ep. 87; N. Q. v,17; Plin. xvii, 24; 
Gell. ii, 22; incipit montes Appulia 



168 



THE SATIKES 



SAT. IV. 



Quales tunc epulas ipsum glulisse putemus 
Endopcratorera, quum, tot sestertia, partera 
30 Exiguam et modicaj sumtam de margine coenae, 
Purpureus magni ructarit scurra Palati, 
Jam princeps equitum, magna qui voce solebat 
Vendere municipes fricta de merce siluros? 



noios ostcntare, f/uos torrct Atahulus ; 
Hor. S. i, 5, 77 f; VRA. nec tnntia 
unujuam siderum insetUt vapor siticii- 
loscB Appulia; E. 3, 15 f; \sed hahent 
Sicula arva minores, Ov. M. viii, 283. 
BB.] 

28. ' To have gorged.' Hence our 
word GLUTTON. He now attacks Do- 
mitian. 

29. Endoperators., 138 ; the obsolete 
poetical lorm of imperator (which is 
inadmissible in epic verse) used by En- 
nius and Lucretius : with evJo», the 
Greet for /«, prefixed. R. Impcrafor 
(1) in its simplest sense denotes ' the 
general of an armv,' administrator rei 
gerendcE; Cic. de'Or. i, 48, 210. (2) 
More emphatically it is ' a commander in 
ehief, who, upon a signal and important 
service, had this title conferred upon 
him by the acclamation of the sokliers 
or a decree of the senate.' This, both 
during the republic, {castella mtini- 
tissima, nocturno Pomptinii adventu, 
nostro mafutino, cepimus, incendimus : 
Im yieratores appellati snmus ; C ic. 
Ait. v, 20;) ard after. (Tiherius id 
guofjue Blceso irihud ut imperator a 
legionibus salutaretur, prisco erga duces 
hmore, qui bene gesta re publica et im- 
petu victoris exercitus conclamahantur ; 
Tac An. iii, 74; Cic. Phil. xiv, 4 f; 
Plin. Pan. 12; 5o.) Thus from the 
name of an of&ce, it became a title of 
dignity, which was not regularly ap- 
plied "unless a certain numbcr of the 
enemy were slain : (D. Cass. xxxvii, 
40.) Appian says 10,000. (B. C. ii, 
p m. 455.) And it was conferred but 
once in one war : Claudius, iu Lis war 
against Britaiu, " was repeatediy sa- 
iuted imperafor, though contrary to 
established rules." (D. Cass. Ix, 21.) 
This title was commonly expressed 
on their coins both under the re- 
public and after. (SN, diss. x, t. ii, 
p. 180 ff.) (3) Under J. Cfesar the 
word took a third signification, and im- 
plifid the chief civil authority, or what 
we understand by 'emperor.' (D. 



Cass. xliii, 44.) Imperafnr in this 
sense is prefixed to a name ; in the two 
other senses it is put after it: as Im- 
perator Ctesar Augustus; Liv. i, 19; 
and on the other hand M. Tullius Im- 
perator, as in tbe address of many of 
his letters. Recepit Julius praeno- 
7neu Tmperaforis,cognomen Pafris 
Patrice; Suet. i, 76. The setond sense 
was not destroyed by the third; for 
many emperorswere saluted as im- 
perafores iong after their accession. 
Octavian, for instance, had that com- 
pliment paid him upwards of twenty 
times. (Tac. A. i, 9;) TY, Civil Law, 
p. 30. s. CW, L. ix, p. [191 ; 201 ;] 
214 f; Livy xxvii, 19, 4. 

' So many sestertia,' i. e. ' a disb 
costing so many.' s. 16. PRA. 

30. ' If Crispinus devoured such an 
expensive disli, and that not a principal 
one, but merely a side-disli, and not at 
any great banquet, but at a quiet sup- 
per.' MAD. 

31. ' Purple.' s. i, 27; PRA. as 
eontrasted withiv, 24. MAD. 

The indigestions and crudities, gene- 
rated in the stomachs of those who feed 
on rich and high-seasoned dishes, occa- 
sion indigestion, flatulence, and nau- 
seous eructations. iii, 233. MAD. 

' The bufibon' used contemptLiously 
for ' courtier.' s. Mart. viii, 99. PRA. 
See the characters of the a^itrxoi, the 
KoXa^, and the (iaftoXo^o;- Arist. Eth. 
iv, 6 and 8. 

The words magni palati look very 
like a pun. HNN. 

32. Not ' l\Laster of the Horse,' but 
' first of the Equestrian order,' ' one of 
the illustrious knights :' (s. Tac. A. 
xi, 4 ; ii, 59 ; also vii, 89 ; x, 95 ; R. 
Liv. xlii, 61 ; and AD.) who by their 
fortune were eligible to the senatorial 
rank. L. E. s. Hor. Ep. iv, 15 f; iii, 
159. MAD. 

Magna voce vendcre ' to hawk about 
the streets.' MAD. Sen. Ep. 56. 
R. 

33. Municipes ' of the same borough- 



SAT. I\ 



OF JUVENAI.. 



\m 



Incipij, Calliope, licet et ctnisidoiv : noii cst 
35 Cantamluiu, res vera agitur. Nanatc, puclhc 
Piericles : ]irosit niihi, vos dixissc puellas ! 

(iuuni jani seniianiniuni hiceraret Fhivius orheni 
Cltiuuis et calvo serviret Roma Neroni ; 
Incidit Adriaci s])atium admirahile rlionihi 



town.' xiv, 271 ; •S3/. viz. Alexandria. 
Gell. xxvi, 13; PRA. s. 24. li. 

' Shads.' MAD. pisces fricti, ut 
diu d'/reiit, eoilem wo/iiento, quo fri- 
ffuiitiir et leraiitur, areto caliilo per- 
fiiiutuntiir; Apic. i, 11; [s. i?, on xiv, 
132.] The eured fish, which were im- 
ported from Ej^ypt, were much estecmed. 
Diod. i, 36; Luc. t. iii, p. 2-19. But 
this sort {Si^/ieilaii Niloticus) wa.s so 
cdmmon and cheap, that it was never 
boupht or sold but by the lower orders. 
MNS. 

34. He here ridicules the practice of 
invoking the Muses. RIG. Calliope 
presided over heroic verse : PRA. she 
waa also tr^»(fi^itra.rTt avariuf Hes. 
Th. 79; Sil. iii, 222; xii, 300; Vir^. 
JE. ix, 525. Thus ilomer Batr. 1 tt'; 
Hor. S. i, 5, 51 flf; R. [Vir. E. iii, 
5G; Aris. N. 464.] 

' We may be seated ; for the matter 
on the tapis will not be despatched in 
an instant.' MAD. See iii, 265, note. 

35. ' We have no poetical fictioD to 
deal with.' MAD. x, 178. R. 

36. Tiie Muses were called Pierides 
from Pieria, a districton the confines of 
Macedonia and Thessaly ; in which Ju- 
piter visited their mother Mnemosyne. 
Ov. M. vi, 114; MAD. Cic. de N. D. 
iii, 64 ; PRA. s. vii, 8, 60. R. 

Prosit nostris iu montiljus ortas ; 
Virg. JE. ix, 82. Sch. ' Let me ex- 
perience, in your patronage, the benefit 
of having paid this compliment to your 
ianocence and youth.' FAR. 

37. The date of this event is given 
with much precision in majestic verse. 
LUB. vi, 82; R. Virg. M. iv, 686, 
' Theworldlies atits lastgasp, bleeding 
under the fungs and talons of a ferocious 
tyrant.' 

The Flavian family was one of no 
distiuction before Vespasian's time ; 
Suet. X. 1. PRA. 

38. Domitian was the last of the 
Ca*sar8 also. L UB. Flavia ifens, r/uan- 
fum tibi tnrtiiis ulistulit heres ! peene 



fitit tatiti, non hahuisse ilifis ; Mart. 
Spect. xxxiii. Sch. Aiisonius has imi- 
tated this : /lact-nus eitiiieras doviinos, 
gens Flaria,justos : cur, i/iio (/uceitede- 
rant, tertius crlpuit :' ri.v tanti cst ha- 
buisse illos : c/uia dona botioruin siint 
breria ; ceteniuin, quce novuere, itolcnt ; 
vi, 17. 

Et Titus iinperiifelij; brevitatc ; se- 
ifuutus frnter,quem calvum dijcit suu 
Ronia Ncroncm; Aus. vi, 2, 11 f. 
T. Baldness was a very sore subject 
with theemperor; Suet. xii, 18; andwas 
considered a great dissight aniong the 
Ronians. Suet. i, 45. On tlie stage, 
it was one of tliedi«tingui?hing charac- 
teristics of parasites and other ridicuhius 
personages; R. and is still retained by 
the heroes of modern pantomime. 

' Was enslavcd.' Doniitian was the 
first to accppt the title of d omi iitts, 
to which servns is the relative terni, 
as iniles is to imperator, and civis to 
princeps. LUB. Suet. xii, 13. 

He is calied ' a second Nero' from 
his excessive cruelty. T. Suet. xii, 
10 f; 15. PRA. TIius iEneas was 
taunted as another Paris : Virg. M. iv, 
215. R. 

39. Parturiunt montes : nascetur 
ridicnlus mus; Hor. A. P. 139. PRA. 
This is ant)ther instruifc of periphrasis. 
spatium r/ioinbi (?» liaivoTv) for rhoinbus 
spatiosus, (i. e. ingens, as spatiosus 
taurus; Ov. R. A. 421 ; SM.) so also 
Crispi senectus; 81; Montnni venter; 
107; vini senectus; xiii,2U ; T/ialetis 
ingenium; ib. 184; Hcrrulrus Inbor; 
Hor. Od. i, 3, 36 ; virfus Catonis ; ib. 
iii, 21, 11; rirtus S ipiadee et mitis 
sapientia Lceli ; S. ii, 1, 72; nodosce 
pondera clavce; Sil. ii, 246; vis ele- 
phantorum ; Id. iv, 601 ; in imit;ition 
of the Hoiiiorio e:^pressiotis /3/» 'EXs>o/» 
or H^a.KX*i<iri, /ijov ftiti); 'AT^tiSaj», iiph 1( 
IriXifiaxiiOi iriivo; 'n^iuvo;, &.C. li. In 
English we say " Tho Queen's most 
excellent Majesty'' for the Queeu her- 
self. The expression in the text mav 



170 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. IV 



40 Ante domum Veiieris, quam Doiica sustiutJt Ancon, 
Iraplcvitque sinus : neque cnim minor lucscrat illis, 
Quos operit glacies Mseotica ruptaquc tandcm 
Solibus efiimdit torpentis ad ostia Ponti 
Desidia tardos ct longo frigore pingucs. 

45 Destinat hoc monstmm cymba) linique magistcr 
Pontifici summo. Quis enim proponere talem 
Aut emere auderet, quum plena et litora multo 
Delatore forent .'' Dispersi protenus algK 
Inquisitores agerent cum remige nudo, 



also be compared with avhi xifift,a fiiiy», 
Her. i, 36, [67 ;] iii, 130, ['l8 ;J vi, 43, 
[58 ;] vii, 188, [83.] 

Adriaco mirandtis litore r li o m hus; 
Ov. Hal. 125. Ravenna in the Adriatic 
was famous for its turbots, as Tarentum 
and the Lucrine lake for oysters, (s. 140 
ff;) the Tiber for pikes, Sicily for the 
mnrcEna, and Ehodes for the elops\ 
Plin. H. N. ix, 54 ; J?. ib. 20. PRA. 

40. The poet by being thus minute 
(as though ever}' particular was of the 
utmost importance) enhances the irony. 
MAD. 

Domus ' the temple ;' LUB. Virg. 
M. vi, 81; Prop. iii, 2, 18; s. Cat. 
xxxvi, 13. R. 

Ancona, in the Picenian territoij-, 
was founded by a colony of Syracusans 
(who were of D oric race) flying from 
the tyranny of Dionysius. FAR. It 
was named from a bend of the mountain 
whose promontorj' formed it;; harbour, 
resembling an e\how ayxcuv. Mel. ii, 
4; PRA. Plin. iii, 13. R. [Thus El- 
bogen on the Eger in Bohemia.] 

41. Jncidit (^in retia) iynpleiutqite 
simis ; a quotation from Yirgil, i mple- 
vitque sinum sangtiis; JE- x, 819. 
Sch. " Fiird the wide bosom of the 
bursting seine." GIF. sinus is used in 
asimilarsense, Mart. xiii, 100, 2; Grat. 
Cyn. 29 ; R. s. i, 88 ; FRA. 150 ; note 
on 45. 

42. Palus Meeotis now ' the Sea of 
Azof,' communicating with the Black 
Sea by the Strairs of Cnfa, R. [rr 
Enikalc. AW.'\ to» nayrov 'ivSa 'itrnt h 
MaiaiTi; Xtfnti tv » Taf 'x^^' a ^ of^ai- 
ourai, ohv nai ahrt) h Xif/.»] Maiuris evo- 
/ioi^iTai. Hipparch. «•. t. iji' ZcJh. HNN. 

43. • By the solarbeams.' GIF. 



Pojiti Euxini, Her. i, 6, [49.] 

44. Immenseshoals offisharecaugbt 
in the neighbourhood of Bvzantium. 
Tac. A. xii, 63 ; R. Strab. vii, p. 320 ; 
Arist.H. A.viii, 13; 16; xv, 10; Plin. 
ix, 15 s 20; Ambr. Hex. v, 10. L. 
itaque tempestate piscitim vis Ponto 
erupit: Sall. Sch. 

45. Monstrum see ii, 143. 

Linnm (1) ' flax' (2) ' string' (3) ' a 
net;' v, 102 ; sinuatum linum a ' land- 
ing net :' Sii. vii, 503. F. 

' The master of the bark and net;' 
another periphrasis. See Eur. Cvc. 86 ; 
^sch. P. 384 f;389. i«. 

46. All the emperors bore the title of 
' Chief Pontiff.' L UB. There may be 
an allusion here to the good living of 
the priests ; ponttficum potiore coenis ; 
Hor. Od. ii, 14, 28 : GRA. or to the 
discrepancy between the sanctity of the 
office and the viciousness of the per- 
son. GIF. 

Proponere M^nAeni^xi.dL venum. LUB. 

47. Et, ' not only the city, but even.' 
PRA. 

48. Delator, <ru*a^«»T»f. 

' So dispersed that uo place is secure 
from their of&ciousness.' 

' Inspectorsofsea-weed,'(athiDgpro- 
verbially worthless, /jrq/ec/a vilioralga ; 
Virg. E. vii, 42 ; PRA. Hor. S. ii, 5, 
8 ; J?.) put contemptuously for litoris 
marifimi inquisitorcs. They somewhat 
resembled those revenue-offtcers called 
' tide-waiters/ MAD. 

49. ' Would argae the matter;' or, 
understanding lege, ' Would contestthe 
point at law.' AD. 

Nudus may be taken metaphorically, 
and auxilio understood: s. vii, 35; R. 
Livy xxviii, 3, 6. 



SAT. IV 



OF JUVENAL. 



171 



50 Non dubitiiluri fugitivuni diccre })i.sc( in 
De])astuinque diu vivaria Caesaris, inde 
Elajisum, vctcreni ad doniinuni debcrc reverti. 
Si quid PalCurio, si crodinuis Arniillato, 
Quidquid conspicuum pulcrumque est jBquore toto, 

55 Res fisci est, ubicumquc nalat. Donabitur ergo, 
Ne percat. Jani letilbro ccdeutc ])ruinis 
Auctumno, jaui quarlanam sperantibus ajgiis, 
Stridcbat deformis liycms pricdamquo rccentem 
Scrvabat: tamcn hic i^roj^crat, velut urgeat Auster. 



50, ' Fellows who would not scruple 
to swear the fish was a stray.' Such 
were the oppressive measures used to 
fleecethe people, on the most proundless 
pretences, and yet under colour oflegal 
cbim. MAD. s. Suet. xii, 9 ; 12. R. 

51. Vivaria; iii, 308; Macr. iii, 13. 
PRA. 

53. Pnlftirius Sura had been a buf- 
foon and aparasiteat thecourtof Nero; 
for which Vespasian expelled him from 
the senate ; when he commenced Stoic, 
and talked (which Suetonius says he 
could do very eloquently, xii, 13 ;) of 
abstinence and virtue; till Domitian, 
whowantedlittle otherrecommendation 
of a man, than the having justly in- 
curred the contempt and anger of his 
father, made him his owii attorney- 
general, in which office he aequicted 
himself most egregiously. GIF. Sch. 
PRA. See vii, 80, note on Sa/eitts. 

Armillatits was another sycophant of 
much the same stamp. Sch.' 

64. By the law.s of England, whale 
and sturgeon are called royal fish, be- 
cause they belong to the king, on ac- 
count of their excellence, as part of hi.s 
ordinary revenue, in consideration of 
his protecting the seas from pirates and 
robbers. Blackst. Com. (4to) p. 290. 
MAD. " Hath notstrongrcason moved 
the legist's minde, Tosay,the fayrest of 
all nature's kinde The prince, by his 
prerogative, may clayme .'"' Marston. 
GIF. 

55. ' Istheproperty of theexchequer.' 
GV. 

' If such be the law, we will make 
a merit of necessity, and present every 
choice tish to the emperor, lest we lose 
both that and our labour.' HET. 

5fi. Acutc and ' fatal' diaeases ;irp 



frequent in ' autumn,' especially in 
Italy and during the prevaience of 
southerly winds. Hipp. Aph. iii, 9; 
Gaien; PRJ. vi, 517; Plin. ii, 48; 
Virg. G. iii, 478 ff; Hor. Od. ii, 14, 
15 f; iii, 23, 8; S. ii, 6, 18 f; Pers. 
vi, 13; R. [Livy iii,6, c.] 

' Giviug place to.' ii^iiirriP>i7s x'"^"' 
m; iK;(^a^euffif ivxA^ru 4i^ir Soph. Aj. 
iil^. K. 

' Hoar-frosts,' for ' wiuter;' Virg. 
G. i, 230. JR. 

67. Sperantihus may be either ()) 
taken by the figure catachresis for 
timentibtis. LUB. Or (2) *perare may 
be considered as a generic term includ- 
ingo/>/ar<?and titnere. MAD.s.^Vng.M. 
i, 543 ; iv, 419; xi, 275; V.Flac. iii,295; 
Herodian, i, 3, 11. R. See notes on 
iX-xirai- Her. i, 77, [65 ;■) iii, 62, [2;] 
and on i>.Ti)/ia.i' vi, 109, [100.] Or (3) 
wemay translate it ' hoping(Hor. Od. 
ii, 10, 13 ;) that the fever will become 
intermittent.' 7iam qtiartana neininem 
jtiijulat ; sed si ex ea facta (/uotiiliana 
est, in nialis ager est; Cels. Med. iii, 
16. Tn accordance with which is tbe 
Italian proverb " Febre (luartana No 
fa sonare cainpana." FV. lilG. GRA. 
s. Cic. Ep. xvi, 11 pr. R. 

58. Stridere is properly applied to a 
stormy wind. Cic. T. Q. i, 68; PRA. 
stridcns aqtiilone procella ; Virg. JE, i, 
102. 

litformcs hyeines; Hor. Od. ii, 10, 

15. Lun. 

Rerentem : another reason why it 
would keep. 

69. Hic ' the fisherman.' PRA. 

Tlie south-wind is very unfavourable 
for the keeping of either nieat or fish. 
Gal. Aph. iii, 5; PRA. xiv, 130; 
Hor. S. ii, 2, 41 f. R. 



17-2 



THK SATIRES 



SAT. IV. 



60 Utquo lacus subcrant, ubi, quamquani dirula, servat 
Ignem Trojanum et Vestam colit Alba minorem, 
Obstitit intranti miratrix turba parumper. 
Ut cessit, facili patuerunt cardine valvit). 
Exclusi spcctant admissa opsonia Patres. 

()5 Itnr ad Atridem. Tum Picens " Accipe" dixit 
" Privatis niajora focis: genialis agatur 
Iste dies, propera stomachum laxare saginis 



60. Subemnt ' were near at hand.' 
Horace also uses tlie j)!ural ; Albanos 
j)roj)e te laci/s ; Od. iv, I, 19 f. MAD. 
^ow ' Lago di Castel Gandolfo.' Liv. 
V, 15 ff; Cie. Div. i, 41 ; pro Mil. 31 ; 
Virg. JE. ix, 38/. 11. 

' Demolisfied,' with the excpption of 
the temples, by Tullus Hostilins. Liv. 
i, 29. FRA. 

(31. Alba Longa, the favourite re- 
sidence of Domitian, stood on the de- 
clivity of a hill near a lake which was 
famous in Roman story. It was built 
by Ascanius, (xii, 70 if; Virg. .■'E. iii, 
390 ff; viii, 43 ff;) and there the 
Troj ans deposi ted the sacred fire brought 
from Ilium. "When the city was de- 
stroyed, and Ilome became the capital 
of the nation, a remnant of the Vestal 
fire was still left there, from some su- 
perstitious motive, and piousiy preserved 
through all the vicissitudes of the com- 
monwealth. Liv. i, 3 ; 2.5 ; 29 ff. Here 
Domitian usually kept tbe Quinqua- 
tria, iii lionour of Minerva his tutelary 
deitv ; and here he often convened the 
senate. GIF.PRA. MJD.U5; Plin. 
Ep. iv, 11, 6; Tac. Ag. 45; Suet. xii, 
4 ; 19 ; Stat, S. iv, 2, 18 ff ; 62 ff ; Virg. 
.E. ii, 293. R. 

' The lesser Vesta,' in eomparison 
wich the splendour of her temple and 
worship in Rome. Sch. 

62. Thus furba saltitatrix \ v, 21. 
R. 

63. ' As the crowd made way.' 
MAD. 

Janua (/ucb facilis movebat car- 
ftines; Hor. Od. i, 25, 4 ff. MAD. 
Opposed to this {■s.Janitor^ diffi cilem 
moto cnrdine pande forem ; Ov. Am. i, 
6, 1 f. Valvce are the same as duplices 
fores; ib. viii,22; whence the expres- 
sions Junffe ostia; ix, 105; and 
/M nctar fenesfrrr ; Hor. Od. i, 25, 1 . 



64. " The senators, shut out, behold 
The envied dainty enter." GIF. JC. 
This intimates the haughty arrogance 
ofDomitian. HEI. 

'O-^iivii») was applied to ' fish' in par- 
tieular; see Ath. vii, 1. jR. 

6o. Ifur used impersonally as sur- 
gitnr; 144; JVf^£>. iii, 235, note ; vii, 
82; Ilor. S. i, 1,7. 

The eraperor is called Atrides from 
his reseniblance in imperiousness to the 
generalissimo of the Greeks. Hom. II. 
A; Suet. xii, 13; R. s. x, 84 ; DO. 
i, 61 f, 

' The fisher of Picenum,' Sch. might 
bave found a precedent for his conduct 
in Herodotus, (iii, 42 ;) who gives an 
account of a very fine fish which was 
taken and brought to Polycrates the 
tyrant of Samos. The presentation 
speech is preserved by the historian ; 
it is very civil, as might be expected, 
but far short of this before us. He- 
rodntus adds that Polycrates invited 
the fisherman to sup with him: a trait 
of politeness which, we may be pretty 
confident, Domitian did not think it 
necessary to imitate. GIF. 

G6. ' Greater than (i. e. too great for) 
private kitchens;' MAD. s. vi, 114; 
not to mention the delicacv of the fish 
itself; 39; Hor. S. i, 2, 115 f; Pers. 
vi, 23. R. 

Genialis; Pers. ii, 1-3; PRA. Hor. 
Od. iii, 17, 13ft". MAD. 

67. ' Loseno time in expandingyour 
stomach for the receptioo of these deli- 
cacies ;' L UB. or ' in releasing it from 
the dainties with which it is now 
loaded.' This relief was usually ob- 
tained by emetics. MAD. Ghittons 
sometimes adopted thi« expedient after 
a first or second course to prepare 
themselves for the next. ACH. [ii, 
33;] Suet. ix, 13; Livy xxiii, 20, 
e. [" A modern eminent writer tells 



SAT. IV, 



Ol' JUVENAL. 



17i 



Kt tua servatinn consuinc in sivcula rlionjbuni. 
Ipso capi voluil." Quid apertius ? Et tamcn Illi 
70 SurfTcbant crist;e : nihil est, quod crederc de se 
Non possit, quuni laudatur dis tcqua potestas. 
Sed derat pisci patina) raensura. Vocaptur 
Ergo in consilium proceres, quos oderat Ille ; 



us that ' When Cccsar went to the 
public feasts, he constantly took a vomit 
in the morninp, with a design to indulge 
him-^elf with more keenncsjs, and to en- 
crease his appetite for the ensuing 
feast.' The fact is true; but I woiild 
willinply beiieve the inference unjust. 
It is more than prohable that he prac- 
tised this custom by the advice of his 
physiciaus, who might direct such a 
regimen as the most certain and im- 
mediate preservation against epileptic 
fits, to which the dictator was often 
liable. My honoured father (who was 
excelled by few physicians in the theory 
of physic) ha.s often told me that those 
kind of convulsions were of such a 
nature a-s gencrally to come on after 
earing, and more violently if the stomach 
was overloaded. Csesar was so careful 
in observing a decent dignity in his be- 
haviour, that he dreaded the shame of 
exposing publiciy this weakness in his 
constitution, and therefore guarded 
against it in a prudent manner, which 
hassincebeen construed into a reproach. 
This surmise rests upon the stronger 
foundation ; as all authors agree, that 
he was most strii tly and rcmarkahly 
abstemious;'' J. Earlof Orrery, L.xiii, 
p. 1G3 f.] I am credibly informed that 
a celcbrated gourmand in London prac- 
tised the very same means, after an 
early civic feast, to prepare himself 
for a fa.'ihionable dinner at ' tlie west 
end.' 

68. ScBculum is repeatedly used by 
the writers about this time, especially 
the younger Pliny, to signity ' the 
reign.' HEI. 

69. It is surprising that any man of 
sense should have introduced such an 
absurd idea into serious poetry ; and 
yet Claudian has something not unlike 
it in some high-flown Alcaics on the 
marriage of Honorius and Maria; x, 
13-1.5. Jonson too, whose learning often 
gnt the hetter of his judgemrnt and he- 
rrayed him into absurditics, has cx- 



panded the thought thus : " Fat aged 
carps,that run into thy net, And pikes, 
now weary their own kind to eat, As 
loth the second drauffht or cast to stay, 
OiViciously at first themseives betray;" 
Forest, ii,'2. GIF. 

' What (lattery was ever more grossly 
palpable?' LUB. Illi see 73; iii, 
2G4. 

70. The metaphor is takcn from a 
bird, which, when proud and pleased, 
' cocks and struts and plumes itself ;' 
MAD. as the contrary is expressed by 
the word cuest-fallen. 

' Nothing is too fulsome to be cre- 
dited.' MAD. [Rambler No. 104. 
Compare the well-known anecdote uf 
Canute; Hume H. of E. 1028 f.] 

71. Sueh was the impious vanity of 
many heathen princes ; Caligula, (Suet. 
iv, 22 ;) Aurelian, Carus, Diocletian, 
Antiochus,andmanyeasternsovereigns, 
(Curt. viii, 5 ;) Alexander of Macedoo, 
(Just. xi ; xii. " With ravish'd ears 
The monarch hears, Assumes the god, 
Affects to nod, And seems to shake the 
spheres;" Z)i?F, Alex. Feast, [ii, 17 
ff.] MAD.) Domitian styled himself 
dominus et deus; Suet. xii, 13; 
Mart. V, 8, 1 ; s. Eutr. ix, 16; Aurel. 
Vict. de Ca^s. 39 ; Sen. Ep. 59, m ; 
PRA. R. Daniel vi, 12; Acts xii, 
21-23. " O what is it ptoud slime will 
not belicve Of his own worth, to hear 
it equal praised Thus with the gods?" 
Jonson, Sejanus, [act i.] GIF. 

72. Quamvis lata gerat patella rlwm- 
hum, rlwmbus tatior est tamen patelta; 
Mart. xiii, 81. PRA. 

73. There cannot be a stronger in- 
stance of the capricious insolence witli 
which the tyrants of Eome treated the 
servile and degenerate senate, than 
their being summoned on this paltry 
occasion. LUB. s. Sil. i, 609; Liv. 
ix, 1 7. R- There is an anecdote of 
Nero, wortliy, in every respect, to be 
jilaced by the side of that in tbe text. 
One dHv, wliilc the empire was in a 



174 



TIIE SATJRES 



SAT. IV 



In quorum facie miseiae magna^que sedebat 
75 Pallor amicitia. Primus, clamante Liburno 
" Curritc ! jam sedit !" rapta properabat abolla 
Pegasus, adtonitaj positus modo villicus Urbi. 
Anne aliud tunc Prajfecti ? quorum optimus atque 
Tnterpres legum sanctissimus, omnia quamquam 
80 Teraporibus diris tractanda putabat incrmi 



state of revoltjhe convened the senators 
in haste. And, when they were breath- 
less with apprehension of sonie alarm- 
ing communipation, his speecli from the 
throne was this, "'E|Euj>)»a cr&if h v&^av- 
X)s xai ft,uZ,<>\i xa,) ifAfAiXiffTi^av (pSiy^irai. 
GIF. 

' He hated them, from a conscious- 
ness of those feelings witb which they 
could not but regard him.' MAD. ra 
[Mffo; xa) fQOs ra yivvi, f/.i(rit ya^ t^v 
ff-j/Ats^avTJi» ixaaros xa) thu xaxusai \^i%- 
ra.1 xa) firi litai (iouXirai, ov fiKriT Alist. 
Kh. ii, 5, 3. 

74. ' Paleness betraying fear.' L UB. 
.«. Suet. xii, 11 ; and i, 33; PRA. Ov. 
M.ii,776; Tr. iii, 9, 18. R. <polii^d.i/rTiv 
eayij ^uvafiivojv 'XoiUt ti' xa) aiixia Suna- 
f/,iv i^ouaa xa) To l^r' aXXai iivai xai 
01 'TT^aoi xai ii^avit xa) Travou^yoi, aS>j>.a/ 
yd^' Arist. Kh. ii, G, 2 1. 

/o. ' The crier of the court making 
proclamation.' BR. s. iii,240; BIAD. 
Liv. iii, 38; iv, 32; xxxvi, 3; Tac. 
An. ii, 28. R. 

76. ' He has taken his seat.' LUB. 
' Suatching up his cloak.' iii, 115. 

GRA. pahnata insignis aboUa: Prud. 
c. Sym. Ep. i, 20. PRA. Juvenal 
ridieules this Stoic (mostof the lawyers 
were of this sect) for being the first to 
run, in such trepidation, at the earliest 
summons, to wait on his lord and 
master; whereas the disciples of Zeno 
boasted themselves to be iree, and kings, 
and professed to be imperturbable. s. 
Hor. Od.iii,3, l fif. HEI. 

77. Pegasus was a man of such great 
learning that he was called a ' B o ok ;' 
a most profound lavvyer, and an upright 
and worthy magistrate ; he had filled 
the office of consul, had presided over 
manv of the provinces with honour to 
hiraself and satisfaction to the people; 
and was appointed prefect of the city 
bv Vespasian. He is said to liave been 
named after the ship of his father, who 



was triertirch of a Liburnian galley. 
Sch. 

Besides the Dacians, who now kept 
the city ' in a constant state of alarm,' 
the Catti, the Sygambri, and other bar- 
barous nations, were on the eve of com- 
mencing liostilities 147. GIF. Or 
' stupified as one thunderstruck.' FRA. 

Positus for prcejjositus. R. 

Modo s. nuper; ii, 160. MNS. 

By the term ' bailiff ' we are given 
to understand that the emperors re- 
garded Eome as nothing but a large 
farm, and the citizens as no better than 
so many menials and labourers. MNS. 
s. iii, 195. R. V illicus cerari guon- 
dain, nunc cultor agelli ; Tib. Priap. 
81 ; SM. does not prove tliat villicus 
was synonymous with prafectus, as it 
is evidently used metaphorically and by 
way of antitbesis. 

78. Tunc ' in those days,' i.e. under 
the Flavian familv. Ml^S. s. Suet. x, 
16. R. 

' Prefects of the city' were appointed 
by E.omulus, and existed both under 
the regal and the consular government. 
Eut their authority was .so enlarged by 
Augustus, that he may be almost con- 
sidered as having instituted them. In 
this he is said to have arted by the ad- 
vice of Mfecenas, on whom he first 
conferred the office : and the choice of 
those whom he afterwards appointed to 
it shows his opinion of its importance. 
The jurisdiction of the prefect was now 
extended a hundred miles beyond the 
walls. He decided in all causes be- 
tween masters and slaves, patrons and 
clients, guardians and wards, &c: he 
had the inspection of the mints, the 
regulation of the markets, and the su- 
perintendence of the public amusements. 
GIF. 

80. ' He was a time-server, not 
daring to wield the sword of Justiee 
with vigour ; for since it was impossible 



J 



SAT. IV. 



OF Jr\KNAL. 



175 



Justilia. Veuit et Crispi jiicuuda seneclus, 
Cuju.s orant niorcs, qualis fac-undiaj mite 
Ingeniuni. Maria ac terras ])opulosque regenti 
Quis comes utilior, si clade et pestc sub illa 

85 Sajvitiam damnarc et lionestum aflerre liceret 
Consiliura ? Sed quid violenlius aure tyranni, 
Cum quo de pluviis aut aestibus aut nimboso 
Vere loquuturi falum pendebat aniici } 
Ille igitur numquam direxit brachia contra 

90 Torrentem, nec civis erat, qui libera posset 
Verba animi prolevre et vitam impendere vero. 
Sic nudtas hycmcs atque octogcsima vidit 
Solstitia, his armis illa quoque tutus in aula. 
Proximus ejusdem properabat Acilius aevi 



to punish the greater criminals, he 
thought it but fair to coDnive at petty 
oflFenders.' FAR. 

Justiee is frequently represented on 
Eoman coins ' unarmed,' with a shallow 
goblet (jiafera) in one hand and a 
sceptre in the other. R. 

81. Vil/ii/s Crispus Plarentinus was 
another worthy but cautions man. One 
of his good sayings is preserved by Sue- 
tonius: Domitianus intcr initia princi- 
patus, quotif/ie secretum sihi horarium 
sumere solehat^ nec (juiilquain ainplius, 
quam muscas captare, nc stilo prceacuto 
configere ; ut cuitlam interroganti ' es- 
setne quis inttis cum Casaref' non ab- 
surde responsum sit a Vibio Crispo ' ne 
m u sca qu idem;' xii, 3 ; [104, note.] 
FA R. Vibius Crispus, compositus e tj u- 
cund u s, atque delectatione natus, pri- 
vatis tamen causis quam pnhlicis niclior ; 
Quint. X, 1; PRA. Id. v, 13; vi, 2; 
xii, 11 ; Tac. de Or. S ; 13; An. xiv, 
28; H. ii, 10; iv, 41 ; 43. R. htmina 
Ncstorei mitis prudcntia Crispi et 
Fabius Veiento: potenteinsignat utrum- 
que purpura ; ter memores implerunt 
nominej'astos,etprope Ccesarei confinis 
Acilius aulce; Statius. V. For the 
periphrasi.s s. .'39; vii, 35; x, 75. R. 
/i{«» fiit»f 'AXxivotie' Hom. Od. H 167; 
FAR. [Her. iii, 36, 77-1 

83. ' To the emperor.' LUB. 

84. Understand fuisset. 
Scipiadee, clades Libi/<B\ Virg. 

M. vi, 844. 

85. See Suet. xii 10-12. R. 



86. Tt is dangerous teneras mordaci 
radere vero auriculas; Pers. i, 107. 
PRA. " Tyrants' ears, alas, are tick- 
lish things."" GIF. 

88. ' Was r;t =tnl;o ' 7?. 

89. Kai^if XciT^iuM ficrih' ammu* 
unftoiffi. LUB. " As Sherlock atTem- 
ple was taking a boat, The waterman 
ask'd liim which way hewould float. 
' Whichway .P' quoth the Doctor, ' \ou 
fool, with the stream!' To PauFs, 
or to Lambeth, 'twas all one to him." 
obseqtcio tranantur aqu<B nec vincere 
possis fiu/nina, si contra, quam rapit 

undn. natcs; Ov. A. A. ii, 180 f; 
[/K« fiiec^eu pev¥ •reTafieu Ecclesiasticus 
iv, 26.] 

91. ' To devote his life to the cause 
oftruth.' LUB. 

92. Octoginta solstitia would be 
but fort y years. PRA. 

93. Solsfitium is generally put for 
the summer solstice.' luimida sol- 
stitia atque hye/nesorate serenas; Virg. 
G. i, 100. R. 

His armis ' by the temporizing arts 
of dissimulation, taciturnity, and ob- 
sequiousness.' LUB. 

' Even iii that court : Ihe court of 
a Nero and a Domitian!' LUB. 

94. Acilius Qlahrio, tbe father, was 
of consular dignity and a man singulari 
prudenfia etfide; Plin. Ep. i, 14. LUB. 
He was banished subsequently to this, 
and then put to death for high treason. 
Suet.xii, \V>.1'RA. Unlessthesewords 
refer rather to Domitius the son. R. 



176 



THE SATIRES 



.SAT. IV. 



95 Cum juvene, indigno, quem mors tam sieva maneret 
Et domini gladiis tam ibstinata: sed olim 
Prodigio par est in nobilitale senectus; 
Unde fit, ut malim fraterculus esse gigantis. 
Profuit ergo nihil niisero, quod cominus ursos 
]00 Figebat Numidas, Albana nudus arena 

Venator. Quis enim jam non intelligat artes 
Patricias ? Quis priscum illud miretur acumen, 
lirute, tuuui ? Facile est barbato imponere regi. 
Nec melior vultu, quamvis ignobilis, ibat 



95. Who this }'oungr raan was, is 
doubtful. Dio gives an account of one 
Aciliiis Glabrio, who was put to dealh 
by Domitian for impiety (attachment 
to ' Jewish customs,' perhaps Chris- 
tianity), and because he had fought in 
the arena: for when he was consul 
(Trajan was his coUeague, and they 
were both young at the time,) Domitian 
sent for him to Alba and compelled 
him to engage a lioa at the celebration 
ofthe Juvenilia: he killed the beast ; 
and, some time after, the tyrant put 
him to death, through envy of the ap- 
plause he had then obtained ; Ixvii, 13. 
GIF. R. 

96. Domini s. 71. 

Olim ' long since.' MAD. 

97. Preedictiones vero ct prcesen- 
siones rerum futiirarum quiil aliud 

' declarant., nisi hominihus ea quee sint, 
ostendi, monsfrari, portendi, prae- 
dici? ex quo illa ostenta, monstra, 
portenta, prodis ia dicxntur? Cic. 
N. D. ii, 3; Div.^i, 42. PRA. 

See note on d^lirroitri- Her. iii, 80, 
[40;] that chapter gives a very exact 
portraiture of the Eoman tyrant. 

98. The giants {■yfjyinTs) were fa- 
bled to be the sons of Titan and Terra; 
' their younger brother' therefore would 
be Terrce filius; an obscure man whose 
parents werc unknown, and who might 
seera (like a mushroom) to owe his 
origin to the Earth. LUB. Pers. vi, 
57 ff. PRA. ' Their 1 i t tl e brother,' 
otherwise I might still chance to incur 
notice. R. jure perhorrui late conspi- 
cmim tollere verticein; Hor. Od. iii, 16, 
18 f. 

99. Suet. xii, 4; 19. PR<4. Under- 
stand,///f'e«/'. LUB. Menofrank^ and 



even women, entered the arena, either 
voluntarily or by compulsion, (see 95, 
note) for the emperor's aniusement ; ii, 
143 ff; viii, 192 ff; i, 22 ff. R. 

100. ' Numidian bears ;' (seenote on 
' Tuscan boars ;' i, 22 f;) horridas 
pelle Lihystidis ursce; Virg. JE. v, 
37; Herod. iv, 191; (WE.) Mart. i, 
105, 5; Solin. 29; Strab. Pliny denies 
that there are bears in Africa ; viii, 36 ; 
58. L. But there are weighty autho- 
rities against him. SM. Dr Shaw 
mentions the b e a r, as one of the 
animals indigenous to Africa: Travels, 
p. 177. LR. 

Ni/dus s. i, 23; and ii, 71 ; where 
it is mentioned as an indication of in- 
sanity. 

101. ' "Who would not now be aiive 
to the arts of patricians ?' LUB. 

102. ' Primitive; which would not 
pass current in the preseat day.' LUB. 

103. Liv. i, 56. PRA. ' It is no 
such hard matter to guU a king with 
far more beard than brains.' GIF. It 
was 444 years before barbers weie in- 
troduced into the city. Theyfirst came 
from Sicily. Varr. E.. R. ii, ult. Plin. 
vii, 59 ; Gell. iii, 4 ; Pers. iv, 1. PRA. 
Long before the days of Brutus, we 
have an instance of a like device, by 
which David saved himself at the court 
of Achish king of Gath ; i Samuel xxi, 
10-15; MAD. vi, 105; xvi, 29. R. 
[Phgs. iv. 8, 10.] Men were in those 
days lurJiT; . 

i04. ' Equally pale.' LUB. s. 75. 
MA D. 

' Though ignoble:' for it must be 
remenibertd that this lord of the world 
did not consider it derogatory to his 
dignity to impale flies on a bodkin. 



SAT. IV. 



OF .H Vl':\Al.. 



177 



105 Kubrius, oflensas veteris rein utiiue lacende 
Et tamon inipiobior satirani .scribente cin.cdo. 
Montani (luo^iuc vcnlcr adcst abdoniine tardus, 
Et matutino sudans Crispiiuis anionio, 
Quantum vix rcdolent duo funcra; sjcviov illn 

110 Pompcius tenui jugulos apcrire susurro, 
Et, qui vulturibus servabat viscera Dacis, 
Fuscus, marniorca mcdilatus prcclia villa, 
Et cum mortifcro prudcns \'ciento Catullo, 



105. Of Riibrhis and his ' namele>.s 
ofFence' nothing certain is known. 

106. ' More lost to shaine than the 
pathic satirist,' hail beconie proverbial. 
GES. 8. xiv, 30; Mart. vi, 39, 12; 
Plaut. Aul. iii, 2, 8; MNS. ii, 27; 
Romans ii, 21 tf. For improbtis see iii, 
282. 

107. Ciirfius Monfanus, (whose un- 
wieliily paunch prepares us for the 
proniinent part which he is to bear in 
the debate, GIF.) is raentioned xi, 
34 ; Tac. A. xvi, 28 f ; 33 ; H. iv, 40. 
PRA. But the name of Montanus, 
was a verv common one. R. 

108. See 1 ff; LUB. i, 26 ff. R. 

' Moming' has a twofold sense ' ori- 
ental' aud ' early in the day.' HOL. 
Sch. It showfed the height of volup- 
tuousness to have bathed and anointed 
at such an untimely hour instead of in 
the aftenioon. PRA. Authority is 
wanting for the word's being used to 
signify ' eaiitern.' MAD. Eurus ad 
Auroram Nubafaeaqiie regna rccessit 
Persidaque et radiisjuga subdita ?na- 
tufinis: Vesper et occiduo quee 
lifora sole tepescunf, proxima sunt 
Zephyro; Ov. M. i, 61 ff; is not con- 
clusive. The corresponding Grcek 
word rio~ii or \ifot, however, has the 
double meaning. pallidus eoo tliure 
((uod ignis olef; Mart. iii, 65, 8. 

The amomum (Plin. xiii, 1 ;) is an 
Assyrian shrub with a white flower, of 
which a very costlv perfume was raade. 
LVB. Virg. E. iii', 89 ; iv, 25. [(//V.)] 
R. The precise plant is not ascertained : 
amomiim is the Linnsean name for ' the 
ginger.'^ 

109. This perfume was one of the 
ingredients used in embalming. LUB. 
It was also the practice to place a large 
quantity of aromatics witli fhe body on 



a funeral pile. FAR. Pers. vi, 35 ff; 
l'RA. St Matthew xxvi, 12. It was 
originally an eastern custom. MAD. 
See KI, de Fun. Bom. iii, 5 ; R. vii, 
208, note. 

110. Of Pompeius nothing further is 
known. R, 

Scevior aperire is a Grecism ; FAR. 
as gucelibet in f/uemvis opprobriajingere 
sccvus; Hor. Ep. i, 15, 30; R. [and 
often in Persius.J 

Jugulus aperire ' to cut meu 's throats.' 
(see note on iii, 36.) The noun has both 
a neuter and a ma^iculine form. FAR. 

Hence Pliny has insidiantes susurri; 
Pan. 62 ; R. s. iii, 122 ff. 

111. Corn. FuscHS was slain with a 
great part of his army in an expedition 
against the Dacians, Sch. or Catti, 
which Domitian had eutrusted him 
with. Suet. xii, 6 ; Tae. H. ii, 86 ; iii, 
4; 12; 24; 66;iv,4; Eutr. vii, [24;] 
PRA. Diolxviii,9. R. 

' Yultures' are said to resort to a 
spot, where slaughter is to take place, 
two or three davs beforehand ! Plin. 
X, C; Plut. M. XX, 93. PRA. ' The 
entrails' are the parrs which these 
birds most eagcrly devour. FAR. s. 
Joh xxxix, 27 ff; St Matthew xxiv, 
28; St Luke xvii, 37. 

' The obsequiousness, by which he 
contrived to prolong his days, served 
but to fatten him for vidture's food.' R. 

Dacia comprehended ibe inodern 
provinces of Transylvania, Moldavia, 
and Wallachia. PRA. 

112. ' Studied the art of war (vii, 
128;) in .i marble viiJa, and not iii a 
tent of skins.' PRA. 

113. Fabricius Vciento: s. iii, 185; 
vi, 113. His wife Hippia elopcd with 
Sergius a gladiator. vi, 82. Hotii lie 
and Catullus were of coiisular iligiiity. 



•2 A 



178 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. IV. 



Qui numquam visae (lagiabat ainoic piiclliw, 
1 15 Grandc etconspicuum nostro quoque tonq^ore monstrum ! 
Cajcus atlulator dirusquo a i^ontc satulles, 
Diguus, Aricinos qui mendicaret ad axes 
Blandaque devexaj jactaret basia reda?. 



His shrewdness was shown by ac- 
commodating himself to the tyrannical 
caprices of Domitian. FAR. In the 
reign of Nero he was banished for pub- 
lishing a jeu d'esprit, which he called 
' Codicils ofpersons deceased,' in which 
he had libelled senators, and priests, 
and even the emperor himself. LUB. 
Tac. A. xiv, 50. (L.) PRA. He was 
' prudent' enough to obtain the good 
grace of Nerva likewise. \Vhen that 
prince was supping with a small party, 
Veiento lay in his bosom. The conver- 
sation having turned on the enormities 
of Catullus, the emperor exclaimed, " I 
wonder what would be his fate, were 
he now alive ?" " His fate," replied 
Junius Mauricus, (casting his eyes on 
Veiento, who was little less criminal 
than Catullus,) " his fate," replied he, 
with the dauntless spirit of an old Ro- 
man, " would be — to sup with us." 
GIF. Plin. Ep. iv, 22 ; ix, 13. K. 

Catiillus Mes*(7//«»shad well earned 
the epithet here given him : Imninibus 
capfiis, ingenio s^bvo mala ccecitatis ad- 
diderat ; non verehatur, non ernhescehat , 
non miserehatur : quo a Domitiano non 
secus ac tela., qucs et ipsa cceca et im- 
provida feru)itur., in optimum quemque 
contorquchatur ; Plin. Ep. iv, 22 ; 
FAR. D. Cass. Ixvii; Josepb. B. J. 
p. 996 f ; Tac. Ag. 45. 7?. His death 
may be added to the innumerable in- 
stances of retribution which " vindicate 
the wajs of God to man.'' He was 
afflicted with an incarahle disease, 
attended by the most excruciating and 
unremitting torture : yet the agonies of 
his body were perfect ease, compared to 
those of bis mind. He was constantly 
haunted with ihe thoughts of his past 
cruelties ; the ghosts of those he had 
accused seemed ever before him, and 
he iised to leap fiom his bed with the 
most dreadful shrieks, as if avenging 
dames had already seized upon it. 
Wom out at length by his mental 
sufferings, he expired one livid mass of 
putrefaction ! GIF. s. Her. iv, 205. 



[Hooker, E. P. vi, 6, 43; and com- 
pare the account of Judas Iscariofs 
death in Papias : CR^ Cat. Act. p. 
12.] 

114. Thus forming an exception to 
the proverb : Ik tov ojSv ylytirai tc tgSt». 
LUB. Mart. viii, 49. R. 

1 15. Monstrum liorrendum, infomie, 
ingens, cui lumen ademptum', Virg. 
M. iv, 658. 

' Even in our time, when they are .so 
rife.' LUB. 

1 16. Hewasprobably notquiteblind: 
otherwise his praise of the turbot could 
not have pleased the tyrant. ACH. 

' Raised from a beggar's station on 
some bridge to be the accursed minister 
of cruelty.' MAD. xiv, 134. Thus sa- 
telles audacice, potestatis, scelerum, 
&)'c. Cic. Cat. i, 3; Agr. ii, 13; Prov. 
3; Quint. 25. R. Unless these words 
are rather to be connected with the 
following : dignusque qui dirus ^-c. 
' the importunate sentry of the bridge.' 
PRA. s. V, 8. 

117. The Aricine hill, without the 
city gate on the Appian road, swarmed 
with beggars, particularly Jews ; Sch. 
iii, 296 ; so as to become proverbial for 
it : mutti Manii Aricice. s. Pers. vi, 
56; Mart. ii, 19, 3: xii, 32, 10. R. 
As the carriages went slowly down hill, 
they were the more exposed to the im- 
portunities of mendicants. T. The mo- 
dern name of Aricia (Hor. S. i, 5, 1 ; 
MAD.) is ' la Riccia,' PRA. or 
' Nemi.' R. 

118. ' To throw his complimentary 
kisses to the ladies, as they rode in 
their chariots down the hill,' Sch. ' by 
kissing his hand.' SM. iii, 106 ; MAD. 
vi, 584 ; Apul. Met. iv, p. 83 ; D. Cass. 
xliv, 8 ; Luc. de Salt. 17 ; Tac. H. i, 
36; Plin. xxviii, 2; Job xxxi, 27; 
Hosea xiii, 2. Whence the expression 
adorare. R. Livy xxx, 16 f. ED. 
' Instead of presuming, as now, to ap- 
proach their lips ; too good to be con- 
taminated by such ablind and lecherous 
olddotard.'"ll4. PR.4. 



SAT. IV 



OF JUVENAL. 



170 



Neino magis rliombiini slupuit : nuui j)lurini;i dixil 
I?() In huvam convorsus ; ;it illi dextra jacebat 
IJelua. Sic pugnas Cilicis laudabat et iclus, 
Et pegma et pueros inde ad velaria raptos. 
Non cedit \'eiento, sed, ut fanaticus cestro 
Percussus, Btllona, tuo, divinat et " Ingens 
1'25 Omen habes" inquit '' niagni claiiqne triumphi : 
Regem alicjuem capics, aut de temone Britanno 
Excidet Arviragus : peregrina est belua: cernis 



lli>. ' Professed more astonishment 
and admiration.' MAD. s. xiii, IG ; 
164; Sil. V, 202. R. 

121. ' Theenormous fish.' LUB. 

' In like manner,' i.e. without seeing 
them. LVB. 

' Of tbe Cilician gladiator ;' LUB. 
who was a favourite with Domitian. 
MAD. 

122. UriyiiM ' stage machinery,' by 
«itting on which boys were suddenly 
raised to a considerable height. L. The 
precise nature of this self-moving frume- 
woik it is very difficult to ascertain : 
but we may suppose that it resembled 
a mountain, a tower, or the like, and, 
by risiog or sinking suddenly, changed 
into some other form ; not verj' dis- 
-•similar to the changes in a modern 
pantomime. KG. It appears thatslaves 
and milefactors were sometimes tlirown 
from them to the wild-beasts. Piiwd. v, 
7, 6 ; INIart. Sp. xvi j Sudt. iv, 26 ; 
v, 34 ; Sen. Ep. 88 ff; P)in. xxxiii, 
3; «. Mart. Sp.ii, 2; Claud. xvii, 320 
ff. PRA. This was always a favourite 
exhibition at Rome. Calp. vii 23 ff. 
GIF. 

The Roman Theatres wcie open at 
the top : during the performance, how- 
ever, they were usually covered with a 
large awning stretcbed i>cross with 
cords, GIF. as a sheltcr from sun or 
rain : FAR besides which, by keepiiig 
the spectators in the shade, a stronger 
light was thrown upon the stage. Plin. 
xix, \. R. The ceiiing of the Tlicatre 
at Oxford i.s painted in imitation of 
this. 

123. ' Doesnot yield in admiration.' 
LUB. 

' Oneinspired.' LUB.ii, 112. PRA. 

oWf»( or ft,iu^, in Latin lalantis or 

asi/us, herc used mctaphoricaliy for 



' stimulus,' is a spccies of stinging fly, 
which, in the summer, almost drives 
cattle mad: LUB. ' a gadfly.' MAD. 
Varr. R. R. 5 ; Pliu. ix, 1.5 ; Virg. G. 
iii, 146 ff; PRA. Plin. xi, 16 ; 28 ; V. 
Flacc. iii, 581. R. [s. Lucr. i, 922.] 

124. Beliona, thegoddcssof war, was 
the sister of Mars. Her priests wor- 
shipped her with offerings of their own 
blood ; and were then gifted with pro- 
phetic inspiration. Some think her the 
same as Minerva. LUB. Virg. M. viii, 
703. 

126. This ' monarch' may be a sar- 
castical allusion to Decebalus, whose 
name could not be brought into the 
verse, but whose actions were the oppro- 
brium of Domitian's reign. He opposed 
the emperor in the Dacian war, in 
which Fuscus fell, and wa.s an enemy 
far from contemptible. GIF. 

' The pole of the sithed car' is put 
for the chariot itself. LUB. But the 
Britons used to run along the pole, and 
tight from it. CfEs. B. G.iv, 33 ; I'RA. 
B. Virg. G. iii, 204 ; Prop. ii, 1 76. 
R. 

127- ' Shallsome Arviragus be hurl- 
ed !' Arviragu.s(accordingtotli£ monkish 
fable!!) was the younger son of Cymbe- 
line, and began his reign in the fourth 
year of Claudius, whose daiighter he 
married. He then revolted from his 
father, wa-s brought back to his dutyby 
Vespasian^rtignedmany years ingreat 
glory, and left his crown to his son, a 
prince not less valorous and rather more 
wise than hisfather. HOL, According 
to Polydore Virg. he was either con- 
verted to Christianity by Joseph of 
Arimathaea, or allowed him and his 
followers to settle at Glasgow, with 
permission to preach the Gospel. Thert 
iasarcaam inthismentionoffheBritons, 



180 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. IV. 



Erectas iii tcrga sudes ?" Iloc defuil unum 
Fabricio, ])atriara ut rhombi memoraret et anuos. 

130 " Quidnam igitur censes t Conciditur ?" " Absit ab illo 
Dedecus hoc !" Montanus ait. " Testa alta paretur, 
Qua; lenui muro spatiosum colligat orbem. 
Debetur magnus patinac sul)itusque Proraetheus. 
Argillam atque rotam citius properate ; sed ex hoc 

135 Tempore jam, Cajsar, figuli tua castra se(|uantur." 
Vicit digna viro sententia. Noverat illc 
Luxuriam imperii veterem noctesque Neronis 
Jam raedias aliaraque faraem, quura pulrao Falemo 



whose subjugation many eminent gene- 
rals (Vespasian among the rest) had 
failed in: and the only ciiance of their 
reduction was now destioyed by the 
recall of Agricola. Tae. Ag. 13 ff. R. 
Some chief is probably alhided to, who 
made himself formidable to the Ronians 
after this recall : OW. tbe Ar\iragus 
abo\e mentioned was dead. GIF. He 
is said to have reigned from 45 to 73 
A.D. The latter date is eight years 
before Doinitian's accession. 

' Beins a foreign monster, it denotes 
aforeignking.'ira. lEnr. Ph. 1209.] 

128. ' The sharp fins sticking up ou 
his back ? Thus shall thy bristly spears 
stand trect in the baeks of thy fces.' 
LUB. Pointed stakes, churred at the 
ends, were used in rude warfare. PBA. 
Jam caitra hostmm oppugnahantur : 
sajchque ei sudibus et omni genere 
teloriim stilmovebaniur a vallo Romani ; 
Liv xxxiv, 15; see vi, 247, note. 
" All with arrows quilled, aud 
clothed with blood As with a purple 
garment, he sustained The unequal 
conflict;" Southey, Madoc, vi; 

130. The emperor now puts the 
question to the senate in due form. 
MAD. 

131. ' A deep dish.' Vitellius in 
principatu ducentis sertertiis condidit 
patinam, cui faciendee fornax in 
campis cedificata erat : (juoniam eo per- 
venit luxuria, nt fictilin pluris constent 
ijuam inurrluna ; Plin. xx>;v, 12 ; (juam 
ob immensam magnitudinem c lijp e um 
Minervae aiyi^ct ■rokiovx'" ff'c- 
titabat; Suet. ix, 13; PRJ. xi, 19 
f ; (juamvis lata gcrat patella rhombum, 
rhombus latii^rcst tmuen p(drlln\ Mart. 



xiii, 81. R. The silver dish ofVitellins 
had been preseived as a sacred deposit, 
but Adrian showed his good sense by 
iiaving it melted down. GIF. 

132. The thinness of the earthen 
ware (according to Pliny) constituted 
its excellence. / UB. 

Orbem ; s. i, 137. R- 

133. ' Some potter noless cunning in 
his craft, than was Prometheus the son 
of lapetus, who gave proof of his skill 
by forming the first man out of clay.' 
Ov. M. i, 80 ft'; LVB. PRA. s. vi, 
13; xiv, 35; xv, 85; Hor. Od. i, 3, 
29 ff; xvi, 13 ff; ^sch. P. V. See 
also note on vi, 110. R. 

Subitus, or the tish would be spoilt. 
PRA. 

134. Hor. A. P. 22. figlinas invenit 
Chorwbus Atheniensis, in iis orbem 
Anacharsis Scythcs, ut alii, Hyperbius 
Corinthius ; Plin. vii, 56 ; PRA. Pers. 
iii, 23 f. R. ' Chiy' is tlie material, 
and ' a solid wheel,' revolving horizon- 
tally, the engine on which the potter 
forms his ware. Jeremiah xviii, 3 ff; 
MAD. Ecclesiasticus xxxviii, 29 f. 

136. Heecsententiavicit; Liv.xxxvii, 
19; ii, 4; xlii, 47. R. s. yia)fi.rir Her. 
i, 61, [45;] and l»/*»- vi, 101, [29.] 

137. ' Of tbe court :' R. ' of former 
emperors." MAD. 

' Nero's nights ;' epulas a rredio die 
ad m edia m nocfe ?« protrah ebat : 
refotus scepius calidis jiiscinis ac icm- 
pore (estivo nivatis ; Suet. vi, 27 ; L UB. 
Tac. A.xvi,20; IJ. s. A.xiii, 20; and 
vi, 102 f. HNN. 

138. ' Provocatives and restoratives 
of thejaded appetite.' PRA. See note 
on 67. 



SAT. IV'. 



OF JUVENAL. 



181 



Arderet. Nulli uiajor fuit usus edeiidi 
1 JO Tenipeslate niea. Circeiis nata forent an 

Lucrinum ad saxuni Kulupinove cdila liuido 
Ostrea, callebat primo deprendcre morsu; 
Et seniel adspecti litus dicebat echiui, 
Surgitur et niisso pruceres exire jubentur 
145 Consilio, quos Albanam dux magnus in arcem 
Traxerat adtonitos ct lestinare coactos. 



' Falernian' was a vcry full-bodied 
wine of Campania. Plin. xiv, 6 ; xxii, 
1 . PRA. Whence its cpithets : uere ; 
.\iii, 21(>; iiitlomitum', Pers. iii, 3; 
Luc. X, 163 ; ardens; Mart. ix, 74, 5; 
xiv, 1 13 ; Hor. Od. ii, 1 1 , 19 ; sevcrum ; 
0(1. i, 27, 9 ; forte; S. ii, 4, 24. To 
soften its au.sterity it was mixcl with 
Chian ; Tib. ii, 1, 28 ; Ath. i, 20. /{. 

The lungs are considerably affected 
by ex:-ess in liquor. GRA. 

139. ' No one better understood the 
practice, as well as thc theory, of gor- 
mandizing than Montanus.' LUB. 
Crispus must have been at least an 
equal proficient in the science of good 
eating, as he was the favourite of 
Vitelh'us and the constant companion 
of his scaidalous excesses. D. Cass. 
Ixv, 2. GIF. 

140. The wantou luxury of the Ro- 
mans may be discemed from the varietj' 
of their oysters, which were brought 
from every sea. HOL. osfrcis et con- 
chyliis omniLi/b co/ifi/igil, nt cum ti/na 
crcscant parifer jiariterque decrescant ; 
Cic. Div. ii, 33; ostrece seuescente luna 
i/iuberes, macrce, tenues, exsuccee ; 
cresce/ite, pinguescunt ; Gell. xx, 7 ; 
luna alit ostrea et i/nplet echinos ; 
Lncil. lubricn nascentes i/npte/it co/i- 
cfiylia lunee; Hor. S. ii, 4, 30; Plin. 
ii, 41 ; Ath. iii, 13. The Tarcntine 
are extolled by Varro, R. R. iii, 3; 
and Gellius, vii, 16; the Lucrine are 
preferred by Senoca, Ep. 79; and Ph'ny, 
i.\', 54 s 79. Circceis nute//i ostreis 
caro testaf/ue nigra sunt; his autei/i 
neqite dnlcioru /leijue tn/ieriora esse 
uUa co/npei-tu/n esf; Id. xxxii, 6 s 21. 
murice Baiano melior Lucrina peloris : 
ostrea Circeiis, Mise/io oriiintur echini; 
pecfi/iibus pafulis jactat se tnolle Ta- 
rentu/n ; Hor. S. ii, 4, .32 ff ; PRA. s. 
ib. 2, 31 ff; Ptrs. vi, 24; Plin. ix, 
i« .•< 32; Macr. S. ii, 11 ; iii, IG; V. 



Max. ix, 1 ; Col. viii, 16 ; Varr. R. It. 
iii, 17; Sen. Hclv. 10. R. 

The town of Circeii in Campania, 
with its neighbouring promontory (now 
' Moijte Circello'), was named after the 
famous enchantress Circe, the daughter 
of Sol and Perscis, and aunt of Medea. 

141. The Lucrine lake is between 
PaiEe and Puteoli. Plin. iii, 5 ; PRA. 
Hor. Ep. ii, 49; Mart. vi, 11; xii, 
48. R. 

Edita is the sarae as nata; 140. 
R. 

Fu/ulo ' in the bed of the sea,' LUB, 
a.t Bufupife, uow^HtehhoroughlCastle]' 
in Kc-nt; FAR. [vvhich was the ordi- 
narv landing plaCe from Gaul. A W.] 

143. ' At finst sight.' MAD. 
Echi/ius piscis e&t /narinus e ge/ierc 

canc/'oru>n, spinis hirsntus, yiiibus et 
se tuetur, instar hericii, qui echinus 
esf terrestris, sicut eehinus i/iarinus 
est hericius. echino spi/ice pro pedibns 
sunf, ingredi est i/i orbe//i convolvi ; ora 
i/i //ledio corpore ad ferra/n versa ; sce- 
vifia/n maris prcesagire traditur ; Plin. 
ix, 31 s 51. Athenceus tells a laugh- 
able story of a Laconian, who, hearing 
they were delicious eating, but never 
having seen any of them at table be- 
fore, put one into his mouth, shell, 
prickles, and all. Though he soon 
found to his cost what an awkward 
mouthful it was, his Spartan obstinacy 
would not allow of his putting it out 
again ; but he inade a solemn vow that 
as this was the first, so it should be the 
last ' sea-urchin' he ever tasted ; iii, 
13. PRA. 

144. Misso for dimisso; [s. iii, 183, 
n.] 

145. See 61. i2. ' The great chief 
i. e. ' the emperor.' LUB. 

146. ' Had dragged them' against 
theirwill. LUB. 72 ff. PRA. 

Adfonifos; 77. 



182 



THE SATIRES OF JUVENAL. 



SAT. IV 



Tamquam de Cattis aliquid toivisque Sygambris 
Dicturus, tamquam diversis partiVjus orbis 
Anxia pra^cipiti vcnisset epistola pinna. 
150 Atque utiuam his polius nugis tota illa dedissct 
Tempora saivitiaj, claras quibus abstulit Urbi 
Illustresque animas impune et vindice nullo ! 
Sed periit, postquam cerdonibus esse timendus 
Coeperat: hoc nocuit Lamiarum caedc madenti. 



147. The Catti occupied tlie terri- 
toriesof Hesse,[and Thuringia,stretch- 
ing from the Saale to the Eder : A JF.J 
the Si/ga?uhri those of Guelders. s. Suet. 
xii, 2; 6; 13; PRA. and Euseb. 
Dioliv, 20; 22; 32; Flor. iv, 12; Oros. 
vi, 21. The latter are termed /er^ces ; 
Hor. Od. iv, 2, 34 ; ccede gaudcntes ; 
ib. 14, 51. Tacitus says of the 
Germans, habitus corporum idem om- 
nibus : truces et ccerutei oculi; 4 ; Cat- 
torum hcec prima semper acies, visu 
torva ; 31. R. 

148. ' In order to communicate.' 
R. 

149. If a consul transmitted to Rome 
the news of a victory, a small branch 
of bay was stuek in theletter; (Plin. 
H. N. XXXV, 58 ; Pan. 8 ;) if he sent 
intelligence of any reverses^he inserted 
' a feather.' Sch. (The iatter part is 
questionable.) Couriers vrore feathers 
in their caps ; when they brought good 
news they wore a white feather, (//6c/// 
(juos rumor alba vehit peitna; Mart. x, 

. 3, 10;) and a black one when the news 
was bad, {nullaquc fumosa signatur 
lancea penna; Stat. S. v, l, 93 ; where 
fumosa ' dingy' is a correctiou of fa- 
mosa.) PLA. Or, simply, ' with pre- 
cipitate haste.' R. [Livy v, 28, 10 ; 
Eur. 0. 861-866.] 

J51. Suet. xii, 10; 11 ; 15. PRA. 

152. 'Kpff/ftous ■4' v x^^i' Hom. II. A 
3. R. 

153. Ce;v/o (from xi^^cs ' lucre') 'a 
cobbler, or any low mechauic' The 
assassins of Domitian were men of low 
birth; Suet. xii, 14 ; 17. LUB. 'A 
Plebeian,' Pers. iv, 51 ; PRA. as op- 
posed to Patriciaus; viii, 182; s. iii, 
294. R. " Of her noblest citizens de- 
prived, Rome daily mourned — and yet 
the wretch survived, And no avenger 
ro«e ; but when the low Aiid base-born 
rabble came to fear the biow, And 
cobblers t re inbled— then, to rise 



no more, He fell still reeking with the 
Lamian gore." BDH. Beaumont 
and Fletcher have imitated or rather 
translated these lines : " Princes may 
pick their suftering nobles out, And 
one by one, employ them to the bliick ; 
But when they once grow formidable to 
Theirclowns, and cobblers, ware then !" 
GIF. [" It is remarkable that E.obe- 
spierre himself was safe, tiil he attacked 
his own accomplices. The spirit of 
men of virtue was broken ; and there 
was no vigour of character lcft to destroy 
him, but in tho^se daring ruffians who 
were the sharers of his tyranny ;" 
Mackintosh, Def. of Peltier, 1803.] 

154. ' This was fatal.' LUB. 

The Lainian family was a noble 
branch of the .^lian clan : from which 
the imperial family of the Antonines 
also sprung. They traced their descent 
from Lamus king of the Lcestrygones. 
Hor. Od. iii, 17, 1 ff. One of this an- 
cient house was among Domitian's many 
victims ; LUB. the tyrant, before he 
came to the throne, had taken away 
his wife Domitia Longina: MAD. 
Suet. xii, 1 ; and put him to death, sub- 
sequently. ob suspiciosos quidem, verum 
et veteres et innoxios jocos ; ib. 10 ; 
PRA. s. vi, 385. 

This is a severe reflection on the pnsil- 
lanimity of the Patricians who tamely 
submitted to such cruelties and iudig- 
nities. PRA. The exultation, with 
which the poet mentions tlie prompt 
and decisive vengeance of the lower 
orders, sliows that he felt proud iu being 
one of them, and seems intended to 
convey a salutary, but awful lesson, 
both to the oppressors and to the op- 
pressed. GIF. This satire proves that 
Juvenal survived Domitian ; who was 
assassinated iii the forty-fifth year of 
his age and the sixteenth of his 
reign, and was succeeded bv Nerva, 
96 A.D. MAD. 



.S A T I 11 E V. 



ARGUMENT. 

In this oxcellent Satire, Juvenal lakes occasion, under pretence of ndvising 
one Trebius to abstaiu from the table of Virro, a man of rauk ancl 
fortune, to frivc a spiriteil dctail of tbe mortifications which tbe poor were 
subjected to by the rieb, at tbose entertainmcnts to vrhich, on account 
of the political counexion subsisting between patrons and clients, it was 
sometiraes thought neccssary to invite them. 

He represents even a beggar's life as one of independence compared witb 
that of a parasite ; 1 . . 1 1 . The supercilious patron tbinks an occasional 
invitation to be a payment in full of all his clienfs services, 1 2 . . 23 ; and 
yet, when at the great man's board, poor Trebius meets vrith. nothing 
but mortifications and afFronts. Tbe host has all the luxuries of the 
season — a variety of fine old wines, 30.. 37; iced water, 49 f; excellent 
white hread, 70 fl^; a magnificent lobster, 80 fi"; surmullet, 92.. 98; 
lamproy, 99. .102; giblets, 114; poultry, 115; wild-boar, 116; trufiles, 
116ff; mushrooms, 147 f; &c. &c. and a delicious dessert, 149.. 152; 
not to mention the spleudid service of plate, 37. .45 ; and the ostentatious 
retinue of pampered menials; 40; 56 ff; 67; 72 ff; 83; 120 ff; while 
you are put at the bottom of the table among a vulgar and quarrelsome 
set of fellows, 25 . . 29 ; and — one can hardly call it — served by some 
ill-conditioned underlings, 40 f ; 52.. 55; 66 f; 73.. 75; with vile wine 
24 ff; in a cracked mug, 46. .48; bad water, 52; infamous bread, 67 ff; 
crab and eggs to correspond, 84 f ; stale cabbage and rancid oil, 86. .91 ; 
an cel — the sigbt of which is enough ! 1 03 ; and a well-fed fisb — caught 
in tbe common sewer, 104 f; a dish of toadstools, 146; and two or three 
half-rotten apples ; 153. .155. Besides all tbis, you must not open your 
lips, either to make any observation, 1 25 ff ; or to call for what you want, 
60 ff; or to ask your patron to take wiue; 129.. 131. Money forms 
his criterion of merit, 132.. 137; especially where there is any chance 
of that money being one day his; 137.. 145. Towards bis poor ac- 
quaintance he behaves just as if hederived amusement from tantalizing and 
insulting them; 156 ft'. They, wbo have the raeanness to submit to such 
treatraent, deserve still worse ; 161 .. 1 73. 

A train of m.anly indignation pervadcs thc whole ; and tbere is scarcely 
a single trait of insult and indignity here mentioned, which is not to be 
found animadverted upon, with more or less severity, in tbe writers of 
fbat age. 



184 ARGUMENT. sat. v. 

With this Satire may be compared, Pliiiy Ep. ii, 6; Athenseus vi, 5.. 18; 
Petronius Sat. 31 ; Lucian w«j) TZr i^) ftnrS^ auiinru*: and several passages 
in the old comedy of The Supposcs, by G. Gascoigiie. GJF. R. 

[" The ludiaij method of giving entertainments, if judged by our notions, 
is strongly marked with indelicacy. The guests all sit upon a square 
carpet: the master of the feast being placed at the north-side: a number 
of separate dishes are placed before him ; and a dififerent assortment less 
delicate along the two sides, according to the rank of the guests. 
Towards the farther end of the carpeting, the guests of inferior note 
are seated ; and the dishes are, before thcm, greatly inferior both in 
number and quality:" Tennant, Indian Recreations, i, p. 2.53. 

*' At their dinners (in Russia) . . . the dishes and the wines correspond in 
gradation with the rank and condition of the guests. Those, who sit 
near the master of the house, are suffered to have no connection with the 
fare, or the tenants, of the lower eud of the table ; and nothing would so 
much distress a Russian prince, as sending for a portion of the soup, or 
the viands, which are there placed. That, which he intends for the 
gratification of the favoured few around him, is generally carried to 
them; nor is it usual to ask for any thing :" Dr. Clarke, Trav. p. 162. 
" The etiquette of precedency, so rigorously observed at a Russiau table, 
prevails also iu the order of the dishes and bottles arranged for the 
guests. In barbarous times we had something like it in England. 
Perhaps the custom is not even now quite extiuct in ^A^^ales. It is 
preserved in large farm-houses in remote parts of England, Avhere aJl 
the family, from the master to the lowest menial, sit down to the same 
table : the choicest dishes are carefully placed at the upper end, and are 
handed down to those guests, who sit near the owner of the mansion, 
according to the order in which they sit; afterwards, if auy thing 
remains, it is taken gradually to the rest:" ib. p 634. BRK, C. R. i, 
p. 262. 

No longer back tban the latter part of the last century, the claret, at an 
episcopal visitation, did not go down to the curates' end of the table, but 
was pushed across frora the lowest rector on the one side to the opposite 
incumbent.] 



SAT. V. 



IHP: SAT1HE8 OF JIVENAL. 



185 



Sl te propositi noiKhnn ])U(lt't at(juc eadcni csl mcns, 
Ut bona sunuua putes, alicna vivere (|uadia ; 
Si potes illa pati, quae nec Sarmentus iniquas 
Cwsaris ad mcnsas ncc vilis Galba tulisset: 
5 Quamvi.s jurato metuam tibi credere testi. 
Ventre nihil novi frugalius. IIoc tamcn ipsum 
Defecisse yiuta, quod iuani sufficit alvo : 
Nulla crepido vacat ? nusquam pons et tegetis jiars 



1. Si. [Livy ii, 28, raar. Hor. O. 
iii, 3, 1-4.] 

In the person of Trebius the poet 
attacks parasites generally. ' If you 
can put up with the iniiignities whieh 
the pampered great tbink fit to bestow 
on their humble companion.s, you must 
be so lost to all sense of honour and 
gentlemanly feeling that I should hesi- 
tate to believe you on your oath.' R. 

2. To iyxfif, ' supreme happiness.' 
LUB. 

' At another's board.' Qitadra some- 
times signified ' a trencher,' sometimes 
' a flat eake or large biscuit; which, 
when divided into quarters, was used 
as a trencher.' Hor. Ep. i, 17, 49. 
adorea liba si/fjjiciit/it epufis : co/i- 
sit//ijj/is aliis, iit vertcre morsi/s i/i 
Cereale sohi//t pe/iitria adegit ede/idi, 
et violare ma/iii ma/ist/ue aitdaci/j/ts 
orbe//i fata/is critsti, patit/is nec par- 
cere g/tadris : '■'■Heits'. etia//i me/isas 
co/isii//iimits ?'' i/tqi/it Iit/its ; Virg. lE,. 
vii, 109 <fec ; iii, 257 ; PHA. s. i, 137 ; 
Virg. Mor. 48 f; sectce qitadra p/a- 
ce/itce; Mart. iii, 77, 3 ; vi, 75, 1 ; ix, 
91, 18; xii, 32, 18. R. [Rambler No 
206.] 

3. Si potes ista pati, si /lil perfrrre 
reci/sas; Mart. xi. 2.^, 15; fiu^la 'iimt 
aip«j»"ra iXivft^ii ito^) iv aurxTs yt^n raTs 
ffuyouffiais yiyii/xitif Luc. 1. c. 1,'i ; <roXXa 
vaiiT* xa) v-refi.ttlit wt^ 1 5f TiravTtii 
tviai(i.ctiaf 16. R. [Cic. Of. i.| 

Sarme/itits was a Tnscan slave who 
had run away from his mistress : he 
fdl in the way of Maccenas, and, hap- 
pening to please him by his coarse 
humour, was taken into his train, and 
afterwards admitted into the household 
of Avigustu.a. with whom he became a 
favourite. Tn the decline of life he 
waa reduced by his dissipation and ex- 
travagance to a state of destitution. 

O 



Hor. S. i, 5, 51 ff; Pcb. GTF. i 31 
XdfuttTos Tcuv Kairaots raiyilut Taiiaeiot , 
a, itiXiKiaf 'Vcaf/.aToi xaXovrif Plur. 

V. xlv, t. i, p. 943 D. K. 

' Uneven ;' where all the guests were 
not treated alike. BRO. 

4. Ccesaris — vi/is; ' vile as he wa.s' — 
' even at an emperor's table.' LUB. ' 

Apiciits Ga/ba was a notorious buf- 
foon in tbe days of Tiberius and Au- 
gustus. Sch. He is often mentioned 
by Martial: LUB. i, 42, 16; x, 101 ; 
FRA. Quint. vi, 3. R. 

5. Jurato is used as the past parti- 
eiple of a deponent verb. LUB. in- 
jitrnto p/us credet i/iihi, qvam jurato 
tibi; Plaut. Amph. i, 1 ; jitrato mihi 
creile; Cic. Att. xiii, 28 ; prooem. Act. 
i, in Verr. PRA. 

6. ' I knowof nothingsooner satisfied 
than tbe belly.' [exigitum natitra de- 
siderat: Sen. E. 16;] parvo fa//ies 
constaf, /iiagno fasfidium; ib. [17;] 
LUB. dives opis natura sucp, si tu 
//lodo recte dispensare ve/is; Hor. S. 
i, 2, 73 f; PRA. Sen. Ep. 114; 
119; &c. R. discite cjuam parvo li- 
ceat producere vifa/ii, et quantum 
natura petat; Luc. iv, 377. " But 
would men think with how small al- 
lowance Untroubled nature doth her- 
self suflice, Such superfluity tbcy would 
despise Aswitb sad care impeach their 
native joys;' Spenser. GIF. 

7. ' But even supposing a man to 
want this little that is absoiutely 
needed.' LUB. 

8. Crepido is ' a raised foot-way,' or 
' a niche,' LUB. iii, 296; PRA. or 
' a quay.' Curt. iv, 5. GRA. 

Pcms, s. iv, 116; FRA. xiv, J34. li. 

Teges, ' a rug' or ' mat;' Sch. LUB. 
vi, 117; vii, 221; ix, 140; Mart. vi, 
39, 4; ix, 93, 3; xi, 33, 2; 57, 6; 
Plin. xxi, 18; Varr. R. R. i, 22. R. 



186 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V. 



Dimidia brevior? Tantine injuria cceusD ? 
10 Tara jcjuna faraes, quum pol sit honestius, illic 

Et trcmere et sordes farris mordere canini ? 
Primi lige loco, quod lu discumbere jussus 

Mercedera solidam veterura capis officiorum. 

Fructus amicitiae magnac cibus. Imputat hunc rex 
15 Et, quamvis rarum, tamen imputat. Ergo duos post 

Si libuit raenses neglectura adliibere chentera, 

Tertia ne vacuo cessarct culcita lecto ; 

" Una simus" ait. Votorum summa ! Quid ullia 

Quseris? Habet Trebius, propter quod rumpere somnum 
20 Debeat et liguhis demittere, solHcitus, ne 

Tota salutatrix jam turba peregerit orbera 



9. ' Do you ,set such a value on a 
supper so insulting ?^ L TJB. 

10. Jejuna fames ; Ov. M. viii, 791. 
R. 

Pol ' i' faith;' as edepol, ecasfor, 
mecastor, /lercle, me/iercle ; R. which 
were oaths hy the heroes Pollux, 
Castor, and Hereules. 

inic ' in the niche or on the hridge.' 
GV. 

11. ' Shiver and shake ;' not alto- 
getber with the cold, but as a trick to 
exeite eompassion. Hence perhaps 
tremens Judtea; vi, 543. GRA. 

' A filthy piece of brown barley bread, 
whieh was chucked out for the dogs.' s. 
ix, 122; PRA. Mart. x, 5, 5. R. 

12. ' Bear it in mind :' nostras hitra 
te fige qiierelas; ix, 94; animis /lac 
vieajigife dicfa; Virg. iE. iii, 250. R. 

' When invited to take a place at 
table.' convenere toris jussi discum- 
bere pictis; Virg. M. i, 708. MAD. 
[Lucr. iii, 925.] 

13. 'Entire:' GV. [' payment in 
fuU.'] parfem solido demere de die; 
Hor. Od. i, 1, 20. 

Veterum ' of long standing:' for 
services ' of so many days and months 
and years.' GV. 

14. ' All you get by friendship with 
the great.' MAD. i, 33 ; .iv, 20 ; 74. K. 

Hunc i. e. cibum. LUB. 

' Takes into the account.' LUB. vi, 
179; Mart. x, 30, 26; xii, 48, 13; 
84, 4; Suet. iii, 53; Phaed. i, 22, 8. 
R. 



Re,r ' a noble patron.' L UB. 130 ; 
MAD. i, 136. PRA. 

16. Te mensis ad/iihet; Hor. Od. iv, 
5, 32. R. 

17- ' He invites you merely as a 
stop-gap, being disappointed of one that 
was originally to have been of the party .' 
L UB. aXX' »)v ns aXXos iViKTiXSn vsxXt- 
ffTi^os, it TovTtiiriij rv, xai ovrus i; t*i» 
aTi/zoTarriv yuviav i^wffhi; xardxiiffai 
l^a^Tv; fiovo; Tuy •^a^a.^i^oftivwv Luc. 
26. R. [St Luke xiv, 8 f.] 

18. An unceremonious mode of in- 
vitation : /lodie apud me sis volo; Ter. 
Heaut. i, 1, 110. PRA. 

Votorum summa ; s. 2. 

19. Trebiiis is the parasite with 
whom .Tuvenal is remonstrating. PRA. 
39; 43; 99; 128; 134; 156; ix", 35. R. 

' A compensation for broken slum- 
bers.' This is of course said ironicallv. 
s. 76 ff ; Mart. iii, 36. FAR. iii, 127 
ff. MAD. 

20. Ligula means not only * a latehet 
or shoestring,' but any tie used to fasten 
any part of the dress, ' laces, points, 
garters, braces, dSre.' MAD. It may 
be either derived from ligare; Sch. or 
a diminutive of //«g?/« ; Festus. PRA. 
' To go loose and slip-shod.' GIF. 

21. Seei,96; 117; 127; 132; PP,.A. 
iv, 62. ' Shall have gone its rounds 
to salute its various patrons.' •roXXii 
ha\ofil Luc. 1. c. 10; Nigr. 22; dis- 
cursus? i, 86 ; U. or ' Shall have com- 
pleted its circle at the levee, so as to 
leave no room for tou.' LUB. 



^Al. V. 



OF Jl\i:.NAL. 



187 



Sidcribus dubiis iiut illo tuuipoie, quo .si,- 
Frigida circuniagant pigri sarraca BootaB. 
Qualis ccuna tam-jn ? Vinum, quod sucida nolrt 



22. *' Macb. What is the night ? 
Lady M. Ahnost at odda with morn- 
ing, which is which ;" Shak.-speare 
^Macb. iii, 4. MAD. ja/iiqiie .siiO eow 
duLios ■,-ltlantidis ignei albet ojer; V. 
Flace.ii, 72 f; etjain riirriciilo nigram 
Nojr roscida metam stringebat, nec se 
thalainis Tithonia coi{jii.c proltilernt 
stabatque nitcns in tiiiiine prinio ; ciim 
miniis abnuerit noctem desisse vialur, 
^uam cwpisse diein ; Sil. v, 24 ff. li. 

23. * At the latter part of thc night, 
immediately preceding the brenk of 
day;' BRL GRA. ' when only tho 
most northem constellations are seen 
revolving.' Bootes and the two Bears 
never sink below our horizon, and there- 
fore were fabled to be the oisly stars 
that never dipped in the ocean. ^sira- 
ivKTtois vof u^aii, vr^ifirai ot 
aoxres riiti Ka.ru. X,tt^a. rr\i Bf^rou .\ n\c. 
iii, 1 rt ; afio; ii iTToipiTai /.itaotvxrio* i; 
ivg^iy aoKres 'il^iiota Kar at/rot Ihcoc. 
XXIV, 11 tf; which pas.^sages favour 
those who iutcrprt-t this line to mean 
' even at midnight.' Sch. LUB. cum 

Jnm Jlectant Icarii sidera tarda boves; 
Prop. ii, 33, 23 f ; serus versare boves et 
plaustra Bootes ; ib. iii, 4, 35; sive est 
Arctophylax sive est piger ille Bobtes; 
Ov. F. iii, 405; M. ii, 172; x, 446 fiF; 
Tr. i, 3, 47 f ; Mart. viii, 21, 3 f; Jam 
Phwbuin urgerc monebat non idem eoi 
color (etheris, albaque nondum lux 
rubet et Jlammas propioribus eripit 
astris, et Jam P/eias hebet, Jessi Jam 
plaustra BootcB infaciempuri redeunt 
languentia cwli, majoresi/ue latent 
stellcB, calidumque rejugit Lucijer ipse 
diem; Luc. ii, 719 ff; 23G f; iv, 521 
ff; V. Flacc. vii, 456 f; Scn. Med. 
314 ff; Tro. 440 ff; H. F. 125 ff ; Jam 
nocte suprema ante novos ortus, ubi 
sola superstite plaustro Arctos ad Oce- 
anum fugientibus invidet astris; Stat. 
Th. iii, 683 ff; Virg. G. iii, 381 ; JE. 
i, 744. The fourteen stars near the 
north pole were at first called triones 
i. e. teriones ' oxen' (from terere), and 
£ljta%ai ' wains' (iii, 255; Quint. viii, 
3;> from somc fancied reserablance ; 
afterwards 'EX;'*» and Kviofou^a. ' the 
greater and lesser Bear' a^Kros //ityaX» 
and (i.i*za, names probably invented by 



the Arcadians from «g«r»» ineaning 
both 'a bear' and ' the north.' And 
hence, as well as from the similarity of 
the wcrds Anas and Arctos, arose the 
fable of Arcas and his mother Callisto 
being changed into bears and trans- 
lated to heaven. The consteilation 
which seemed to foliow and guide these 
was at first callcJ ^^tknni ' the ox- 
driver," aud aftcrwards 'A^Kro^uXaS, 
' the bcar-ward.' Arclophyla.v, vuljo 
(jui dicitur esse Bootcs, i/uod r/uasi 
temone adjunctum pree se qitntit Arc- 
tum; Cic. N. D. ii, 42. ' Cold' eirher 
from the chilliness of the air before 
daj-break, or from belng in the north- 
ern heavens : and ' slow' either from 
the eP.ects aiciAi^,pigra hiberncB frigora 
uoctis; Tib. i, 2, 29; or from the or- 
dinary pace of herdsmen, tardi venere 
bubulci ; "Virg. E. x, 1 9 ; or as nearer 
the centre of motion. Sch. R. LUB. 
PRA. MAD. [Ov. H. 18, 149—154 ; 
188; F. ii, 190.] 

"Esu^E» rt bvo Kaian i^atafras, afo- 
ciiffd/utvos rou iiTtou ro r.oiirrof, rufinpi- 
6ii: aiid Ka) Ka.ru). tri rit ^^i^it TnXov 
l^ojy 6Ti roTv ^KiXott L::;'. !. {;. 'J. \ ', ffh o 
aSXtos . ra fjit '/raox^^eeft&tf, ra St )3aS?i» 
ayatra foXXa xa) x.a.ratra '■ rotauTt) yae, 
us oia6a ri ricXis ) •Xi^nXfMv lo^uxds rt Kai 
'TiiUTrias ib.i,"i; •roXu^ii rouruv al Tgor- 
lOfTts avro) Kui (i^avivotrts yiXoioriooi' 
tux.T^is /ttE" \c,att<rrdf/,it3i fAiirns . •^noiSiotns 
01 it kvkXu rriv iToXiv ku) ttpcis rav oiKtrut 
tt<roKXii'of/,ivoi Kvvis xai KoXaKis xui ra 
roiaZra aKOuitv ufofiitovris' yi^as ?£ rtjs 
vriK^as raurvs ahrols ^i^iooou ro <poertKoi 
IxiTvo iiTriov xai 'XoXXuv a'iriov ffu(/,<f)»puv 
Id. Nigr. 22. n. 

24. Tonsurai tempus inter eequinoc- 
tium veriium et solstitium, fjuum s u- 
dare incejierunt oves ; aquosudore 
recens lana tonsa sucida aj)j)ellata 
est. tonsas recentes eodem die per- 
ungunt viiio et oleo : tioii nemo ad- 
mixta cera alba et adipe stiillo ; Varr. 
R. R. ii, 11, 6. This wine was not 
even good enough for such a purpose : 
GRA. or it was too thick for the wool 
to imbibe it. LUB. s. Plin xxix, 2. 

roiv a/ Xut nitffrov rs kol) xaXaiaTUTov 
oitov Tivovrut fiotos ffu trovnpov riva xai 
■raxut irmis Luc. 1. c. 26; ;Mart. i, 21 ; 



188 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V. 



25 Lana pati : de conviva Corybanta videbis. 
Jurgia proludunt ; scd mox et pocula torques 
Saucius et rubra deterges vuhiera niappa, 
luter vos quoties liberlorumquc cohortem 
Pugna Saguntina fcrvet commissa lagcna. 

30 Ipse capillato difiusum consule potai 

Calcatamquc tenet bellis socialibus uvam, 



ii,42; iii, 60; iv, 86; vi, 11. R. That 

these are not merely poetical exaggera- 

tions is evident froni the following pas- 

sage : "I supped lately with a person 

with whom 1 ara by no raeans intimate, 

who, iu his own opinion, treated us with 

rnuch splendid frugality ; but aceording 

to mine, in a sordid yet expensive man- 

ner. Some verj' elegant dishes were 

served up to himself and a few more of 

us ; while those whicli were placed bc- 

fore the rest of tlie company vvere ex- 

tremely cheap and mean. There were 

in small bottles, three different sorts of 

wine ; not that the guests might take 

their choice, bat that they might not 

have an option in their power. The 

best was for himself and his friends of 

the first rank ; the next for those of a 

lower order; and the third for his own 

and his guests' freedmen. One who sat 

near me took notice of this eircum- 

stance, aud asked me how I approved 

of it P Not at all, I replied. Pray 

then, said he, what is your method on 

such occasions P "When I make an in- 

vitation, I replied, all are served alike : 

T invite themwith adesignto entertain, 

not to affront them ; and those I think 

worthy of a place at my table, I cer- 

tainly think worthy oi' everv thing it 

.affords:" Plin. Ep. ii, 6. GIF. 

PRA. 

25. ' The bad wine will presently 
disorder you ;' Sch. ' and you will he- 
come as frantic as one of the priests of 
Cybele.' PRA. 

26. iii,288; sv, 51 f. ' Wranglings 
form the prelude.' R. Pwlusio 
is properly ' the fiourishing of their 
weaponsbyfencersbefore thev engage.' 
MAD. 

See Prop. iii, 8, 1 ff; V. Flace. v, 
581 ; R. natis in usion lcBtiticp sri/- 
phis pugnare, Thracum est : toltite 
harbarum inorem, verecundumfjue Bac- 
rhum sanguineis prohibefe ri.ris ; Hor. 
Od. i, 2/, 1 if. PRA. 



27. Sa7/cius; therefore ' in retalia- 
tion and self-defence.' 

' Red with tlie blood of your broken 
head.' Sch. 

28. ' The freedmen' were sometimes 
admitted to tlie lower end of great 
men's tables. PRA. Pers. vi, 23. R. 
' Corps' denotes not only the numbers, 
MAD. but the pugnacious spirit of 
these insolent knaves. 

29. ' A cheap earthen pitcher,' made 
at Saguntum (now ' Murviedro,' i. e. 
'the Old Walls') inSp.iin. Zf/^. BRI. 
A. s. xiv, 271. Saguntino pocula Jicfa 
luto ; Mart. iv, 4G, 15 ; viii, G, 2 ; xiv, 
108; Piin. xxxv, 12 s 46. The town 
is celebrated iu history for its obstinate 
and desperate resistance when besieged 
by Hannibal. Liv. xxi, 6 ff. PRA. R. 
From this place a common sort of wine 
was also imported. Sch. 

Commissa ; [Livy ii, 36, 3.] 

30. ' When cousuls wore long hair,' 
which was many ages back. BRO. s. 
iv, 103; PRA. vi, 105; at least as 
long ago as 454 v. R. R. 

' Eacked otf from the wood' into wine- 
jars, which were stopped down with 
wax, plaster, or pitch, and marked 
with the name of its country, and 
the consul's name by way of date : vina 
bibes, iterum Tauro tliffusa ; Hor. Ep. 
i, 5, 4. T. FAR. s". Cic. Brat. 83; 
Ov. F. V, 517; Plin. xiv, 14; 21; Co- 
lum. xii, 18 ; Hor. Od. i, 20, 1 ff; ii, 
3, 8 ; iii, 8, 10 ff; xxi, 1 fi"; xxviii, 8 ; 
Pers. V, 148. R. PRA. 

31. This is sometimes called the 
Marsian war. App. B. C. i ; Eutr. v ; 
Plut. V. xxiv ; Oros. v, 18 ; PRA. 660 
— 6G2 Y. K. cadum Marsi memorem 
duelli; Hor. Od. iii, 14, 18. We need 
not take the expression too literally; 
all that we are to understand is, ' very 
fine old wine.' Not but what the an- 
cients did keep their wine to an im- 
mense age. Pliny for instance men- 
tions a wine 200 vears old ! adhur vina 



8AT. V. 



OK jrVENAL. 



189 



Cardiaco nuuquaiu cyalhum niissurus auiico. 
Cras bibct Albanis aliciuid dc niontibus aut de 
Sotinis, cujus |)alriani liluUinuiuc sencctus 
35 Dclevit niulta vetcris iubgine tesla? ; 

Qualc coronati Thrasea llelvidiusque bibebant 



diicentis frre anntsjain in speciein re- 
dacta tnellis asperi ; nlijite hcec natitra 
vini in vetustate cst ; Plin. xiv, 4. He 
thouglit it never better than vvhen it 
vvas twenty years old : xiv, 14; Hor. 
Od. i,9. 7; iv, 1J,1; Vell. Pat. ii, 7. 
R. GIF. Others refer thi-; wine to au 
earlier «Jate G(i3 y. r. iu the consulship 
of Lucilius Opimius; (s. Fior. iii, 17 
f;) when the vintage was peculiarly 
excellent. LUB. 

' Keeps to himself.' R. 

Hall has imitated this passage with 
much humour : " What though he quafiF 
pure amber in his bowl Of March- 
brew'd wheat ; he slakes thy tiiirsting 
soul With palish oat frothing in Bostnn 
clay, Or in a shallow cruize ; nor niust 
that stay Within thy reach, for fear of 
thy craz'd brain, But call and crave, 
and have thy cruize again !" GIF. 

32. ' He would not spare a glass of 
it to save the life of the best friend he 
has.' iil genus^i/iiod Ka^iaxii a Grcecis 
noininatur, nihil nlitid est, qiiam nimia 
imbecitlitas corporis, qiiod stomacho 
languente, immodico sudore digeritiir 
.... tertium au.ri/ium est, imhecillitati 

jacentis cibo v in o (jiie succurrere . . . . 
si cibus non mnnet, sorbere vini cy- 
at hu m oportet, Sf-r. Cels. Med. iii, 19 ; 
MAD. Plin. xxiii, 1 ; Sen. Ep. 1». 
LUB. For xa^yia, s. Schol. on Thuc. 
ii, 49. For cyathus, Hor. Od. iii, 8, 
13. R. 

33. ' He had a variety of excellent 
wines.' The produce of the Alban hills, 
near the city ; Plin. xiv, 2 ; 6 ; i UB. 
Mart. xiii, 109 ; PRA. only inferior to 
Falemian. Dionys. i, 12; Hor. Od. iv, 
11, l f; Galen. in Ath. i, 20. K. Ad- 
dison tells us in his Italian travels, 
that " Albano keeps up its credit still 
for wine, which woula perhaps be as 
good as it was anciently, did they pre- 
serve it to as great an age ;" [t. ii, p. 
124.] GIF. fs. xiii, 214.] 

34. A Campauian wine, which Pliny 
preferred lo the preceding ; it was the 
favourite with Augustus ; Plin. xiv, 6 ; 
8; xxii. 1 ; xxiii, 2; IMart. vi, 86; ix. 



3; X, 74; xiii, 112; 8. x,27; Strah. 
V, p, 229; Atb. i, 48. The modem 
name of Setia is ' Sezze.' PRA. R. 
This passage is also well imitatcd bj- 
Hall : " Jf Virro list revive his heart- 
less graine With some French grape or 
pure Canariane ; While pleasing Bour- 
deaux falls unto his lot, Sonie sowerish 
Rochelle cuts thy thirsting throat." 
GIF. 

Ste note on 30. R. 

.'35. ' The mouldiness.' MAD. 

3(j. On days of paiticular rejoicing 
the Romans wore garlands at their 
carousals in imitation of the Asiatic 
Greeks. BRI. Their chaplets were 
at first (f ivy, then of parsley, then of 
rayrtle, afterwards of roses. FAR. 
Hor. Od. ii, 7, 7 f ; 23 ff; Tib. i, 7, 
52; Hor. Od. i, 36. 15 f ; Od. iv, 11, 
3 ff; R. Od. ii, 7, 7 f ; 23 ff; MAD. 
Od. i, 38. 

Pcetus Thrasea and his son-in-law 
Helvidius Priscus, from their hatred of 
tyranny, used to keep the birthdays of 
the great liberators of Rome. The 
former was pnt to death and the latter 
banished by Xero. Galba recalled him 
from exile ; which would be one motive 
forour author's partiality to that prince. 
By Vespa.sian he was prosecuted on a 
charge of sedition, but acquitted. 
Thrasea was the son-in-law of that 
Paetus, whose wife Arria is so justly 
celebrated for her heroic co:istancy, in 
the wellknown epigram : Casta sito 
glndium 8fc. These names are not in- 
serted so much to mark the excellence 
of the wine as the poefs abhorrence of 
Domitian ; to whom these two patriots 
were so peculiarlj'' obnoxious, that he 
put one person to death for calling 
Thrasea a manof sanctity, and another 
for writing the life of Helvidius. Sch. 
Tac. A. xvi; Suet. vi, 37; xii, 10. 
PRA. This is one of those impassioned 
bursts into which our poet is so fre- 
quently betrfciyed unpremeditatedly by 
his eiithusiastic love of liberty ; i, 16 f ; 
iv, 1.50 ff; viii, 260; xiv, 41 ff; 254 f. 
RIG. 



190 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V, 



iirutoruin et Cassi natalihus. Ip.se capacts 

Heliadum crustas et ina^quales beryllo 

Virro tenet phialas : tibi non comniiltitur aurum ; 

■iO Vel, si quando datur, custos affi.xus ibideui, 

Qui numeret gjmmas r.ngue.sque observet acutos. 
Da veniam : pneclara illic laudatur iaspis. 
Nam Virro, ut multi, gemmas ad pocula transfert 
A digitis, quas in vagina^ fronte solebat 

45 Ponere zelotypo juvenis pra^latus larbte, 
Tu Beneventani sutoris nomen habentcm 



37. L. Junius Brutus, the expeller 
of the Tarquins, M. Jitn. Brufi/s, the 
ehief con.^pirator vvith Cassius against 
Csesar, and D. Jun. Briitus, who, m 
the attempt to uphold the eause of 
liberty against Antonv, perishel on 
the fied of battle. PRA. 

From the piactice of keeping ' trie 
birthdays' of the iHustrious dead, may 
have originated the custom of cele- 
brating the memories of martyrs ; but 
it was the anniversary of their deaths 
which was observed, as being the date 
of their being born iuto a better world. 
HNN. MS. Mart viii, 38, 11 ff. R. 

38. If t!ie poet intendcd electrum 
' an alloy of gold with one-fifth of 
silver,' the periphrasis i.s incorrect. 
BRI. GRA. Plin. ix, 40; xxxni, 4 
or 23 ; Virg. M. viii, 402; [{HY.)] s. 
xiv, 307. It is ' amber' that was fabled 
to iDe prociuced by tiie tears shed (on 
the banks of Eridanus) for the hss of 
Phaethon, hy liis sisters the daughters 
of Sol CnXios), who were transforraed 
into poplais or aders. Ov. M. ii, 340 
ff ; x, 2(33 ; Plin. xxxvii, 2 f; Virg. E. 
vi, 62 f; .E. X, 190; Mart. ix, 14, 6; 
Tac. G. 45. PRA. R. ' Cups rough 
with beryls and carved incrustations of 
amber:' s» S/a iuo7i. Or ' the cups set 
with amber' stood in ' shallower vessels 
studded with gems.' Each person at 
table used to have bolh a poculum .and 
a pliiala, as we have ' a cup and a 
saucer" at brenkfast aud tea-time. 

On ' the beryl' see Plin. [xxxvii, 20.] 
turha gemniarum potamus, et smnrag- 
disteximuscaliccs;\h.\Ti^'ii\]\,1;] FRA. 
X, 27; Mart. xiv, 109; Virg. G. ii, 
oOC; AL. i, 728. R. Green is the 
colour which harmonizes best with gold. 
SM. 



39. By Virru is meant ' the wealthy 
host.' PRA. 

40. ' A servant is set as a guard ove.'' 
you.' Cic. Ver. iv, 15. R. 

41. ' Lest any should be missing; 
and lest voa should try to pick them 
out.' LUB. MAD. 

42. ' Such precautions areexcusable: 
vou must not be offended at them.' 
Sch. 

' There is a particulariy biigbt jas- 
per, which is universally admired, set 
in that cup.' Plin. xxxvii, 8 f. PRA. 

43. The transfer of jewels from arms 
to cups is indicative of a similar trans- 
fer of affections ; and intimates that 
the degenerate Romans were votaries 
of Baechus rather than of Mar.'?. PLA. 

Ut multi denotes that ' it was become 
fashionable.' MAD. Mart. iv, 107. 
R. 

44. ' On the hiltof his sword.' LUB. 
llli stellatus iaspide fulva ensis 

erat; Virg. /E. iv, 261 f. LUB. 

45. A periphrasis for ^neas, whom 
Dido preferred to her other suitor lar- 
bas king of Getulia. L UB. Virg. /E. 
iv, 36; 19{j ff. R. 

4Q. The nameofthis Beneventan sot 
was Vatinius. On his way to Greece, 
Nero apud Bencventum consedit : ubi 
gladiutorium munus a Vatinio celebre 
edebatur. Vatinius inter fa'dissima 
ejus aulce ostenta fuit, sutrince iaherncB 
aliimnus, corpore detorto.facefiis scur- 
rilihus : primu in contumeliasadsumtus; 
deinde optimi cujusqiie criminatione eo 
usqiie valuit, ut gratia, pecunia, vi no- 
cendi, etiam iiialus precminerct; Tac. 
A. XV, 34; Xiph. Ixiii, \a;vilia su- 
toris calicem juonimenta Vatini 
accipe : sed nasus longior ille fuit ; 
Mart. xiv, 96. The allusion here is to 



SAT. V. 



OF JUVKNAL. 



lUl 



Siccabis calicfin nasoruni quatuor ac jam 
Qua.ssatuni et ruplo poscentL'in sulpliura vitro. 
Si stoniaclni.s doniini ferx et vinofjuc ciboque ; 

50 Frigidior Geticis petitur decocta pruinis. 
Non cadeiu vobis poni niodo vina (juerebar: 
Vos aliain potatis afpiani. 'J'ibi pocula cursor 
Ga;tulus dabil aut nigri nianus ossea Mauri 
Et cui per niediani nolis occurrerc nocteni, 

55 Clivosa) veberis duni per moniuienta Latina?. 
Flos AsijB ante ipsum. prctio majore paratus, 



h\!f keen-uosed sagacity whea put upon 
the scent of blood. L. Tac. H. i, 37. 
R. 

47. * Wilt drain.' From this it seems 
that this ' four-spouted beaker' did not 
bold much ; xiii, 44; Hor. Od. i, 35, 
27 ; xxxi, 1 I ; S. ii, 6, 68 ; R. perhaps 
for the cause mentioned in the next 
line. 

48. The jug wanted sulpbur to ce- 
ment it ; Sch. or perhaps it was too far 
gone to be mended, and therefore should 
have been exchanged, as broken glass, 
for brimstone matches: Traiistiberinus 
ri;nhulator, qui patlentia sidphiirata 
fractis permutat vitreis; Mart. :, 42, 3 
li'; circulatrij' (fuee sulphurato nolit em- 
tu ramento Vatiniorumproxenetafrac- 
i^.rum; id. x, 3, 2 fi"; PRA. s. Plin. 
xxxvi, 19, 26; xxix, 3. R. 

49. iii, 233 f. MJD. 

60. Tbe country of thc Getee, who 
bordered on h'cythia, is now called 
' Moldavia.' PRA. 

Nei'onisprinripis inrentum est deco- 
y uere aquani, vitrorjue demissam in 
nives r efr ig e rare : ita voluptas fri- 
rjoris contingit sine vitiis nivis. omnem 
tttif/ue decoctam iitilioretn esse con- 
vjuit; iiem ca/rfactam magis refrigerari; 
Plin. xxxi,3; Suet. vi.-18 ; Mart. ii,8o, 
1 ; xiv, 1 16 ; Ath. iii, 34 ; Sen. N. Q. 
iv, 13. PRA. R. The snow was pre- 
sorved in f-averns, and places like our 
ice-houses. MAD. 

51 . Tlie wine was notcirculated round 
the table, but placed before each guest. 
LUB. 

52 ' A running footman.' MAD. 
omnes sic jam yercgrinaniur ul itlos 
Numidarum pracurrat equitatus, ut 
n<jmen rur sovum anteredat ; Sen . 



Ep. 123 ; 88 ; Tac. H. ii, 40 ; Suet. 
vi, 30; Mart. iii, 47; x, 6; 13; xii, 
24. These negro couriers were cele- 
brated for their speed : Luc. iv, 681 ; 
Nemes. Cyn. 261. Not but what they 
were also employed as in-door servants : 
Hor. S. ii, 8, 14 ; Theoph. Ch. xxi ; 
Ath. iv, 29; Cic. .id Her. iv, ,50. R. 
' A lackey ;' LUB. which word may 
couie from the .iEthiopic tayky ' a ser- 
vant;' from the root tnaca ' he sent.' 

53. ' Of a blackamoor,' 

54. ' Because you might take him 
for a spectre out of the tombs :' or 
' because it was consideied ominous to 
meet a Black.' BRO. T. s. vi, 572; 
601 ; 655 ; Mart. vii, 86, 2. Both M. 
Brutus and Hadrian ;ire said to have 
foreboded<death from having each of 
them nitt with an Ethiopian. Plut. and 
Spart. PRA. 

55. i, 171. PRA. 

56. ' Such as was Ganymede.' LUB. 
Cic. Phil. ii, 15 ; iii, 5 ; Virg. JE. viii, 
bOO ; Jlos jiivenum a.nd Juventuiis ; Liv. 
viii, 8: 28: xxvii, 35; xxxvii, 12; 
a.*Poi ruf 'A^nvaiuf Thuc.iv, 133; r,Qti/ut 
ecaroi Pind. N. viii, 15; iuutuh OMTaf 
P. iv, 335. There is also an allusion 
to ' the bloom of youth :' eevi Jiore 
virensi Sil. i, 60 f; iii, 84; vii, 691. 
The most fashionable and, of course, 
the most expensive slaves were those 
imported from Asia Minor; xi, 147. 
For the iraportance attuched tn this 
pnrt of the establishment, (^s/fizx<a 
u^alci^iux,6ioufAiva' Luc. l.c. 16 ;)s. ix, 46 
If; xiii, 44 ; Cic. Fin ii, 23 ; and on the 
otber hand, xi, 145 ff; Mnrt. viii, 39, 
4 ; ix, 23, 9 ff; Ixxiv, 6; xiii, 108. U. 

Understand stat, 05 ; s , S'S, on Irrtifu, 
13. R. 



192 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V 



Quam fuit et Tulli census pugnacis ct Anci 

Et, ne te teneam, Roiiianorum orania rcgum 

Frivola. Quod quum ita sit, tu Gaitulum Ganymedem 

60 Respice, quum sities. Nescit tot millibus emtus 
Pauperibus miscere puer : sed forma, sed aetas 
Digna supercilio. Quando ad te pervenit ille ? 
Quando vocatus adest calid;t; gclidaique minister ? 
Quippe indignatur veteri parere clienti, 

65 Quodque aliquid poscas et quod se stante recumbas. 
Maxima quseque domus servis est plena superbis. 

Ecce alius quanto pon-exit murmure panem 
Vix fractum, solidag jam mucida frusta farinae. 



Enormouspriceswere given foi hand- 
some slaves at Eorae, especially if they 
vrere Greeks ; Plin. vii, 12; Suet. 
i, 47; Liv. xxxix, 44; Mart. iii, 62. 
R. 

57. The third and fourth kings of 
Eome. TuUus Hostilius was a very 
warlike prince; Virg. M. vi, 813 ff; 
Liv. i,22ff; Macr. S".i, 6. He was the 
conqueror of Alba; Flor. [i,] 3, [10.] 
PRA. Forkingsthey wererich,as times 
went, fiives Tullus et j4nciis \ Hor. Od. 
iv, 7, 15 ; but, compared with the wealth 
of later ages, they were poor ; uthunn 
remeare Uceret ad veteres fines et mw- 
nia pauperis Anci ; Claud. xv, 108 f. 
B. 

68. iii, J83. MAD. 

59. ' Mere trifles in comparison.' 
M^D. iii, 198. R. 

Ganymede was a beantifal hoy, son 
of Tros and Callirhoe, who was carried 
off by the eagle to be Jove's cup- 
bearer. (See this explained, Cic. T. Q. 
i, G5 ; iv, 71 ff;) PRA. ix, 47; xiii, 
43; Mart. ix, 23, 11 f; 74, 6; v, 
66 ; viii, 46, 5 ; GRA. R. [Hor. O. 
iii, 20. 15 f.] 

61. On the practice of mixing wine, 
s. Ath. ii, 2. PRA. It was the cup- 
bearer's ofFice to pour the wine into the 
cup in such proportion or quantity, as 
each chose: misceri debet lioc a Gany- 
mede merum ; Mart. xiii, 108 ; ix, 37, 
12. M^Z). The chief reason why the 
ancients mixed their wine with water 
was, that their wine coagulated by the 
great age to which it was kept, and 
required the admixture of warm water 



to dissolve it so as to be fit for drinking. 
ACH. 

62. ' His disdain becomes his youth 
and beauty.' ii, 15; vi, 169. supercilia 
hoinini et pariter et atterne mobilia, et 
in iis pars animi. negamus^annuimus. 
heec maxime indicant fastum. superbla 
aliubi concepfaculum, sed hic sedem 
habet. in cordc nascilur, huc subit, 
hic pendet. nihil altins simul abrupti- 
usque invenit in corpore, ubi solitaria 
essct ; Plin. xi, [51.] PRA. R. 

63. Ath. ii, 2 ; LUB. id. 6; iii, 34 
f; Polluxix,6; Plin. vii,53; Tac. A. 
xiii, 16. frigida non desit, non deerit 
calda petenti ; Mart. xiv, 105, 1. From 
which it appears tliat the ancients drauk 
hot as well as cold water with their 
wine. PRA. R. Among us it is custom- 
ary, after supper, to put both hot and 
cold water on table for the same pur- 
po.se. 

64. j, 132. The very circumstance, 
which ought to command respect, excites 
contempt. R. 

65. ' Thinking himself the better of 
the two.' GJF. " 

66. Servants take their cue from their 
masters : jR. aceordipg to the proverbs 
" Like master, like man ;" ['' Wie der 
Herr, so der Knecht: u-ie die Frau, 
so die Magd.'" s. Tsaiah xxiv, 2.] 

67. Ecce, iv, 1 ; adspice, v, 80. R. 

' With what ill-will and grumbling.' 
MAD. 

6^. " Impenetrable crusts, Black, 
mouldy fragments, which no teeth can 
chaw, The mere de.^pair of every aching 
jaw." GIF. ' Sohard that cutting it 



SAT. V 



C)F Jl VKNAL. 



193 



(Jiix' gemiinum agitent, non admittentia morsum ! 

70 Sed tener et niveus molliquc siligine lUctus 

Servatur doniino. Dcxtram coliiberc mcmento. 
Salva sit artocopi rcverentia. Finge tamcn tc 
Improbulum, supercst illic, qui poncre cogat: 
" Vis tu consuetis audax conviva canistris 

75 Impleri panisquc tui novisse colorem ?" 

" Scilicet lioc fuerat, propter quod, sa^pc relicta 
Conjuge, per montem adversum gelidasque cucurri 
Esquilias, fremcrct saeva quura grandine veraus 
Juppitcr et multo stillaret pajnula nimbo !" 

80 Adspice, quam longo distendat pectorc lancem, 
Quffi fertur doniino, squilla et qiiibus undiquc septa 



was quite out of the question, and that it 
was brokenwith the greatestdifliculty.' 
s. Plin. xix, 4. R. 

69. ' Which would tireout andloosen 
the grinders.' Pers. i, 115. [Fes.] PRA. 
Plin. xi, 37 s G3. R. 

70. ' Of the whitest and finest wheat- 
flour.' Plin. xviii, 7 ff; PRA. Sen. Ep. 
119; Colum. ii, 6, 1 ; 9, 13. R. 
" What though he chires on purer 
inanchet's crown While his kind client 
grinds on black and brown, A jolly 
rounding of a whole foot broad, From 
off the mong-corn heap shall Trcbius 
load ;" Hall. v, 2. Manners were 
strangely altered since the days of 
CjBsar, who is said to have punished 
his ' pantler' severely, for serving his 
guests with inferior bread to what was 
placed before himself. Suet. i, 48. GIF. 

71. ' Mind you restrain :' MAD. 
fiififtive : more fo;cible than the siraple 
imperative; vi, 572 ; ix, 93; R. [Her. 
iv, 126, 15.] 

72. ' Let all due respect be paid tothe 
servant who cuts the bread.' R. 

* But even supposing.' L UB. 

73. ' A little impudent.' PRA. 

74. Vistu is notonly interrogatis-e,but 
imperative. Sen. Ir. iii, 38 ; G. Hor. 
S. ii, 6, 92. BY. HEI. ' Be so good a?.' 

' Bread-baskets.' MAD. 

76. This is the clienfs indignant re- 
monstrance, PRA. or soliloquy. R. 
' So ! this is ali I am to expect for 
gettingout of my warm bed, and fagging 
up-hill and down-hill atallhours of the 
night, even though it rain cats and 
dogs.' MAD. Martial frequently com- 

2 



plains of this grievance : he expostulates 
with his patron in the foilowing sensible 
and affecting language : .<!i quid nostra 
tuis a(/i(it vexatio rebus, mane, vel a 
media node tngntus ero : stridentesgue 
feram Jiatus Aqnilonis iuiqui^et patiar 
tiimbos, excipiamffue nivcs. sed si non 
Jius quadrante heatior uno per gemitus 
nostros inyenuasque cruces : parcepre- 
cor tasso, vanosque rcmitte labores, qvi 
tibi non prosunt, ct mihi, Galle, nocenf; 
X, 82; GIF. [Ar. Eh. ii, 2, 3.] 
Scilicet; ii, 104. R. 

77. ' Steep and bleak.' PRA. 
Montcm Esquiliasqup. ?» J/a lueTf. R. 

iiaipovfit^ia, ra ttvra fiii^i/ (paittrai Arist. 
Eh. i, 7, 2. 

78. The Esquiline was the part chief- 
ly inhabited by the wealthier nobles. iii, 
7\.PRA. 

Storms in Italy are very frequent at 
the beginning of autumn aiid the end of 
spring. iv, 87; Virg. G. i, 311 ff; Hor. 
Od. iv, 4, 7 ; Calp. E. v, 45. R. 

79. Jupiter is used tbr ' the sky.' 
PRA. Hor. Od. i, 1, 25. MAD. 

This ' cloak' served as a great coat. 
PRA. 

80. ' So large that it seems even to 
stretch the dish in which it is served 
up.' MAD. A poetical expression for 

(1) ' how it stretches over the dish.' 
Tityos novem jugeribns distentus erat, 
Ov. M. iv, 456 f ; is another form. Or 

(2) ' how it fills the dish.' Apes li- 
qnido disten d u n t nectare cellas ; 
Virg. G. iv, 164; distendet spicis 
horrea plena Ceres; Tib. ii, 5, 84. R. 

81. Domino. a. i, 135 f. R. 
C 



194 



THE SATIRES 



H.\r. V, 



Asparagis, qua despiciat convivia cauda, 
Quum vcnit cxcelsi manibus sublata ministri. 
Sed tibi dimidio constrictus cammarus ovo 
85 Ponitur, exigua feralis ccena patella. 

Ipse Venafrano piscem perfundil: at hic, qui 
Pallidus affertur misero tibi, caulis olebit 
Laternam. Illud enim vestris datur alveolis, quoc! 
Canna Micipsarum prora subvexit acuta ; 



There were two kinds of fish kaown 
by this name, one of which fonned a 
dish of itself, ' lobster,' as here ; the 
other served as sauce to other fish ; 
affertur sf/uillas inter mureena iia- 
tantes iii patina porrccta ; Hor. S. ii, 
8, 412 f; ' shrimps or prawns.' Apieius 
the epicure went on a voyage to Afriea, 
because he heard these fish were finer 
there, than anv where else. Suid. Cic. 
de N. U. ii, 123; Plin. ix, 31 s 51 ; 
42 s 6fi; Mart. xiii, 83; Ath. iii, 23. 
PRA. MJD. 

' Garnished' MAD. or ' hedged 
around.' 

82. On the virtues of asparagus see 
Plin. xix, 8; xx, 10. FRA. R. 

' How he seems to look down upon 
(i, 159 ; i?.) the company, (so coena ; ii, 
120; R.) as though proud of his noble 
tail;' which is the choicest part. LUB. 

83. ' The tall sewer or serving-man' 
was as neeessary an appendage of state 
as ' the tall chairman ;' iii, 240. R. 

84. ' A common crab,' (s. Plin. xxvii, 
3; xxxii, 11; Mart. ii, 43; Ath. vii, 
75; 110; Pi?.4. R.) 'shrunkfromhav- 
ing been long out of the sea,' HOL. 
(or ' scantily hemmed round by way of 
garnish') ' with half an egg cut in 
slices.' s. Ath. ii, 16 ; divisis cybiuni 
iatebit ovis; Mart. v, 78, 5; secta coro- 
nahunt rufatos ova lacertos; ib. x, 48, 
11. R. "lU-garnishedandill-fed." GIF. 

85. See Pers. vi, 33. PBJ. The 
Eomans placed in the sepulchres of the 
dead, to appease their shades, a little 
milk, honey, water, wine, and oh'ves. 
HOL. These were afterwards burnt, 
unless (as was generally the case) they 
were stolen by a set of starving wretches, 
who frequented the burial-grounds for 
this purpose. "With all thcir revereuce 
for the dead, the ancients were strangely 
inattentive to tbeir diet. It was scanty, 
of the worst quality, and ill-cooked. 



Plautus says of a bad cook, that he waa 
only fit to dress a supper for the dead: 
Pseud. -iii, 2, 7; Aul. ii, 4, 45; and 
those, v/ho condescended to help the de- 
eeased off with their seurvy meals, were 
stigmatized as the most necessitous of 
human beings : uwor Mcneni, scepe 
cfUam in sepulcretis ridisfis ipso rapere 
lie rogo cwnam ; Cat. lix^ 2 f. [{DCE.)\ 
GIF. The proper name for this sup- 
per was silicernium ; it was oftered on 
the ninth day. Tac. A. vi^ 5 ; i. s. vi^ 
518; Luc. i). Mort. i, l.id. KaTavX. 
7. P. 

Patella is a diminutive, and yet haa 
the epithet exigua., to show what ' a 
very little plate' it was : MAD. as exi- 
gua ofella; xi, 144; et libate dapes ; 
ut grati pignus honoris nutriat incinctos 
missa patella lares; Ov. F. ii, 633 f. 
R. 

BG. Venafrnm in Campania produced 
the finest oil. LUB. Plin. xv, 2 ; fioc 
tibi Campani sudavit bacca Venafri 
nnguenfum : rpiofies sumis, et istud olet ; 
Mart. xiii, 101 ; PRA. Hor. Od. ii, 6, 
16. MAD. s. Hor. S. ii, 2, 59 flf; 
3, 125; 4, 50. R. They used oil, 
where we use melted butter. 

8". The greens had turned yellow 
from keeping, and had been boiled care- 
lessly: ne tibi pallcnfes moveant fas- 
tidia cautes, nitrnta viridis brassicafiat 
aqua; Mart. xiii, 17. PRA. ' Will 
stink of the lamp' (alluding perhaps to 
what was said of Demosthenes, Xv^ver 
a^si) showing that it was greased with 
rancid lamp-oil. Hor. S. i, 6, 124; 
LUB. Theoph. Ch. xi, 4 ; xix, 3. 
R. 

88. Understand oleum. It was made 
from sesamum; Plin. xv, 2; 7. R. 

' Wooden saucers,' T. ['bowl-dish- 
es,'] Livy xxviii, 45, 12. 

89. In India arundines tantce pro- 
ceritatis, nt singula infemodia alveo 



NAT. V. 



OF JUVENAL. 



195 



90 Propter quod Roma? cum Boccliarc ncino lavalur, 
fCjuod tntos ctiani liicit a serpentibus atris.f 
Mullus crit doniino, quem misit Corsica vel quem 
Tauromeuitanae nipes, quando omne peractum est 
Et jam (lelecit nostrum mare, dum gnla sa.'vit, 

i)5 llelibus adsiduis penitus scrulantc macello 

Proxima, nec j^atimur Tyrrlicnum crescerc piscem. 
Instruit ergo focum provincia : sumitur illinc 
Quod captator emat Lenas, Aurelia vendat. 
Virroni munena datur, qua) maxima venit 
100 Gurgite de Siculo: nam, dum se conlinet Auster, 



navigabiti ternos inferdiim homines 
/eranl; Plin.vii, 2; DZ. naves in Nilo 
ex papt/ro, ct scirpo, et ariindinc ; 50'. 
PRA. ' A canoe.' MAD. [Isaiah xviii, 
2.] 

' Of the Numidians.' Mieipsa, king 
of Numiflia, was son of Masinissa, and 
uncle of Jufxurtha. R. 

90. Bocrhar is another Numidian 
name: Liv. xxix, .SO ff. P«/l. R. ' No 
Eoman would enter the bath with one 
of them ; no, though it were kiiig Boc- 
char himself.' MAD. 

91. See Hor. S. ii, 8, 95; Od. iii, 
10, 18; LUB. aud 4, 17. 

The awkward repetition of qiiod, and 
the absence of thc line from several 
ancient mss, (PUL.) and its transpo- 
sition in anotber, render it not impro- 
bable, that this line originatcs in a 
note of the Scholiast, as.signing a rea- 
son why the Africans used such rancid 
ojl. R. 

" Such rotten grease, as Afric sends 
to town : So strong ! that w hen her 
factors seek the bath, All wind, and 
all avoid the noisome path ; So pesti- 
lent ! that her own serpent.s fly The 
horrid stench, or meet it but to ilie." 
GTF. 

92. MiiUits; iv, 15; PRA. and 141. 

93. Tauromenium, now called ' Ta- 
ormina,' is a town on the eastern coast 
ofSicily: PRA. Diod.xiv, 60; xvi, 7. 
R. 

' Has been gone through.' factiis 
inops aijili peragit freta cterula 
remo, ijuasfiue male amisit, niinc male 
<iua;rit opes; Ov. Her. 13, 65 f; V. 
Flac. i, 283; bGG. s. Pers. vi, 75 f. 
Lucian says of merchants a.iraffo.t a.K- 
i->jir Kal ^aira, alyMXiv, if tiTi7», in^tv 



ftlirafiitooi Kaff tKaffroi Iref Tox. t. ii, p. 
511. li. 

95. ' The market,' i. e. ' tiiose who 
supply tlie niarki.t.' LUB. 

96. Quod dissututus dcliciis stotnachu^ 
viw admittat, nb nltimo petitur Oceano; 
vomunt ut edant,edu/it ul vomant; Sen. 
Helv. 9 end ; LUIi. omue perscrutari 
profuitdum; ib. 10 ; R. [s. xi, 11.] 

97. ' Has to supply with fish our 
kitchen.' iv, 66. MAD. 

98. Aurelia was a rich and childless 
old lady, whose good graces Lenas, one 
of those legacy-hunters (Sch.) who 
swarmed in Rome, tried to secure by 
handsome presents. She either pie- 
ferred money to surmullets, or else bad 
so many dainties of the kind seut to 
her, that they would only have been 
spoilcd if she had not disposed of them. 
GIF. LUB. iv, 18 f; PRA. xii, 93 ff. 
R. An amusing anecdote is told of this 
old lady by Pliny ; Ep. ii, 20. GIF. 

99. This is a species of eel found in 
the Mediterranean, and «ill in high 
estimation there: FE. it differ.s from 
the fish we call ' a lamprey,' cliiefly in 
the conformation of its head. Our 
lamprey is principally confincd to the 
Sevem; whenbroughtto market, which 
isvery rare)y,it fetches an extravagant 
price. GIF. Accersehmitur mureeneB 
ad piscinas nostree urbis nbusq iie fr eto 
Sicitio i/iiod Rhegium a Messana 
despicit. illic enim optimce a prodigis 
esse creduntur; Macr. iii, 15; ii, 11; 
Plin. ix, 23; 54 f; xxxii, 2; Ath. vii, 
18 ; i, 4 ; Varr. R. R. ii, 6, 2 ; iii, 3, 
10; xvii, 3; Poll. vi, 63; Mart. xiii, 
80; Col. viii, 16, 5. PRA. R. 

100. Now the ' Faro di Messina." 
PR^. R. 



196 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V. 



Dam sedet et siccat madidas in carcere peimas, 
Contemnunt mediam temeraria lina Charybdim. 
Vos anguilla manet longa) cognata colubrae, 
Aut glacie adspersus raaculis Tiberinus et ipse 
105 Vernula riparum pinguis tonente cloaca 

Et solitus mcditE cryptam penetrare Suburae. 

Ipsi pauca velim, facilem si prajbeat aurem. 
Nemo petit, modicis quae mittebantur amicis 
A Seneca, quae Piso bonus, quae Cotta solebat 



Our poet, in accounting for the fish 
being caught in such a dangerous sea, 
Fneers at the poetical fables concerning 
the winds. Sch. FE. 

' Keeps withiu the cave of ^Eolus.' 
PRA. s. i, 8. 

101. ' Sits :' see note on xirwrai' 
Her.iii, 134, [24]; dum secohibet, teri- 
murcjiie sedendo; Sil. vii, 151. R. 

' His wet pinions.' madidis Notus 
evolat ali s, terribilem picea tectus cali- 
gine vultum : barba gravis nimbis ; canis 
fluit unda capillis ; fronte sedent ne- 
bulee ; rorant penna eque sinusque : 
Ov. Met. i, 264 £f; tellus nubibus ad- 
siduis pluvioq ue madescit ab Att s- 
tro\ ib. 65 f ; Gell. ii, 22 ; PRA. hu- 
midus Auster; Claud. xxii, 95; R. 
udus Notus; Hor. E. 10, 19 f. 

' In prison.' vasto rex ^Eolus antro 
luctantes ventos tempesfatesque sonoras 
imperio premit, ac vinclis et carcere 
frenat; Virg. JE. i, 52 ff; PRA. et 
clauso ventorum carcere regnet; ib, 
141 ; LUB. clauserat Hippotades eeter- 
no carcere ventos; Ov. M. iv, 662. 

102. ' The very centre of Charyb- 
dis.' A whirlpool off ' Cape Faro,' so 
formidable in rough weathc-r, that the 
opposite perils of Scylla and Charybdis 
became proverbial: incidit in Scyllam, 
qui vult vitare Charybdim. LUB. dex- 
trum Scylla /atus, leevum implacata 
Cliarybdls obsidet; Virg. M. iii, 420 
f; [(HY.) Ov. Ib. 387 f;] Stra. vi. 
PRA. 

' The veiituresome nets', for ' the 
fishermen' theraselves. s. iv, 45. LUB. 

103. ' Akin' both in appearance, Sch. 
and in name, being the diminutive of 
anguis. GRA. ' A conger.' 

104. Understand lupus : ' a coarse 
kind of pike.' Those without spots, 
which were supposed to be caused by 
being frost-bitten , were considered much 



superior to the spotted ones.' BRO. 
lupi sine macula, nam sunt et varii, 
maxime probantur; Col. viii, 16, 8; 
or ix, 17, 8. The better sort were 
esteemed a line fish : Macr. ii, 12 ; iii, 
16 ; Pliu. ix, 54 ; Hor. S. ii, 2, 31 ; Ath. 
vii, 17. PRA. 

105. ' Indigenous slave of the bank- 
side, fattened on the filthof the rushing 
sewers.' Sch.PR^. Cloacae operum 
omnium maximum, subfossis montibus 
atque urbe pensili [i, 159 ;] subterque 
navigata. fecit id Agrippa in cedilitate, 
per meatus corrivatis septetn annibus, 
cursuqne pracipiti, torretiti u m tno- 
do rapere omnia atqiie auferre coactis. 
qui insuper mole imbrium concitati vada 
ac latera quatiunt, aliquando Tiberis 
retro infusi recipiuntfiuctus,pugnantque 
diversi aquarum i/npetus intus; et ta- 
men obnoxia firmitas resistit; Plin. 
xxxvi, 15. R. 

106. KjwttJj (whence our word 
CRYPt) ' the dark arched drain.' R. 

' To explore in search of its loath- 
some food.' GRA. 

Subura; iii, 5; Pers. v, 32; PRA. 
[NI, i, 27, 5, 942.] 

107. Understand Virroni and verba 
dicere. LUB. pauciste volo; Ter. And. 
i, 1, 2. MAD. 

' Attentive,' opposed to ' deaf ;' iii, 
122. di faciles; x, 8; neque se fore 
posthac tam facilem dicat, votis ut prcE- 
beat aurem ; Hor. S. i, 1, 21 f; nimium 
faciles aurem prcebere ; Prop. ii, 21, 
15. R. 

108. These words are addressed to 
Virro. ' No one expects from you such 
presents as used to be sent to their 
humble friends by patrons of known 
iiberality.' LUB. vilibus amicis; 146; 
modicis pecunice et originii ; Tac. A. 
iii, 72; vi, 39. R. 

109. L. Anneeus Seneca, bom at 



SAr. V. 



or JLIVENAL. 



197 



110 Largiri; nainque et titulis et fascibus olim 
Major habebatur donandi gloria: solum 
Poscimus, ut ccDnes civilitcr. Hoc face et esto, 
Esto, ut nunc multi, divcs tibi, paupcr amicis. 
Anseris ante ipsum magni jccur, anseribus par 

115 Altilis, et flavi dignus ferro Mclcagri 



Cordova in Spain, a Stoic philosopher 
and preceptor of Nero, being impeached 
as a party in Piso's conspiracy, was 
ordered by the emperor to destroy him- 
eelf ; which he did by opening his veins 
in a warmbath. vii, 212; x, 16; Tac. 
An. xiv ; xv. PRA. MAD. Pisoiies 
Senecasque Martial cites as examples 
cf iiberality; xii, 36, 8. R. C. Cat- 
■pv.rnius Piso, who lived in the reign of 
Claudius, was very wealthy, and made 
a pomt of raising every year a certain 
number of plebeians to the equestrian 
rank. Sch. Tao. An. xiv, 14; xv, 48. 
The Pisones claimed descent from 
Numa ; ros, o Pompilius sanguis; Hor. 
A. P.2yi f. PR. Bonus ' bountiful;' 
R. unless it alludes to the agnometi, 
Frugi. RIG. 

Aurelius Coita lived in Nero's reign. 
LUB. vii,95; Tac. An. xiii, 34-. R. 

110. ' Inscriptions on the images of 
their ancestors, which constituted no- 
bility; and the fasces, which were the 
badges of dictatorial, consular, or prse- 
torian power.' LUB. The latter was 
a bundle of rods, in the centre of which 
was an axe, securis. Plin. xvi, 18 ; 
PRA. s. iii, 128. MAD. 

111. 'H X^Z'^ '''V 3'5avT/ «u Tu fih 
XitftliafotTi, xal i tTamet ii fiaXXa»' 
Arist. Eth. iv, 1. LUh. 

112. ' All we ask is, that you treat 
us as one citizen should another.' R. 
Mart. iii, 59. PRJ. 

113. ' In ali other respects you may 
indulge your sordid luxury ; (tuxurice 
sordes, i, 140;) feasting sumptuously 
when alone, and dining economicaily 
when yon have a party.' PRA. 

Face fov/ac, after the manner of the 
comic writers. 

114. A goose's giblets were looked 
upon as a great delicacy : the liver in 
particular, for which there was a rich 
stuffing. aspicc, quain tumeat magno 
jeeur ansere majus ; miratus dices 
" hoc, rogo, crevit ubi?" Mart. xiii, 
58. LUB. fartitihus in magnam am- 



ptitudinem crescit ; exemptum quoque 
lacte mutso augetur, nec sine causa in 
queestione est, quis primus tantum bonum 
invenerit, Scipio Metettus virconsutaris, 
an M. Sestius eadem eetate eques Ro- 
manus ; Piin. x, 22 s 2" ; satur anseris 
extis; Pers. vi, 71; PRA. pinguibus 
et Jicis pastum Jecur anseris albi ; Hor. 
S. ii, 8, 88 ; MAD. ^nitiui S' tiTdrui 
. (^•ri^ir-rovoaffra, es ravTa xaTa T»i» 'V<u/inv) 
fiirifioiiiuii EufiauXos i* iTi^ato-ruXiei Xi- 
yui ouTuf *' 1/ firi av y^ntos nra^ ri 
'^"'Z»' «;t«'^"" -■^th. ix, 8, [32]; s. 
riTaTa ffUKUTa' Poll. vi, 49 ; Plin. viii, 
51 s 57. R. The modera Sicilians, 
according to Brydone, have a mode of 
treatment by which they increase the 
liversoftheir fowls. GIF. 

1 15. ' Poultry' were called altiles 
from alo. PRA. Perhaps 'a fatted 
capon' is here meant. MAD. s. 168. 
euTi fi ojy/j ofioia Ta~s aXXai; , aXXa r^ 
fiin TXouriu ■xax.ila xa) TifiiXris, ffoi ii 
ttoTTos nft.iTOfjt.os r, (faTTCL Tis tiTOffxXnoos, 
uji^is avTit^vs xai uTiftia' Luc. furi. ffuf. 
26 ; Plin. x, 50 s 71 ; Mart. xiii, 62. R. 

Sat^es MtXiay^os' Hom. II. B 642; 
PRA. ' golden-haired.' HOL. Hor. 
Od. iv, 4, 4; iii, 9, 19; MAD. ib. 
ii, 4, 14; vi, 354; Sil. i, 438; Hom. 
II. A 197; r284. JS. "TheyeUow 
hunter;" Thomson ; GIF. [Eur. M, 
830. " Satire deliglits in such allusions 
and instances as are extremely natural 
and familiar: when therefore we see 
any thing in an old satirist that looks 
forced and pedantic, we ought to con- 
sider hovv it appeared in the time the 
poet writ, and whether or no there 
miglit not be some particular circum- 
stances to recommend it to the readers 
of his own age, which we are now de- 
prived of. One of the finest ancient 
statues in Rome is a Meteager, with a 
spear in bis hand, and the head of a 
wild boar on one side of him. It is of 
Parian marble, and as yellow as 
ivory. One meets with many other 
figures of Meleager, in the ancient 



198 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V 



120 



Fumat aper : post liunc tradentur tubera, si ver 
Tunc erit et facient optata tonitrua coenas 
Majores. " Tibi habe frumentum," Allcdius inquit, 
" O Libye ; disjunge boves, dum tubera mittas !" 

Structorem interea, ne qua indignatio desit, 
Saltantem spectes et chironomonta volanti 
Cultello, donec peragat dictata magistri 
Omnia : nec minimo sane discrimine refert, 



basso relievos and on the sides of the 
sarcophagi or funeral monuments. Per- 
haps it was the anns or device of the 
old Roman hunters ; which conjecture 
I have found eonfirnied in a passage of 
Manilius, v, 175 f; that lets us know 
the pagan hunters had Meleager for 
their patron, as the Christians have 
their St Hubert;" ADD, R. p. 102.] 

See the story of the Calydonian boar- 
hunt. Sch. Ov. M. vjii, 272 ff. LUB. 
qi(i Diomedeis mefuendns setiger ayris 
JEtola cecidit cuspidc, talis erat ; (roV- 
ati 'inv, Hom.) Mart. xiii, 93; R. 
Hom. II. I 525 ff. GTF. Martial, on 
the other liand, describes a small boar 
thus: aper hic minimus rptalisr/ue ne- 
cari a non armato pumiHone potest ; i, 
44, 9 f. 

116. * After the boar.' non tota fjui- 
dem coena, sed in ipso ejus principio, 
bini ternique pariter manduntur npri ; 
Phn.viii,51 s78; JB. s.i, I40f. MAD. 

' Will be served up;' understand 
domino. R. 

Rmnpimns altricem tenero quee ver- 
tice terram tuiera, boletis poma secunda 
siimus; Mart. xiii, 50 ; tuhera dicuntur 
nasci, si imhres fuerint auctumnales et 
tonitrua crebra : te?ierri?na sunt tem- 
pore verno ; Plin. xix, 3 ; PRA. tubera 
terree; xiv, 7. MAD. 

117. ' Devoutly wished for' by the 
epicure. BRO. Plut. M. 1, 4, 2; Ath. 
ii, 21. PRA. 

118. There is much genuine Immour 
in this rapturous apostropVe of tlie 
gluttonous Alledius to Libya. Africa 
was one of the principal granaries of 
E.orae. GIF. si proprio condidit lior- 
reo quidquid de Libycis verritur areis; 
Hor. Od. i, 1, 9 f; R. frumenti quan- 
tuni metit Africa; S. ii, 3, 87- GES. 
[ADD, Dial. on Med. t. i, p. 487.] 

119. Tubera Africee laudatissima \ 



Plin. xix, 3. To prove that the African 
' truffles' were the finest, R also refers 
to Mart. xiii, 42 f; but the tuberes 
(not tubera), there mentioned, grow on 
boughs, and are the fruit of the t u ber- 
tree. 

120. ' The senesciial.' qui fcrcula 
docte componit; vii, 184 f. R. 

121.'' l.o! the spruce catver, (t-ar/./- 
tor, ix, 110; PRA.) to his task ad- 
drest, ^kips, like a harlequin, from 
place to place, And waves his knife 
with pantomimic grace." GIF. 

Chironomon, from the Greek parti- 
ciple ;^iipovo/i,av : chironomon, vi, 63; 
the accusative of ^ti^ovificet. Processit 
stafim scissor, et ad ii/mphoniam ita 
gesficulatus laceravit opsonium, nf putes 
Darium hydraule cantante pugnare ; 
Petr. 36 ; ac si inter Apicios epulones 
et Byzantinos chironomuntas huc tisque 
ructaverit; Sidon. Ep. iv, 7, end ; F. 
alius pretiosas aves scindit et per pec- 
tiis ac clunes certis ductibus circum- 
ferens eruditam manum, in frusfa 
excutit : infclix qui, huic uni rei vivit, 
ut altilia decenter secef ; 7iisi quod 
miserior esf, qui huic voluptatis causa 
docet, quam qui neecssitatis discit ; 
Sen. Ep. 47 ; de Br. V. 12 ; de V. B, 
17 ; Plin. X, 50 s 71 ; PRA. 'I-^-tokXu- 

ToTiTt (TxiXiffi ix,iigoyioiAntrv iler. vi, lii9. 
[Livy vii, 2, 6.J 

122. ' Of his master or instructor in 
the art of carving.' s. xi, 136 ff. 
LUB. 

' The direetions,* ' all that has been 
taught him.' s. vi, 392 ; Hor. Ep. i, 1, 
55 ; xviii, 13. R. 

123. ' There is a very wide difference 
between the one and the other.' L UB. 
Or ' in both cases it makes an im- 
mense difference how the thing is 
done.' MAD. [Eur. Al. 937-] 



\T. V, 



OF JUVENAL. 



I!M) 



Quo gestii lepores et quo gallina secetur. 

125 Duceris planla, voliit ictus ab Ilerculc Cacus, 
Et poncie loras, si (juid tentavcris uniquani 
Hiscere, tamquani habeas tria nomina. Quando propinat 
Virro libi, suniitque tuis contacta labellis 
Pocula ? Quis vestruni tenierarius usque adeo, quis 

130 Perditus, ut dicat regi, " Bibe"? Plurima sunt, qusc 
Non audcnt honiines pertusa diccre hvna. 

Quadrigenta tibi si quis deus aut simihs dis 
Et melior fatis donaret; homuncio, quantus 
Ex nihih) fieres, quantus Virronis amicus ! 

135 " Da Trebio ! Poue ad Trebium ! Vis frater ab ipsis 



125. Pedibi/sf/ife informe cadaver 
prolrahitur; Virg. ^-E. viii, 264 &c; 
ictus clava, morte occnhuit; Liv. i, 7; 
VRA. Ov. F. i, 543 ff. 

1-27- ' To mutter.' T.UB. lO. t'i to 
iuT^t^is ; no. it fiiy fiiyiffTov, oiik 'i^uv 
•rappriiriav. 10. 3»uA«w Tiih' tliroti, /jin Xiyfi* 
a, Tis <poo»tT. no. iXX' tif T^ xi^os wa-.ja 
(fieit^ouXivTior Eur. Ph.401 ff. [Livy 
vi, 16, uiur.J 

' As though you still retained the 
rights of a freeborn Roman, and had 
not virtually forfeited those privileges, 
when you condescended to tum para- 
site.' GIF. Free citizens had three 
names : Decimus Juiiius Juvenalis, 
Caius Jutius Ccesar\ (1) the j)r(e- 
nomen, which answers to our baptismal 
narae ; (2) the nonien, wh^ch was com- 
mon to the gens or ' clan,' and com- 
monly ended in ius ; (.3) the rof/nomen, 
which distinguished the several ' fami- 
lies' vmder one and the same clan, as 
the Scipiones, Lentuli, Cet/iegl, Dola- 
helleK, Cinnce, Si/llfC, 8)-c; under the 
Curnelii. Some clans were not divided 
into families, as the Marii, Sartorii, 
Mummii. Some individuals had a 
fourth name, agnomen, as an epithet 
from some remarkable circumstance, 
and even a lifth ; as P. Corn. Scipio 
.Africanus .^ini/ianus, Slaves had jio 
prcenomen. AD. s. Pers. v, 76-82. 

Martial says wittily of a foul-mouthed 
fellow ; </uo(l nulli calicem tuum propi- 
nas, humaiie fads, Hcrnip, non s ii- 
/icrhe; ii, 1.5; P/f.4. (r^or/n/» was ' to 
take a sip and then pass the cup to 
. our friend.' Mart. v, 78, 3 ; Anac. iv. 



3; Virg. M. i, 736 ff. R. 

128. Suinit ve would bemorecorrect 
JC. 

' Contaminated.' vi, 288; Virg. JE. 
ii, 168; Livy xxix, 8, j. 

130. ' So lost to all sense of decorum, 
as to challenge his noble host.' jK. tum 
Bitice (ledit incr epitans; Virg. /E. 
i, 738. 

131. ' With a. great-coat out at 
elbows.' iii, 283. Corapare the pro- 
verbs; " vestis virum facit :''' " laccr 
Jiannus:" tZ* ya^ VivriTcat ilffi* o'i Xoyoi 
xttai' and tliat of Theofrni^, tm yag 
^ifiri otOfcn/xsvAi daosra/ ^ yXuJvira- atld 
yct •roXXu.y.i x.ai »>j tu^s aii>)» fiiXK 
xcii^iov titrn. FE. R. 

132. Quadringenta ; i, 106; ii, 117. 
PRA. 

' Some godlike hero.' nemo propius 
ad deum accedif, r/uam f/ui /lominihus 
salutem dat et henefritnn ; S"n. T.UD. 
' Some rich man.' ^Xovtu S' d^tTyi xa) 
xvoos awjjSsr ixifiom 3' olos in^riof lles. 
O. D. 313 f ; or ' the emperor.' R. 
' Some munificent benefactor,' flcus 
nohis /icBC otia fecit : nanique erit ille 
mihi seiiiper deiis; Virg. E. i, 6 f; 
TiftuitTai fji.aXi(iTa oi ivi^yiTrxoTts tvtpyi- 
aia ol. . . . tis tXovtov. f/.i^ri Ss Tifjt,ns 6vffiai, 
X. T. X. Arist. Ilh. i, 5, 7; ix, 2. 

133. ' Kinder to you than the fates 
have been.' PRA. 

' Tlioiigh H''iw a ^^nrry mortal ' ^TA 1), 
irXouros, dvi^oi triirxt, thIs fof^ols iiis' 
Eur. Cy. 316. 

135. Virro not only directs the carver 
to help Trebius, and the sewer to put 
the dishes before him, but presses hiin 



200 



THE SATIRES 



S.4T. V 



Ilibus ?" O nurai, vobis hunc praestat honorem, 
Vos estis fratres. Dominus tamen et domini rex 
Si vis tu fieri, nullus tibi parvulus aula 
Luserit JEneas nec filia dulcior illo. 

140 Jucundum et carum sterilis facit uxor amicum. 
Sed tua nunc Mycale pariat ! Licet et pueros tres 
In gremium patris fundat siraul ; ipse loquaci 
Gaudebit nido ; viridem thoracajubebit 
Afferri minimasque nuces assemque rogatura, 

145 Ad mensara quoties parasitus venerit infans. 
Vilibus ancipites fungi ponentur amicis. 



to taste of the delipacies on table. PRA. 
Tbe repetition of Trebius is like that of 
Marciis; Pers. v, 79-81. 

' Brother' was a courteous appella- 
tion between equals : " Frater! Pater!" 
adde, nt cnique esi cetas, ita quemque 
facetus adopta; Hor. Ep. i, 6, 54 f; 
Mart. X, 65, 3 ; 14. R. 

136. Under the name of ilia may be 
included many favourite dishes of the 
ancients : for instance, sumeii ' sow's 
udder,' Plin. xi, 37 ; anseris jecur 
' goose's liver;' 114; MAV. apri lum- 
bus ' the loin of the boar,' Plin. viii, 51 
8 78 ; R.' kidneys, tripe, chitterlings, 
sweetbreads, &c.' F. 

' Money.' i, 112f. LUB. 

137. "H» <p'iXos Ti Xa.Q>n, 'Bd/xivt 
^eartg lh6v; 'iy^a-^sti, r^* S' av ftn ri 
Xdlin, To (p^aTt^ il^jrt f/.otor uvia ya^ 
xa) rauTa to, pn/iaTa' aura^ tycuyi ouk 
iSiXa 2«ft<»«, oh ya^ 'ix'^ 'Sofiivar 
Pallad. Ep. xxxi; Anal. t, ii, p. 13. 
LUB. 

138. ' You must be childless.' A 
parody of Virgil ; saltem si qiia mihi 
de te susceptafuisset ante fvgam sobo- 
les; si guis mihi parvulus aula luderet 
^neas, qui te tamen ore referret; &)-c. 
^. iv, 327ff. PRA. 

140. Understand ' to legacy-hunters.' 
LUB. Mart. xi, 56; PRA. x, 18. 
R. 

141. ' But, now that you are nch, let 
your mistress be put to bed : although 
she should even present you with three 
bouncing boys at a birth, he will not be 
afraid of being supplanted by your na- 
tural children, and therefore will feel 
no ill-will towards the little urchins.' 
R. ' Three children at one birth' are 



called tergemini or trigemini ; Liv. i, 
24 f; Plin. vii,3. PRA. 

142. Ipse Virro. xtxXti/niiie! Sk iri 
5!?^»«», xiXturai xaXitai ra rraiiia toi 
iffTiuvTa' xa) tlriovTa (pTiffai ffvKou of^oiirt^ei 
iivaiTco TaT^i xai v^oTayayofnivos ^iXwrai , 
xa) va^ auTov y.adcai xa) Tois fiir avf/.. 
vrai^iiv auTOs, Xiyuv " arxcs, TiXtxvs'' 
Theoph. Ch. v. R. 

143. ' In the twittering nest :' a com- 
mon metaphor; ^^nrTou var^os vioma' 
Theoph. Ch. ii ; teneroque palumbo et 
similis regum pueris; Pers. iii, 16 f; 
s. Cat. xxix, 9 ; nidosquerulos ; Sen. H. 

F. 148; nidis immitibus esram ; Virg. 

G. iv, 17; nigra velut magnas domini 
cum divitis (edes pervolat et pennis alta 
atria lustrat hirundo, pahula parva 
legens nidisque loquacibus escas; JE. 
xii, 473 ff; nidum liberorum; Ammian. 
xiv, p. 28. R. " O hell-kite! All .^ 
What, all my pretty chickens, and 
their dam, Atone fell swoop ?" Shaksp. 
Macb. iv, 3. 

' A storaacher,' MAD. ' waistcoat,' 
R. or ' corslet.' GIF. 

144. Nuces are ' walnuts,' minimee 
nuces ' filberts.' GV. Pers. i, 10 ; Hor. 
S. i, 3, 171. MAD. Augustus, animi 
laxandi causa, modo nucihus ludehat 
C2im pueris minutis, quos facie et gar- 
Tulitate amahiles undiqtie conquirebat ; 
Suetii, 83. FRA. 

' "Which the little fellow begs for, to 
buy playthings, cakes, or fruit.' GV. 

145. ' Virro goes so far as to beg 
Trebius will bring one of the little dar- 
lings with him, when he comes to dine 
athis house.' GV. MAD. 

146. See 108. LUB. Seneca, Piso, 
and Cotta would speak of their elients 



SAT. V. 



C)F JUVENAL. 



v><) 1 



Boletus domino ; sed qualeni Claudius cdit 
Anto illum uxoris, post quem nil amplius cdit. 
Virro sibi ct rcliquis ^irronibus illa jubcbit 
150 Poma dari, quorum solo pascaris odore ; 

Qualia peqietuus Phwacum auctumnus habebat, 
Crcdcre quas possis subrcpta sororibus Afris. 
Tu scabie fnieris mali, quod in aggere rodit, 



as ' friends in moderate eircum- 
stances ;' Virro would call them ' v i 1 e.' 

' Toadstools of very questioDable ap- 
pearance.' tjuorttmdam ex fiis Jhcife 
noscuntur veiiena, diluto rtibore, ranritlo 
aspeclii, livitlo intitscolore, rimosastria, 
palliflo per ambitum lahro: Plin. xxii, 
•22 ; L UB. ii su/it tutissimi fjuihus ruhet 
caro, rnagis ililulo ruhore, quam holeti ; 
id. 23. Ath. ii, 19; Suet.vi, 33; PRA. 
Livy XXX, 33, 10. 

14". " The agaricus ceesareus or' 
' imperial agaric' is the most splendid 
of ail the species ; it is common in Italy 
and is brought to the markets there for 
sale. The ancient Romans esteemed 
it one of the greatest luxuries of the 
table. This is the mushroom with 
whichClaudiuswas poisoned ;" Miller's 
Gard. Dict. GIF. Locusta supplied 
the empress Agrippina with the poison, 
which she introduced into her husband's 
favourite dish. Sch. J. Suet. v, 44 ; Plin. 
xxii, 22; Mart. xiii, 48; bolelum,qualem 
Claudiusedit, edas; i, 21, 4. Claudius 
was the fifth emperor of Rome. PliA. 
8. ^i, 620 ff. R. 

148. Uxoris [XiUT^eTfir d Xi^ i u wi- 
fixiffiir ^tciuffTartis, Eur. O. 3G1.] 

i. e.' Afterwhichhedied.' iS. There- 
fore Nero called mushrooms, (i^eiifiii 
hZr Suet. vi, 33. FRA. 

1 49. Virrones ' grandeeslilie himself ;' 
T. [wbom he calls ' brothers,' 135.] 

150. ' Pulpy fruits' (asdistinguished 
fi-om ' nuti' and ' berries') including 
apples, pears, peaches, &c. MAD. 

An allusioD perhaps to an Indian na ■' 
tioD, of which it is said ; Oflore vivunt 
pomorum silvestrium et eorum olfactu 
aluntur ; Solin. HS. his ego rebus 
pascor, his delect or, his p.er- 
fruor; Cic. in Pis. 20. 

151. Phceacia, afterwards Corcyra, 
now ' Corfu.' Homer dei»cribes the 
gardens of Alcinous as fiUed with per- 
petual fruits ; hence an etemal autumn 
reigned there. Od. 11112 fF; Sch. LUB. 



Mart. vii, 42, 6; antiguitas nihil 
prius viirata est ijitam Hisperidttm 
hortos ac regitm Adonis et Alcinoi ; 
Plin. xix, 4 ; >r 19, 1.; PRA. 

152. The garden of the Hesperides, 
daughters of Atlas ting of Maurit^ania, 
was famous for its goldea appjes 
guarded by a sleepless dragon. Her- 
cules slew the monster and stole the 
fruit. Sch. LUB. Ov. M. iv, 627 ff; 
PRA. Virg. JE. iv, 480 ff; Ath. iii, 7; 
Apoll. ii, 5, 11 ; Diod. iv, 27; R. 
'Pli. H. N. xix, 22. : 

153. ' Such as a monkey eats.' Sch. 
After weighing the various opinions 

of Commentators upon these three lines, 
I think the following paraphrase give.s 
their sense ; ' You are at liberty to 
enjoy a specked and shrivelled wind- 
fal! ; such as idle soldiers would amuse 
themselves by giving to a monkey, and 
laugh to see the nice discrimination 
with which Mr Pug tums it about to 
nibble the sound part ; while he sits in 
his regimentals on the back of his 
bearded charger before the gate of their 
barracks, after going through his manual 
exercise withduegravity and precision, 
and in as much military awe of his 
master's whip, as any of the raw recruits 
who are grinning at him ever felt for 
the cane of their drill-sergeant.' To 
say ' the apple which the soidier gives 
away' is more severe than saying' that 
which he eats.' The monkey nibbling 
his apple between whiles is more cha- 
racteristic, and the comparison more 
degrading. (See the simile in the pas- 
sage of Lucian, quoted at 157.) The 
lash was not used in the Eoman army. 
[fagelliim however may mean ' a vine 
switch,' compare viii, 247; with Vir. 
G. ii, 299.] 

Among those who think ' a monkey' 
is here meant are CLA. DP. RG. 
GRA. HOL. HNN. R. 

The Praetorian Bands were stationed 
by Tiberins in a permanent camp be- 



2 n 



202 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. V 



Qui tegitur parma et galea metuensque flagelli 
155 Discit ab hirsuta jaculum torquere capella. 

Forsitan impensa; Virronem parcere credas. 
Hoc agit, ut clolcas : nam quae comoedia, mimus 
Quis melior plorantc gula ? Ergo omnia fiunt, 
Si nescis, ut per lacrumas effundere bilem 
160 Cogaris pressoque diu stridere molari. 

Tu tibi liber homo ct regis conviva videris : 
Captum tc nidore suae putat ille cuhna^ ; 
Nec male conjectat : quis enim tam nudus, ut illum 
Bis ferat, Etruscum puero si contigit aurum 



tween the Viminal andTiburtinegates. 
FE. Pliny mentions sata in casfrorum 
aggeribns maia ; H. N. xv, 14 ; PRA. 
s. viii, 43. R. 

154. Qtii tegitur; [On coins Mars 
is represented as " a naked figure with 
a helmet on his head and a shield on 
his arm ;" ADD, Caprea, p. 86.] 

Mefuens virgce ; vii, 210 ; Ov. M. i, 
323. R. 

■ 155. Among the amusements of the 
Asiatic soldiery, Leo Africanus men- 
tions simiam eqiiifem ex caprajaculamli 
artificem. HNN. CLA witnessed an 
exhibition of this kind at a fair in Ger- 
many. [Vir. G. iii, 311-313.] 

156. In his eagerness to lash the 
guest, Juvenal now excuses the host, 
and contradicts some of his former in- 
vectives on the inherent meanness of 
the great men of Rome towards their 
dependents. Correct taste would have 
led him to carry on both his purposes 
together, without sacrificing one to 
the other: the servility of the client 
raight have been exposed, while the 
pride and parsimony of the patron were 
preserved as qualities necessary to the 
effect and consistercy of his satire. 
GIF. 

He appears to be acting the rhe- 
torician, and shifting his ground in order 
to rouse the anger or excite the hatred 
of Trebius towards Virro ; by attribut- 
ing the conduct of the latter to l-ffn^io. 
ffftos, or u/Sg/j' fiyi Vva n yivnrai avru, aXX 
o-rus i\<r(n- Arist. Rh. ii, 2, 3; s. the 
remainder of that chapter and ii, 5. 

157. iii, 152 f; ridiruhis a-que nul- 
lus est, quam (/uaiulo esurit; Plaut. 
Stich. i, 3, 64; PRA. ourai uveo^ioi f^U 
ffi fi^/tut (' of lupines/ xiv, 153;) 'i(r;i(^i¥ 



?l raii ay^iav Xa^dvav, l-iriXMov ol x.ai ai 
K^yivai f'-ov7at rou -^^u^^ou voaros, us '"'/ 
rcivia. ai vw a^^;^av/a!j iXhiv ; aXXa 
tiriXov us ol/p^ uharost ouoi 6i^fiO)v, aXXa 
<Sifjt.fji.aruv xa) o^paiv xai oivou av^oa^fiiou 
iViSvf/MV iuXus xaSa.'^i^ o Xa/3^a|, avrov 
ft,aXa 'hixaiiDS rov o^iyof/ilvov roureov Xaifiov 
^iavipiis ■ vapa, Trithas roiya^ouv rtjs Xi- 
^viias raurns T«^i';j^J>^a, xa) uir-xi^ ei 
iriSitKoi xXoiu ^ih)s rlv r^d^nXov aXXois 
fjt.\v yiXeora za^i^ns ■ aauriu oi ooxiTs 
rpv(pa.v, on sVt» aoi rZv lo^^d^uv d^ffovas 
Ivr^ayiTv h 2' iXiuh^ia xa) ro iuyivis, aut 
aiirols fvXirais xa) (p^drooffi, ^gouSa ^av- 
ra, xa) ouSi f^vfifJ.» ris auruv Luc. fjticS. 
cruv. 24. See 6 ff". B. 

158. ' Than a parasite in all the 
agonies of disappointed hunger.' PRA. 

159. See i, 45; explefur lacrymis 
eqeriturque dolor ; Ov. Tr. iv, 3, 38. 
R. 

161. See Pers. v, 73-90; Hor. S. 
ii, 7, 32 fl^; 80-94; 111 ; Ep. i, 16, 63 
£F; Mart. ii, 53; ix, 11. B,. 

162. See Hor. S. ii, 7, 38 ; Mart. i, 
93, 9 ; V, 45, 7 ft'; 'in Se xdi h xviirirct h 
tZv ffxluaXofAivojv is «■fl dilwov dfrtxvoiii 
/jt.1 Luc. Catap. 16. B,. 

163. ' Utterly destitute.' LUB. s. 
iv, 49. 

' Him and his insolence.' LUB. 

164. ' A second time.' MAD. 

' The golden boss' was an amulet 
adopted from the Etruscans, (who pro- 
bably hrought it from the east,) and at 
first was worn only by the children of 
the nobility. In process of time it be- 
came common, like the fria ii^?Hina, to 
all who were free-born. It was a hoUow 
globule sometliing in the shaf^ of a 
heart. This badge of liberty was wom 
bv the children of all ranks of freemen 



SAT. V. 



OF JUVENAL. 



203 



165 Vel Dodus tantuiu et signum de paupere loro ? 

Spcs bcne coBnandi vos decipit. " Ecce dabit jani 
Seraesura lcporeni atque alit[uid dc clunibus apri. 
Ad nos jara veniet rainor altilis." Inde parato 
Intactoque oranes ct stricto panc tacetis. 

170 Ille sapit, qui tc sic utitur. Orania ferre 
Si potes, et debes. Pulsandum verticc raso 
Prajbebis quandoque caput nec dura tiniebis 
Flagra pali, liis cpulis et lali dignus araico. 



till the age of fifteen. In our author's 
dajs the golden biilla was probably 
used onlj' by the rich ; the poorer 
classes had it of leather or other cheap 
materials. [Ascon.] Pers. v, 31 ; Sch. 
LUB. GIF. Macr. i, 6; PRA. .yuj, 
33; MJD. xiv, 5; Plin. xxxiii, ] s 
4; Aur. Vict. 6; Plut. V. ii, p. 30; 
[AX.] R. Livy xxvi, 36, 6. 

166. i, 133 f. s. the quotations from 
'Lucian at 22 and 157. R. 

Oiftai, Ti SnT* lri^-^ci( u rdXaird (it 
'EXtJj tot', eh fiiXXovaa ^iariXii* ^a^iv ; 
Eur. Her. 4:34 f ; Ph. 407 ff. 

This is the soliloquy of tbe expectant 
parasite. L UB. 

Matof ru/v Ttoift^o/ji.tiut ra Ifra,. ii 
a^ixoiro /ii-f^^i ffoZ, Kaia-ri^ oi xutts Tt^i- 
trffiut n T« ffitXti^l* tJJj ^aXa;^»;} (piWov, 
if ra dk>.a <ru*ti>.oufit. tl uTtoc^hiti li-ri 
rut ^^oxu.raKti//,itui*, dffftito; uvo X.ifiOv 
ra^a^afistoj 1 \:c ftiiTi aut- 2() ; ou }.tu- 
xev Tori u^rou ift^o^Yiitit, (s. 07-75 i) 
»t/Tl yi tiifJtadiKou ri <t>ainatov o^tiSot, ut 
fjtoXis rd. ojrd rifiit xuraXiXoiVf (s. 114 :) 



ib. 17; H. '^p^titas fifci(i^urov(irifiTt 
xai d^rut fiuirta xai dXXa roiaura, Xeii. 
An. i, 9, 26.] 

168. Minor may mean either (1) 
* smaller poultry' (viz. ' chicken or 
ducks' as distinguished from ' peese') : 
L UB. or (2) ' lessened' by Virro having 
helpedhimselfto what he wanted. BRl. 

' Hence' i. e. owing to this constant 
state of expectation.' LUB. 

169. ' With your bread clinched in 
your hand ready to commence the 
action,' (a metaphor from a sword) ' and 
yet untouched ; becau.se you are lying 
by, in silent expectancy, for the good 
things which are to come.' LUB. 

1 70. ' He show.s his sense by the way 
in which he treats you.' LUB. 

171. Et ' also.' PRA. 

172. ' One of the.se days we may 
expect to see you playing the clown in 
apantomime, (viii, 192;) or submitting 
to any servile indignities.' Sch. Pers. 
v, 82 f; RRA. Ter. Eun. ii, 2, 13; 
Plaut.Capt.i, 1,20. jR. [Livyiv,35,6.J 



S A T I R E VI. 



ARGUIMENT. 

This Satire is tlie most complete of our Author's worVs; and one in which 
all his excellencies are combined. Forcible in argument, flowing in 
diction, bold, impassioned, and sublime ; it looks as if the Poet, conscious 
of the difticulties which he had to grapple with, had taxed all his powers 
to do justice to the theme. 

It is addressed to Ursidius Postumus, as a dissuasive from marriage, 
grounded on the impossibility of meeting with any eligible partner ; the 
good old times being long gone by, when females were chaste and frugal : 
1. .29. If therefore he was tired of a.bachelor's life, he had better bid 
adieu to this world altogether. 30. .47. 

The catalogue, which it contains, of vices and follies is most appalling ; 
but is not very methodicaUy arranged. Luxury is the source of all, 
286. .300. P'rom this .spring — uubridled lust, pervading all ranks, 47. . 
132; 327 ff; 366.. 378; 597.. 601; gallantry, 23!.. 241; artfuhiess, 
271. .278; unnatural passions, 3 18.. 326; attachment to unfeminine 
pursuits, 67. .70; 246. .267; bokluess, 279. .285; coarse manners, 418. . 
433; drunkenness, 300.. 319; 125 ff; profanoness, 306. .345; quarrel- 
someness, 268. .270; litigiousness, 242. .245; cruelty,413. .418; 474.. 
495; waywardness 200. .223; and fickleness, 224. .230; imperiousness, 
presuming upon wealth and beautj-, 136. .160; pride, 161. .183; amhi- 
tious extravagauce, 352.. 365; 495.. 511 ; love of finery and cosmetics, 
457.. 460; fondness for public siugers and dancers, 379. .397; gossip- 
ing, 398..412; affectation, 184. .199 ; pedantry, 434. .456; superstition 
and credulity, 511.. 591; the producing of abortion, 592.. 597; the 
iutroducing of supposititious children, 602.. 609; the employment of 
philtres, 133. .135; 610. .626; poisoning of step-sons, 627.-652; and 
murder of husbands, 652.. 661. GIF. R. 

The ashes of the ladies, whose di.sreputable actions are here recorded, have 
long been covered by th'? Latian and Flaminian wa}-s ; nor have their 
follies, or their vices, much similarity with those of modern times. 

It would seem from iuternal evidence, that this Satire was written under 
Domitian. It has few political allusious, and from its subject might not 
have been displeasing to that ferocious hypocrite, who aftected at various 
times a wonderful anxiety to restrain the licentiousness of the age ! GIF. 

Among other writers who have been severe upon the female sex are Euri- 
pides generally, and Aristophaues in his Thesmophoriaziisce. With 
this Satire may also be compared Lucian, Aniores c. 33 ff; c. 38 ft"; R. 
Jo. Filesaci Vxor Justa; SUZ. Chrysostom, homily on Herodias; 
Barth. ep. from Spain io Celestin, p. m. 334 ff; les Memoires de Bran- 
tosme; HNN. Simonides; i^riosto, Aretino, and Boccacio among the 
Italiaus; among the French, Jean de Meung, Gringoire, Molifere, la 
Fontaine, Boileau ui Sat. x, ACH. \^Satyre nouveUe contre les Femnies, 
imitee de Juvenal par le Sieur Losme (de ]Moutchenay,)4to, 1698;] and 
Pope iu his IMoral Essays, ep. ii. 



SAT. VI. 



THE SATIllES OF JUVENAL. 



205 



Credo Puclicitiani Saturno rcgc moratani 
In terris visamqne diu, quuni frigicla parvas 
Pricberct spclunca domos ignemcpie larcmcpie, 
Et pecus et dominos communi claudcret umbra; 
5 Silvcstrem monlana torum quuni sternercl uxor 
Frondibus et culmo vicinarumque fcrarum 
Pellibus, haud similis tibi, Cynthia, nec tibi, cujus 
Turbavit nilidos exstinctus passer occllos ; 



1. Creilo implies some doubt. LUB. 

Jttlin lex (3S) ex quo renata esf, 
atqne iittrare domos j tisaa Pvil icit ia 
est ; Mart. vi, 7, 1 f. 

' The reign of Saturn,' who was said 
to have been king of Latium, was ' the 
golden age.' s. Hes. O. D. i; LU^. 
Cic. de N. D. ii, G4 ; Virgr. E. iv, 6-4.5 ; 
[{MY.)] M. vii, 180; viii, 314-829; 
Ov. M. i, 89 flF; Lactant. i, last; v, 
5; S Hieron. od Isaiah iv, 11; ix, 
last; P/M. xiii, 28 ff; 38 ff; Tib. i, 3, 
35 ff ; Lucr. v, 905-1026 ; Piop. ii, 32, 
52 ffi Ov. Her. iv, 131 H: li. 

' Tarried:' understand esse. 

3. Domiis nntra fuerunt, el densi 
frutiees et vinctcv cortice virgee ; Ov. 

-M. i, 121 f. Euryalus and liis brother 
Hyperbius are saiil to have built at 
Athens the first dwellings of brick; 
Toxius was the first who constructed 
houses of mud in imitation of swallows' 
nests ; previously to which anira et 
specus erant pro domihus; Plin. vii, 
56 ; PRA. nemora atque cavos montes 
sitvasf/ue co/el/ant, et frutices inter 
condebant st/ua/ida membra, veihern 
ventorum vitare imbresc/ue coacti ; Lucr. 
V, 953-955. R. Such was rhe cave 
of Inkle and Yarico: Spect. No. 11. 

' The household god who.^e altar was 
the hearth.' Thc deceased were buried 
in their houses, and afterwards worship- 
ped as the tutelary deities of the man- 
sion. Sch. 

4. Antif/uitiis ante usuin tectorum 
oves in antris c/audehantiir ; Fest. 
" caulae." R. Thus o!d Silenus says 
arayxaiaii tX*'- ''aipiif iriotipa rnoi (t, 
a^^xuyn ODfAius. u( t»» t a.'X(HTa otrT'^TH>, 
KuKXur , i/iot Ka6a^tiicif) anT^oi; iif,Xa, t 
iirhi^difiiSa- Eur. Cyc. '.i-J.'db. See 
other parts of the same play. 

5. Si/vestres homines; Hor. A. P. 
.391 ; \'RA. nntra petcns : contraiynis, 



viridique torus de fronde ; V. Flacc. 
i, 136 f ; si/va dotnus fuerat, cihus 
herba, cubi/ia frondes; Ov. A. A. ii, 
475. To this hardy and simple mode 
of living may be attributed the un- 
sophisticatcd virtues of olden times : s. 
286 ff; and xiv, 161 ff. R. 

G. ' With leaves and straw.' LUB, 
si/vestria membra nuda f/abant terree 
nocturno iempore capii, circum sefb/iis 
ac frondihies invo/ventes; Lucr. v, 
968-9/0. PRA. 

' Of neighbouring brutes.' sac/a fe- 
rarum infestam miseris faciehant scepe 
fjuietem : ejectiquedomofugiebantsaxea 
tecta setigeri suis adventit va/idique 
/eonis, atqiie intempesta cedebant nocte 
pavenies hospiiibus stevis insiraia cubi- 
/iafroni/e ;'Lner. v, 980-985. 

7. Manuiint mira freii viriuie pe- 
dimtque conseriabantur si/vestria scec/a 
ferarum missi/ihus saxis et magno pon- 

ilere c/avce inu/taque vincebant ; Lucr. 
V, 964-967. 

Haud siini/is : s. Lucr. v, 923 ff. R. 

Ci/nihia, whose real name was Hos- 
tia, was tbe mistress of Propertius. 
LUB. R. 

The other beauty is Lesbia (her real 
name was Claudia) the mistress of Ca- 
tullus, whose exquisite hendecasyllables 
on the death of this favourite sparrow 
are still extant. LUB. R. GIF. 

8. Passer mortuus est iiietE pttei/ee, 
queiii p/us i/ia ocii/is suts ainabat. O 
inise//e > passer '. iita niinc opera inea; 
pue//(B flendo iu rgidu/i riibent ocelti; 
Cat. iii, 3; 5; 16-18; LUB. ii; PRA. 
Mart. vii, 14, 3 f. R. 

' Whose beamingeyeswere elouded:' 
a metaplior from the faceof theheavens. 
LUB. truntKfoui oft/i,a,Ta. GRA. turha- 
tiore cw/o; Suet. iii, 69. The Gaul 
whq fought Valerius, is described (when 
asf^lled bv the raven) to have been 



206 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Sed potanda fereiis infantibus ubera magnis 
10 Et sa^pe horridior glandem ructante marito. 
Quippc aliter tunc orbe novo cceloque rccenti 
Vivcbant liomines, qui rupto roborc nati 
Compositive luto nullos habuerc parentes. 
Multa Pudiciti» veteris vestigia forsan 
15 Aut aliqua exstiterint et sub Jove ; sed Jove nondum 
Barbato, nondum Graecis jurare paratis 
Per caput alterius, quum furem nemo timeret 



oculis simul ac mente turbatus ; Liv. 
vii, 26. 

9. ' To be quaffed,' and not merely 
' sucked.' The children were more ro- 
bust when born, and were not weaned 
so very soon. According to Hesiod, 
sons were under their mother's manage- 
raent for the first hundrtd years of their 
life. GRA. LUB. xv, 70; PRA. Lucr. 
V, 925. R. The above passage is 
charmiDgly imitated by Beaumont and 
Fletcher: " Phil. O, that I had but 
digg'd myself a cave, "VYhere I, my 
fire, my cattle, and my bed Might 
have been shut together iu one shed ; 
And then had taken me some mountain 
girl, Beaten with winds, chaste as the 
harden'd rock "Whereon she dwells; 
that might have strew'd my bed With 
leaves and reeds and with the skins of 
beasts, Our neighbours ; and have borne 
at her big breasts My large coarse 
issue ;" Philaster, Act iv. GIF. 

10. ' More unpolished.' LUB. 

" And fat with acorns belch'd their 
windy food." DRY. Plin. vii, 56; 
xvii, prooem. and 5 ; PP\.A. Virg. G. i, 
8 ; 148 ; R. glandifcras inter curahant 
corpora fiiiercns plerumqne; Lucr. v, 
937; glandem qnercus., oracula prinia, 
ferehant : hctc erat et teneri cespitis 
herha, cihns; Ov. Am. iii, 10, 9 f; M. 
i, 106; Hor. S. i, 3, 100. 

11. Tellure nova coeloque recenti : 
Lucr. V, 905. R. With the w o r d s of 
this Epicureanour authordid not adopt 
his systera: see xv, 142 ff. GIF. 

12. Gens vinlm fruncis et duro ro- 
bore nata; Virg. JE. viii, 315. The 
idea originated from the oircumstance 
of men's coming forth in the morning 
from the hollow trees in which they 
had passed the night. LVB. conceptus 
sub robore crevernt infans qufcrchatqui: 



viam qua se exsereret : . . . .arbor agit 
rimas etjissa cortice vivum reddil o^ius ; 
Ov. M. X, 503 ff; 512 f. GRA. 

13. ' Formed of clay either by the 
Deity, or by Prometheus.' PRA. iv, 
133 ; xiv, 35; MAD. Hes. 0. D. 61 ; 
Phocyl. 2 ft". Hence man is called 
•jenXos Tl^ofAninos' Callim. fr. Ixxxvii. 
R. 

' No parents to teach them wicked- 
ness.' s. 232 S. 

14. ' Perhaps ; but Jupiter so soon 
commenced his profligate eareer, that 
it is doubtful.' LUB. 

15. Then began the silver age : 
LUB. sub Jove mundus erat; subiit 
argentea proles, auro deterior: Ov. M. 
i, 114 f ; Tib. i, 3, 49 ff. i?. [" The 
humour here would appear much more 
natural and unforced to a people that 
saw every day some or other statue of 
this god with a thick bushy beard, as 
there are still many of them extant at 
Rome, thau it can to us who have no 
such idea of him ; especially if we con- 
sider there was in the same city a tem- 
ple dedicated to the young Jupiter, 
called templum Veejovis, where in all 
probabiiity, there siood the particular 
statue of a Juppiter imberhis, Ov. F. 
iii, 7." ADD, E. p. lOO.J 

16. For as soon as he was an adult, 
he was an adulterer. s. 59; xiii, 41 ; 
58. R. Our authortreats thevices and 
follies of the popuiar deities with as 
little ceremony as those of Nero or 
Domitian or any other object of his 
abhorrence. GIF. 

17. ' Before perfidy and perjury were 
common.' PRA. The Greeks of that 
day were a most degenerate race : iii, 
58-125 ; xiv, 240 ; Cic. pro Flacc. for at 
one time' Attic faith' wasproverbially 
as good, as Punic faith' was bad. V. 



SAT. V[. 



Ol" JUVENAL. 



*2()7 



Caulibus aut pomis et aperto viveret Jiorto. 

Faulatini tleiiule ad superos Astriea recessit 
20 Ilac couiite atque (hue })ariter fugere sorores. 

Antiquum et vetus est, alicnum, Postume, lectum 

Concutere attpie sacri genium contemnere fulcri. 

Omne aliud criuien niox ferrea protulit lelas : 

Viderunt primus argentca soecula mcechos. 
25 Conventum tamen et jKictum et sponsaha nostra 

Tempeslate paras, jamque a tonsore magistro 



Pat. ii, 23; Plaut. Asin. i, 3, -l". The 
word prtratis also Jenotes the levity 
with which they reparded the solemn 
obligation of nn oath. s. Sen. Helv. 10; 
and xiii, 90 fiF. R. 

The Greeks introduced forms of 
swearinp- not only by Jove, tbenoe 
called S^xiat, but by other deities, and 
also by their own head or that of others : 
like Ascanius, " per eaput hoc jiiro, 
per quo'I pnter unte solebat ;''' Virg. 2E. 
ix, 300. PUA. MAD. Th» custom of 
swearing by the life of another, is an 
Asiatic one, and probably originated 
in the first great monarchies. GIF. 
[Genesis xlii,15: s. Eur. Cy. 202-272.] 

18. ' Honesty was great and tempt- 
ation little.' R. Afterwards gardens 
were enclosed, and Priapus placed in 
them as a protector. GKA. Tib. i, 3, 
43 f; Plin. xix, 4; R. Calp. i, 37 f. 
HEI. 

Viveret agrees with guisr/ue, which 
is often implied although a negative, 
as nemo, may precede: suasit ne se 
moveret et exspectaret ; C. Nep. xviii, 
6. 7?. 

19. Victa jacet Pietas : et virgo caede 
madentes, ultima cwlestum, terras As- 
traea reliqmt; Ov. 51. i, 149 f. LTJB. 
The daughter of Jupiter and Themis, 
and goddess of justice. PRA. On re- 
tiring to hcaven, she was translated 
into the sign of Virgo, and her balance 
bpcarae Libra. MAD. Janus says 
" Tunc ego regnabnm, fatiens cum 
terra deorum esset et humanis 7Ucmina 
mista locis : nondum Justitiam facinus 
mortalefugarat : nltima de superis illa 
reliijuit humum;" Ov. F. i, 247 ff; 
Virg. G. ii, 473 f ; 7?. [JE. viii, 326. 
Quarles E. i, 1.5.] 

20. See Pudor et Justitia soror in- 
corrupta Fides nuda<fue Veritas; Hor. 
Od. i, 24, 6 f. PRA. ' With her for 



acompanion :' i.fataraii fiiToc fvka iV»)», 
tr^oXnrotT atl^uxovi, AiSois xa) tiifii<ris' 
Hes. O. D. 199 f; moranfur pnuci ri- 
dicu/um e/Tugientem ex Urbe Pudorem ; 
xi, 54 f R. See note on 23. [ADD, 
D. on Med. r. i, p. 441.] 

21. Hor. S. i, 3. 106 ff. R. 
Ursidius Postumus is the friend 

whom he is dissuading from matrimony. 
LUB. 

22. ' To violate the nuptial couch 
(Cat. vi, 10 f ; tliafamos temerare pu- 
dicos, Ov. Ara. i, 8, 19; etfwdera lecti; 
Her. 5, 101 ; R.) and set at defiance 
the deity to whom the marriage-bed is 
sacred.' Sch. XCT"^. 

' The Genius:' Pers. ii, 3. PRA. 
Hence the bed is caWeAgenialis; x, 
334 ; s. Tib. i, 7, 49 ; Hor. Od. iii, 17, 
14. R. 

Fu/crum is properly ' the bedstead.' 
LUB. xi, 95 ; Prop. iv, 7, 3. R. 

23. De duro est uttima ferro, pro- 
tinus irrumpit venee -pejoris in cevum 
omne nefas : fugere Pudor Verumque 
Fidesque; Ov. M. i, 127-129. PRA. 

24. For instance, Jupiter, Ncptune, 
Mars, LUB. Mercurv, Apollo, and 
Venus. VnA. 

25. ' And yet you are mad enough to 
be preparing marriage covenant and 
contract and settlementl' SM. These 
are legal terms; (1) the preliminary 
meeting, when the suitor made his pro- 
posals to the family : (2) the compact, 
when the father promised to give the 
hand of his daughter: (3) the raarriage 
eontract, when they were fornially be- 
trothed, and the settlement (if any) 
drawn up and duly signed and attested. 
R. 

26. ' To make yourself more fasei- 
nating to the lady, LUB. )'ou place 
your head (which surely raust be 
cracked !) under the hands of a first- 



208 



TIIE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Pecteris et digito pignus fortasse dedisti ! 
Certe sanus eras. Uxorcra, Postume, ducis r 
Dic, qua Tisiphone, quibus exagitare colnbris ? 

30 Ferre potes dominam salvis tot restibus ullara .? 
Quum pateant altae caligantesque fenestrtc ? 
Quum tibi vicinura se pnebeat ^Emilius pons ? 
Aut si de multis nullus placet exitus, illud 
Nonne putas melius, quod tecum pusio dormit ? 

.35 Pusio, qui noctu non litigat, exigit a te 

Nulla jacens illic munuscula, nec queritur, quod 
Et lateri parcas nec, quantum jussit, anheles? 



rate artiste.' Quid tihi nunc moUes 
prodest coluisse capiUos scBpeque muta- 
tos disposuisse cotnas? quid suco 
splendente genas onerasse ? quid un- 
gues artificis docta subsecuisse 7nami f 
Sre. Tib. i, 8, 9 ff. R. 

27. On the day of the wedding a 
plain iron rlng (for which one of gold 
was substituted in after times, 7?.) was 
sent to the bride, which she wore on 
the fourth finger of the left hand, 
because in that finger there was said 
to be a vein eoinmunicating directly 
with the heart. Gell. x, 10 ; Macr. vii, 
13 ; Plin. xxxiii, 1. AX. PRA. 

28. ' You always used to be con- 
sidered of sound mind.' Gell. i, 6; 
PUA. [Arist. Fl. 362-365.] A. Oh 
yx/ilTs, lav yi vouv 'iX'^'^ toutov x.aTcc- 
Xivaiv Tov /3i'«v yiya.iJ.nx.ot. ya^ avro;, 
S/a Tovro iroi 'jra^oitvZ //.ii yotfHiv. D 
^tSoyiiivov ro vr^a.yfi dvippi^^ii) xv^os ■ 
A. Tlipaivi' irajhifis §£ vvi aXri^tviv us 
vriXayos avrov lufiaXtTs yag TfayittaTaF 
eu Aifiuxov. evS' AiyaTev, ouo Aiyu^rTiov, 
ov rZv Tpidxovr evx avoWvTai r^ia -^Xoi- 
dpia' y:nfi.as o ouoi ns ffHTuiri oXas' 
Menanil. and xaxoSj xaxas ectoT^oiff, 
offTis yvvaTxa ^ivrt^ov 'iynfii' rov ya^ 
trpurov eUK l^u xaxuis e fjt.iv ya^ r,v 
atf.pos, oifJt.ai, rou xaxou o o , oiov nv yvvri 
xaxov, Ti 'Tiitrfiives Eubul. both in Ath. 
xiii, 1; [or 7 f, 559.1 /?. 

29. Tisiphone was one of the three 
Furies, daughters of Acheron and 
Night; her sisters were Alecto and 
Megsera. They had snaltes instead of 
hair, Virg. M. Vii, 329 &c ; [s. Ov. Ib. 
161 iT;] SM. PRA. (opoTXoxafioi) ard 
were believed to drive men mad. R. 

30. ' A female tyrant;' (s. 43 ; 136 ; 



457; with vi, 376; ix, 78; Epict. 
Ench. 40 ; 62 ; Tib. ii, 4, 1 fiF; Tac. A. 
ii, 87; R.) ' when there are so many 
halters to be had,which would put you 
out of your misery at once.' SM. tunc 
patiere pudendum, cum tihi tot mortes 
scelerisque brevissima tanti effugia f 
V. Flacc. vii, 331-333; ego iUam 
{fortunam) feram, quum in mariu mta 
mors sitf Sen. Ep. 41. R. [s. POR, 
O. p. 304 ; u (p'iXi, yoifjt,i7s vu ^;^«/v/a»» 
'^rojXoufi.ivcov ; Apoliodorus? SM.GRO, 
on Sto. 69. DB.] 

31. ' And dizzy windows.' LUB. 
caligat in altis obtutus saxis ; Sil. iii, 
492; R. [Arist. Pl. 67-70; R. 117-135.] 

32. ' The iEmilian Bridge' was built 
by M. ^m. Scaurus in the Flaminian 
Road, LUB. a mile out of town. PRA. 
It is more correctlj^ called the Mulvian 
Bridge. Aur. Viet. 72, 8; Sall. Cat. 
45. R. 

34. 'A stripling;' Cic. Coel. 15; 
T. Q. i, 24. R. Juvenal is not here 
seriously advising the sin which he 
condemns elsewhere, but is using an 
argumentum ad /lominem, (observe the 
word dormit not dormiat, and 
42.) LUB. This is one of those pas- 
sages (unfortunately of too frequent oc- 
currence in our author) which cannot 
well be literally translated. MAD. 

35. ' Who does not trouble you with 
curtain lectures :' see 268 f. R. 

36. ' "VYho does not teaze you out of 
this little present and that little present.' 
Ov. A. A. iii, 805 f. GRA. 

lUic ' in bed.' R. 

37- ' Who does not complain of 
the little pains vou take to oblige.' 
Sch. 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



209 



Sed placet Ursidio lex Julia: toUeiv dulcem 
Cogitat heredcin cariturus turturc magno 
40 .MulloruuKiue jubis et captatore macello. 
(iuid fieri non pos.se putes, si jungilur ulla 
Ursidio .'' si mocchorum notissimus olim 
Stulta maritali jam porrigit ora capistro, 
Quem toties texit perituri cisla hatiui .^ 



38. Ursidius, having sown his wild 
oats, has now no objection to the rigid 
enforcement of the Julian law against 
adultery, aud is willini; to trust to that 
security for tlie fidelity of his futurc 
spouse ; at the same tirae he is desirous 
of qnalifyiug himself for becoming an 
heir or legatee,by renouncing celibacy, 
which (according to another Julian 
law) incapacitated a person from Ye- 
ceiving either an inheritance or a be- 
quest by legacy, unless of kin to the 
testator. Sch. /-, on Tac. An. iii, 25. 
See ii, 37; ix, 87 ff; R. PRA. Piin. 
vi, 31 ; Mart. vi, 7. GIF. 

It is a common notion that a new- 
bom infant was laid on the ground, and 
that the father by taking it up aeknow- 
ledsfed it for his own : whence arose 
the phrase tollere [Cic. At. ii, 9 ;] or 
su s cipere [a poet in Cic. D. i, 21 ;] 
liheros. Put the latter verb is applied 
to the mother aiso: Plaut. Truc. ii, 4, 
45; Ter. Heaut. iii, 5, 14 f; R. [Livy 
iv, 64.] 

39. Cofjitnt Ursidiits,silji flote jiigare 
puellam, ut placetU dotnim, cogitat Ur- 
sidius. cogitfxt Ursidius, /lercf/em tol- 
iere parvum, ut placent flomino, cogitat 
Ursiflius. cogitfU Ursidius, domino 
quacumffiie placere virgine ve/ puero : 
f/uam sapit Ursidius! Epigr. in .A.nthol. 
jB?7, t. i, p.685. HEL 

' Though certain of losing, on be- 
coming a father, if not on becoming a 
husband, all those dainty presents with 
which legacv-hunters had pre\iously 
plied him.' LUB. FE. iv, 18 ff; v, 
98; 136 ff; PRA.x,W2. MAD. 

' Turtle-doves' were considered great 
delicacies. BRI. tu tibi i.itos /tabeas 
furtures, pisces, aves; Plaut. Most. i, 
1,44; PiJ^. Mart.iii, 70, 7; 72,21; 
xiii, 53. R. 

40. ' And bearded surmullets.' iv, 15 ; 
V, 92 ; PRA. mu//i barba gemina in- 
signiuntur inferiori iabro; Plin. ix, 
1 7 s 30. These barbati mul/i, Cic. 

2 E 



Att. ii, 1 ; Varr. R. R. iii, 17; were 
(he more delicatc. Tittcirit J' 'i^n tnt 
r^iyXtii Tti;p^a>t (a Syraous;in writer of 
.>liuie-ij, l<ri/ a.1 ro y'i*u»t e;^oureii riiicvif 
»(V< ftciX>.ev ruv aXX»*° Ath. vii, ^12C, 
324 f; Eratosth. ib. 21, 2>^r,.] R. 

' And all the tempting baits of the 
market, with whichold men arecaught.' 
FE. V, 95;97; PR/1. xi, 64. R. 

41. Mopso Nisa datur, quid non 
speremus amantes ? Jungentur jam 
gryp/ies efjuis? <§•<?. Viig. E. viii, 26 
ff. PRA. Thus Benedick says, " I 
will not be sworn, but love may trans- 
form me to an oyster; but I'll take my 
oath on it, till he have made an oyster 
of me, he shall never niake me such a 
fool;" and presently afterwards, "I 
may chance have some odd quirks and 
remnants of wit broken on me, hecause 
I have railed so long against m:irriage : 
Butdoth not the appetite alter? Aman 
loves the meat in his youth that he 
cannot endure in his age:" Shaksp. 
Much Ado about Nothing, ii,3. 

The words conjux and in matrimonio 
are tobesupplied. LUB. Virg. ^. iv, 
192. R. 

43. Luxuria puerilis n uptia lib u s 
pcdicis co//iganda; Apul. LUB. 
' Like a beast of burden who quietly 
stretches forth his head to the bridle or 
halter.' MAD. t/et mo/libus ora ca- 
pisfris; Virg. G. iii, 188. See Pallad. 
epig. xiii, in BC, An. t. ii, p. 409; aud 
note on ix, 5. R. See aiso 206 ff. 

44. ' Lfifinus, in the farce, to escape 
from the incensed husband was obliged 
to jump into any place of concealment 
that came first to hand.' Sch. T. turpi 
clausus in arca, fjuo te {/emisit pcccati 
conscifi /leri/is, contractum genibus 
tangis caput ; estf/ue marito malronee 
peccantis in ambo jusfa potestas ; Tlor. 
S. ii, 7, .59-62. PRA. l?y omitting 
one letter we should have perjuri, 
VAL. which would give us an imita- 
tion of the Virgilian cadences in /R. ii, 



210 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



45 Quid, quod et autiquis uxor de moribus illi 

Quaeritur. O, medici, mt^diam pertundite venam 
Delicias hominis ! Tarpeium limen adora 
Pronus et auralam Junoni cajde juvencam, 
8i tibi contigerit capitis matrona pudici. 

50 Paucae adeo Cereris vittas contingere dignae, 

Quarum non timeat pater oscula. Necte coronam 
Postibus et deusos per limina tende corymbos. 
Unus Iberinae vir sufficit? Ocius illud 



195; andiE. V, 811. Thus Koscius is 
said to have acted im/ robissiiniim et 
perjurissimum lenonem; Cic. pro 
Kosc. 7 ; where it is opposed by the 
orator to casti/}» HNR. ' You 
have often aeted the veiiturous gallant, 
and now you are going to act the duped 
husband.' See note on i, 36 ; and 
Shaksp. Merry Wives of Windsor, iii, 
3; Ov. A. A. iii, 607 ff. 

45. ' Ani he would have forsooth 
one of the wives of the golden age ?' 
LO. ' knowiBg, as he well must, that 
suth a one is not to be got uow-a-days 
for love or money.' B. [" What has 
such a man to do with a wife, unless 
he could get some sober young lady 
educated two hundred years ago, who 
has kept herself young and fresh all the 
while in some cave under-ground along 
with the seven sleepers, to start up to 
his hand and say, Pray, have me !" 
Joanna Baillie, The Country Inn, i, 

Quid? quod: s. iii, 147. MAD. 

46. Some suppose the vein in tbe arra, 
called mediana, to be meant. BRI. 
This calling for the doctor, as though 
Ursidius were labouring under a brain 
fever, is in the same style as xiv, 252 ; 
xiii,97; Hor. S. ii, 3, 166. R. 

47. Ten',0 de/icias! extra communia 
censes ponendum ? xiii, 140 f. ' You 
are a pretty fellow to expect better luck 
thaa your neighbours, when you are 
the last man to deserve it.' R. LUB. 

' The temple of Capitoline Jove on 
the summit of the Tarpeian rock,' con- 
tained three ehapels, one sacred to 
Juno, another to Minerva, and the 
central one to Jupiter. LUB. s. x, 65 
ii; [CW, p. 211.] td templi tetigere 
gradus procumhit uterque promis 
humi gelidoqtie pavens dedit oscula 



(9rj»«-«t*»i7) saxo; Ov. M, i, 375 f. R. 

48. Auratis corjiihus hostice 
7najores dumtaxat immolahantur ; Plin. 
xxxiii, 3; xxxiv, 4 ; LUB. FHA. <rol 
S* aZ \yu pi^u (ieut nviv, ^^vrot xi^airi 
vn^iX^vas' Hom. Od r 382 tf; 425 f; 
437 tf; Tib. iv, 1, 15; V. Flacc. i, 89; 
iii, 431 ; Flat. Alcib. ii, p. 176. The 
magnitude of the blessing would not 
only require a larger victim, but one 
with gilded horns. R. 

Junoni antc omnes ctii vincla jugatia 
curce; Virg. M. iv, 59; LUB. Ov. 
Am. iii, 13, 3 ff. R. 

49. ' Head' for ' person,' ])y synec- 
doche. PRA. 

50. ' To be priestesses of Ceres,' 
whose statue, as that of other deities, 
wasdecoratedwith ' fillets.' Sch. None 
but chaste matrous were admissible to 
the celebration of her rites. FAR. s. 
XV, 140 f; Callim. in Cer. l and 5. 
conripuere sacram effigiem, matiibus- 
que cruentis virgineas ausi divce con- 
tingere vittas; Virg, M. ii, 167 f. R. 

51. " So strong their filial kisses 
smack of lust." GJF. 

52. Previously to bringing home the 
bride, the doorposts of the bridegroom 
were adorned with wreaths of flowers 
and boughs of evergreens, and scaffold- 
ing was erected, in froiit of the house 
and along the streets tbrough which 
the new-married couple were to pass, 
for the accommodation of those who 
flocked to see the nuptial procession. 
The poorer classes also had their 
garlands and processions, on a smaller 
scale. GIF. 18 f; MAD. 227 f; ix, 
85; X, 65; xii, 84; 91; Ov. M. iv, 
759 ; Claud. x, 208. R. 

53. ' Do you expect that Iberina 
(your wife that is to be) will rest con- 
tent with o n e husband ?' FA R. 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



211 



oo 



GO 



Exloifjucbis, ut l)L€c oculo contenta sit uno. 

" Magna tamen fama est cujusdam rure paterno 
\'ivt'ntis." Vivat Gabiis, ut vixit in agro ; 
Vivat Fidenis ! et agcllo ccdo ])aterno. 
Quis tamen affirnmt, nil actum in montibus aut in 
Speluncis } Adeo senuerunt Juppiter et Mars ? 

Porlicibusnc tibi nionslratur femina voto 
Digna tuo .? Cuneis an habent speclacula totis, 
Quod securus amos quodque inde excerpere possis ? 
Chironomon Ledam molh saltante Bathyllo, 



54. ' If such aproposal were seriously 
made to her, she would exclaira Eripiet 
i/Hivis oculos citius iiii/iH' Hor. S. ii, 
5, 85; FJR. Sil. iv, 758 f; R. [Ter. 
Eu. i, 2, 42; Hor. E. 14, 15 f.J 

I//u)/ and /leec serve only as props to 
the metre. JT. The lines are careless 
and unpoetieal. GIF. 

55. ' Yet Fame speaks well of a cer- 
tain young lady who has spent all her 
life at her father's house in the eountry .' 
l^RA. But the less Fame has to do 
with the female characti r, the better; 
8. Thuc. ii, 46 end ; [Ar. Eth. v, 1 , G.] 

56. ' Before 1 can admit her to he 
the paragon of virtue which you fondly 
fancy her, she must have seen some 
little of the world.' 

Gabii, once acity of the Volsci, and 
Fidenae, an ancient town of Latium, 
[now Castel Giubileo, PBA. NI, ii, 
100".] in point of populousness, were 
but one remove from her fathtr's farm. 
s. X, 100. Gabiis desertior atque Fi- 
denis vicus ; Hor. Ep. i, 11, 7 f. PRA. 
GIF. 

57 . ' I grant what you say as to her 
correct conduct while under her father's 
roof.' MAD. 

58. ' Eut she could not have been 
always within doors : therefore no one 
can answer for what may have hap- 
pened.' 

59. See note on 16; PRA. s Tib. 
ji, 1, 67; luid ergo est, quare apud 
poetas saiacissimus Jupiter dcsierit 
/iberos tol/eref ntrum sexagenarius 
factus est, et illi lex Papia fibutam (s. 

7.^^;) imposuit? Seneca in Lactant. 
i, 16. R. These illicit amours were 
generally, in ancient times, laid to the 
account of the gods. 

60. Theae ' arcades or piazzas' were 
llie fashionable lounge of Koman ladies. 



where they might see and he seens 
without exposure to the weather. (spec- 
tatuiit veniunt, veniunt specteiUur ut 
ipsce; Ov. A. A. i, 99.) There were 
several of these porticoes : tu modo 
Pumpeia, tentus spatiare sub umbra ; — 
7iec tibi vitetur, (/uce porticus auctoris 
Livia nomeii /labct ; — nec fuge tinigercE 
Memp/iitica teinpla juvencce, &fc; ib. 
50 and 67 if. PRA. MAD. R. 

GI. The steps from beuch to bench 
of the amphitheatres, after ascending 
obliquely to the uppermost row, de- 
scended at tlie same angle of inclination 
to the lowest ; so as to divide the seats 
into the shape of ' wedges,' having the 
poiiits alternately upwards and down- 
wards, like tlie letter W : see F. L. 

62. Secvrus ' without misgivings.' 
MNS. 

Sed tn prcBcipue curvis venare t/iea- 
tris ; illic invenics, quod aines, quodque 
tenere velis; Ov. A. A. i, 89 ff. R. 

63. Before the time of Augustus, the 
Eomans were acquainted with no inter- 
medial amusemeuts but mimes and 
farces of the lowest and most desultorj' 
kind. Buffoons from Tuscany were 
the performers in these pieces, which 
were introduced between the acts of 
their tragedies and comedies, and con- 
sisted of little more than coarse and li- 
centious ribaldry, and the most ri- 
diculous and extravagant antics. In 
this state the stage was fomid hy 1'ylades 
and Dathyllus ; the latter of whom was 
a native of Alexandria, and one of 
Msecenas' slaves. He had seen Pylades 
dance in Cilicia, and spoke of him in 
such terms to his master, tliat he sent 
for him to Rome. Here these two men 
formed the plan of a new kind of spec- 
tacle, which pleased Msecenas so much, 
that hf gave Baihyllus hia freedom, 



21-2 THE SATIRES sat. vi. 

'JiKtia vcsicjv non imperat : Appiila gannit, 

and rcccmmencled botli liim and his opposed to tbe vetcran, who easily tri- 
iuendto Augustus. Tbis new spectacle unnibed over his adversary, though he 
was a play pcrioinied by action alone ; couKl not liumble bim. We hear no 
it was exhibited on a magnificent more of Pylades ; but Hylas fell under 
thiatre rai>i d for tbe purpose, and being the displeasurc of tbe cmpcrorsoon after, 
accompanied by a better orcliestra than and, if I rightly understand Suetonius, 
Eome bad yct seen, it astonisbcd and was, " contrary to tbe statute in that 
delightcd tbepeople somucb, tbat they case made and provided," publicly 
forsook in sonie measure tbeir tragic wbipped at tbe door of bis own house. 
and comicpoets,for the more expressive It appe:irs from tbis tbat Augustus 
ballcts of Pylades and Batbyllus. kept tbe superintendenceof thesepeople 

To say tbe truth, these werevery ex- in his own hands. Tiberius left tbem 
traordinary nien. The art wbich they to themselves, nnd tbe consequence of 
introdu( ed tbey carried to the highest bis indifference was, tbat the theatres 
pitch of perfection, aud however .=ikilful were frequently made a scene of con- 
tbeir folkiwers may bave been, they do tention and blood, in whicb numbers 
not appcar to bave added any tbing to of all ranks perished. A variety of re- 
tbe magiiificence ol tbe sccne, or tbe gulations, as we learn from Tacitus, 
scientiiic movcments of the first per- were now made tocheckthe evil, which 
formers. We can fovm no adequate tbey only served to exasperate ; and in 
idea of ibe attacbment of tbe Romans conclusiou the emperor was obliged to 
to tbese exbibitions: it degenerated sbut up tbe tbeatres and banish the per- 
iiito a kind of passion, and occupied formers. In tiiis state were tbings at 
their whole souls. Augustus regarded tbe accessiou of Caligula. Hisfirstcare 
it with complacency, and either fiom a was to undo every thing tbat had been 
real love for tbe art, or from policy, done. Under tbis protligate madman, 
tocftrred honours aud immuuities on tbe ballets took a licentious turn, and 
its proftssors. By an old law, magis- hastened tbe growing degeueracy of 
trates were allowed to infiict corporal manners. Ciaudius lefi them as he 
punishment on mimi anJ players ; pan- fonnd tbem ; but under Nero, the bloody 
tomimi (such was the espressive name disputes to wbicb tbey constantly gave 
given to tbese new performcrs) were birth, reluctantly compelled tbat prince 
exempted frcm thislaw ; tbey were be- to banish tbem once more. He was 
sides allowed to aspire to honours from too fond of the fine arts, however, to 
whicb tbe former were escluded. Such suflfer so capital a brancb of tbem to 
pvotection produced its natural eflfects ; languisb in ueglect, and therefore 
insoience in tbe daucers, and parties speedily brougbtback tbe exiles. From 
amoug tbe peopte. Pylades excelled this time tbe panfvmimi seem to bave 
in tragic and Bathyllus in tomic sub- iiourisbed unmolested, until Faris, the 
jects ; lience arose disputes on tbeir Bathyllus of ]3omitiau"s reign, raised 
rcspectivemerits, which wereconducted tbe jealousy of tbat wretched tyrant, 
with all the warmth of a political ques- who put him, and a young dancer who 
tion. Augustus flattered bimself that resembled him, to death, and drove the 
be sbould re-establisb tranquillity by vestfrora Kome. They wererecalledthe 
banisbing tbe former ; but he was mis- instant the emperor was assassinated, 
taken ; the people foimd they had lost and continued througb the whole of 
one great souree of amusement by bis Nerva'sand some partofhis suecePSor's 
absence, and their clamours occasioned reign ; but they werc now become so 
his immediate recaU. Tbe death of vitiated by tbe shameful indulgence of 
Eatbyllus, soon aftcr this eveut, left Caligula and Nero, that, if wemay be 
Pvlades witbout a rival. He did not lieve Pliny, Tiajan finally suppressed 
bearbis faculties metkly ; be frequently them, at the unanimous desire of the 
in-ulted tbe spectators for not compre- people. 

hending bim, and tbey endeavoured in Tbe C//?V6«o»iOHherementioued,was 
their turn to roake him feel the weight a ballet of action founded on the well- 
of their resenrment. Hehad a favourite known amour of Leda, in which some 
pupil named Hylas; this youth tbey farourite danrer (probably Paris) was 



SAT, VI. 



OF JIIVENAL. 



'2l:i 



(Hj Sicul in auiplcxu, subituiu, niiserabilo, longuni : 
Altendit Thyinelc ; Thymelc tunc vustica discit. 
Ast aliic, quotics aukca rccondita ccssant 
Et vacuo clauso<[ue sonant Ibra sola thcatro 
Atque a plcbciis longc Mcgalcsia, tristcs 



the prineipal perfonncr. Whutlier he 
playeil tlie Swaii or the I-,a(ly caiinot 
now be told ; hut in a «tory so wantonly 
frameil, anJ in an age, where so little 
restraint wax impo.4ed on an actor, 
enough might be ih)ne in either, to 
interest und infiame the coldeat specta- 
tor. GIF. 

An the sueccssors of Pylades, in tbe 
tragic ballet, wi-re called by hi.s name, 
so the succes-sors of nathyllu.s, iii the 
comic Ijallet, were honoured witli the 
name of that eminent dancer. SM. In 
like manner the name of Rosriiiff has 
been often applied to distinguished 
actors. 

64. ' The e.xliibition of thcse ballets is 
attended with daiiger even to ihe piirest 
minds. They would excite iinproper 
emotions even in the imniaoulate Ves- 
tal's breast, and will lill the head of 
the innocent couiitry t<irl witli unch;iste 
ideas.' spynins irrilant aninws <le- 
niissa per anrcm, tiuam (lua; sunt oculis 
subj«;cla Jiileliljus^ et iiiia- ipsa sihi 
tradit spectatrix; II ir. A. P. ISO 
if. 

Tuccin was a Vestal, who, when her 
character was inipeacli< d, cleared it by 
ihe ordeal of drawing water in a sieve. 
V, Max. ^iii, 1,5; Plin. xxviii, 2 ; 8. 
To this story there seems an olilique 
allusion.3.i,39; xi, 161.LUB.HNN. 
R. 

' The modest Apulian brunette loses, 
for the tirne, all sense of dtcency.' L UB. 
purlica mulier, Saljina iiualis, aut per- 
usta solihus pernicis uxor Jippuli; llor. 
Kp. 2, 39 f; s. x, 298 f. R. 

' Whine.s.' LUB. Apul. Met. ii, p. 
) 19,8; principio tre)uulisij a nnitihus 
aerapulsat, vi^rhuijue la$rivus meretri- 
cum imitantia cietus vibrat; Auson. 
l£p. cviii, 4 ff. R. 

65. Amplexu; Sil. xi, 399. \l. [The 
punctuatioii of this passage is emended, 
with the omission of et before miserahile, 
after DB.) 

Suhilum, miserabile, lonijum, ac- 
cnrdingto J. Polliix, were the technical 
names of certain movements : LUU. 



(s. Pers. i, 3.'{ fi"; nnlielnt verhisijuc 
sonal plorahilc iiiiiililain ullra ne- 
iliiitiani frartis; C'l;iud. xix, 'i.^JO fl' ; 
R.) correspondmg perli;ips to thc terms 
presto, ailnijio, <^v ; in modern music. 

[Th:it is ijannilum eilit suhilum mi- 
serahileiu lonijinu. DB.\ 

6(i. f Thymele is all attentirin ; for 
Thyinele, tliough an actress, is a mere 
couiilry wench coiiiparcd with those 
Itoinan in;itrons, and takes a lesson in 
wiekediiess frorn tbeir perforinances.' 
DB.] Marius inipiijre pruilenten/ue 
suoru/n el /lostiuin rcs pariter atten- 
dere; Sall. H. .J. 93. 

Sullantes Sati/ros iniitabitur Alphe- 
sibwus; Virg. E. v, 73. 

/« thcatris admonetur omnis eetas, 
fieri posse ijuod factum cst ? exempla 
fiiint, ijua'jum csscfacinora destitcrunt. 
adulleriuni ilisritiir liunt luilelur ; et 
lenorinunte nd rilia iniljlira: niirlorilatis 
malo, rpta; pudiraforlas.se ad spectacu- 
bnn accesserat, inde revertitur impudi- 
ca. movet sensns, mulcct affectus, ex- 
fvijnut honi pectoris conscientiam forti- 
orem ; Cyprian Ep, ii, 2 ; Lact. i, 
20; Tertull. de Spect. 17; Sen. Ep. 
17 ; Colum.pr. PRA. R. 

67. When the theatrical season wa.s 
over, ' the curtains were packed away.' 
By ' the curtains' we may understand 
' all the stage property.' if//:;. MAD. 
According to Isidore ' hangings' were 
called a ulaea (Hor. A. P. 154 ;) from 
being first used in tlie hall of Attalus 
king of Pergamus. PRA. s. Lucr. iv, 
7:i ; Virg. G. iii, 24 f ; Ov. M. iii, 111 
ff. R. 

68. Even then " Ccelebs in search of 
a wife'' vvould have known where to 
have looked for one: ct foraconveniunt 
(ijuis crerlere possit l) amori ;flainmaque 
in arijuto sixpe reperta foro : &rc. Ov. 
A. A. 79 ff. 

69. From the 5th of April to the 
I5th of November was an interval quite 
long enough to exercise the patience of 
the ladies. GIF. Understand distant. 
LUB. 

' The Plebeian garaes' wcre instituted 



214 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



70 l'ersonam ihyiKumque tcnent et subligar Acci. 
Urbicus exodio risum muvet Atellanic 
Gestibus Autonoes : hunc diligit .iilia pauper. 
Solvitm' his magno comocdi fibula. Sunt, qua^ 



either, exactis regibus, pro lihertate 
■plebis ; aut pro reconciliatione plcbis 
pust secessioneni in Aventinuin ; Ascon. 
in Verr. ii ; Dionvs. vii, 70-73; Pliu. 
vii, .06. AX. PRA. R. 

Brutus instituted the other games; 
(jiios in Palatio nostri majores ante 
templum., in ipso Matris Magnce con- 
spectu, Megalensibus fieri celebrarique 
voluerunt : tjui sunt iiiore institutisf/ue 
niaxime casti , solcmncs, rcligiosi : fjui 
uni ludi ne verbo quidein appellantur 
Latino, ut vocabulo ipso et appetita re- 
ligio externa, ct Matris Magnce (tjJj 
(jLiy ciXns jKjjTgof) noinine suscepta de- 
claretur : scrvorum Mrgalesia fuerunt ! 
Cic. Har. Eesp. 12; PRA. s. Ov. F. 
iv, 179 £f; 357; Liv.xxix,U; [(DU.)] 
xxxiv, 54. R. During the above in- 
terval, only the greater scenic games 
weresuspended. ACH. TheCircensian 
Games in honor of Ceres were a p a- 
trician festival. s. Ov. F. iv, 353; 
Gell. ii, 24; xviii, 2. HS. 

Tristes ' victims of ennui.' 

70. ' The tragic mask' was tlie in- 
vention of Jischylus. Hor. A. P. 278 ; 
PRA. iii, 175. R. 

' The spear wreathed with vine- 
leaves' was one of the insignia borne 
by the votaries of Bacchus ; to whom 
the drama was originally sacred. PRA. 
Hor. A. P. 277. R. 

This ' girdle' was a ppir of short 
drawers (5j-«j(?ii)([ta),whicti merely weut 
round tlie hips,and left the thighs bare. 
FAR. [^ial^afzarit Thuc. i, 6, 5 ;] sceni- 
corum mos tantam hahet a vetcre disci- 
plina verecundiam, ut in sceiiam sine 
sublignculo pi-odeat netno; Cic. Off. i, 
35. PRA. 

Accius was the name of a tragic 
poet and annalist,who flourished about 
600 y. R : but here it is probably some 
pantomimic actorwho is uieant. PRA. 
R. 

71. Urbicus is either the name or 
appellation of some buffoon engaged 
perhaps to amuse the ladies at their 
private theatricals during the recess. 
PE. s. Mart. i 32, 11. R. 

Exodium; iii, 174 f; PE. Suet. iii, 
45. PRA. The name is perhnps de- 



rived from its immediately foUowing 
thu i^ohat, which is the last part of a 
tragefiy; Arist. Poet. VO. 

'jThe Atellan Piay' (s.note on i, 3 ;) 
had its name frc.n Atella, a town of 
the Osci in Campania betwcen Capua 
and Naples, now ' Aversa.' It re- 
semhled the Satyric Drama of the 
Greeks. Juventus histrionibus fabel- 
htrum actu relicto, ipsa inter se more 
antiquo ridicula intexta versibus juc- 
titare cwpit ; quce inde exodia postea 
appellata consertaque fabellis potissi- 
mum Atellfjnis sunt. quod genus 
ludorum ab Oscis acceptum tenuit ju- 
ventus, nec ab histrionibus pollui passa 
est. eo institutum manet, ut actores 
Atellanarum nec tribu moveantur, et 
stipendia tainquain expertes artii ludi- 
crce faciant; Liv. vii,2, [27-] PRA. It 
was somewhat of the same nature as 
the modern burletta of Midas. 

72. Autonoe was one of the unfortu- 
nate daughters of Cadmus and Her- 
mione,and the mothernf Actseon. LVB. 
ThivS was probably a burlesque of some 
serious ballet on the same subject; as 
there was little that was laughable in 
the tragic history of Autonoe, GIF. 
any more than in the loves of Pyramus 
and Thisbe ; whicb notwithstanding 
become laughter-stirring in the hands 
of Bottom and his company. 

^lia was a lady sprung from a very 
poor though respectable family. [Hor. 
O. iii, 17, 1;1 Max. iv, 4, 8; LUB. 
PRA. Liv. xxxii, 7. R. The object 
of her affections not being a vocal per- 
former did not wear a buckle, and 
therefore was tobe obtained at a cheaper 
rate. FE. 

73. "■ II ^''agit fPune operation pra- 
tiquees par les anciens pour conserver 
aux acteurs la voix : elle s'appelloit 
infibulation, son objet etoif d^em- 
pecher ceux que Fon boucloit cCavoir 
cominerce avec les femines;'" DX. 
Tertullian, when he says that we ought 
' to mortify our lusts,' expresses it by 
the vrordsfibulain carni imuonere. GIF. 
s. Cels. vii, 25; LUB. Mart. vii, 81; 
PRA. 378. MAD. 

With inagno understand pretio.L UB. 



SAI. VI. 



OF JrVKNAL. 



•2lo 



Chrysogoniiiu cantare vctont. IlispulJa traganlo 
75 Gaudet. An cxspcctas, ut Quinlilianus aniclur .? 

Accipis uxoreni, dc qna ciliiarttHlus l<'chion 

Aut Glaphyrus liat patcr Auil)rosiusquc choraulcs. 

" Longa ])cr anguslos figanuis ])ulpita vicos : 

" Omentur jiostcs ct grandi janua lanro, — " 
80 Ut tcstudineo tibi, Lcntule, cono])co 

Nobilis Euryalum uiirniilloncin cxprimat infans. 
Nu])ta .scnatori coniitata est ni])])ia ludiuni 

Ad Pharon et Niluni (auiosaque mu3nia Lagi, 



Bv /lis more wealtbv ladies are sig- 
nified. LUB. 

74. Chrifsogmus was a singer, who 
lost his voice owing to his debaueheries. 
LUB. vii, 17G; s. Ath. xii, 9. R. 

Hispulla; xii, 11. LUB. Her 
niece married the younger Pliny ; Ep. 
iv, 19. 

75. ' Quintilian' was a very virtuous 
as well as learned man, whom Juvenai 
always mentions with respect. Some 
say that he took lessons of him in 
rhetoric; see next satire. GIF. The 
name here denotes ' a man of genuine 
worth and talent.' LUB. s. 280. Pos- 
tumus was prohablv a man of genius. 
R. 

Ejcspectns; 239 ; xiv, 25 ; Ov. A. A. 
iii, 749. R. 

76. iJeywa ' by whom.' GRA. Mart. 
vi, 39. R. 

77. ' The choral flute-player.'i?7fi. 
Glaphyrus was a celebrated per- 

former on the flute in the Au<rustan 
age. Mart. iv, 5; Antip. epig. 28 f, in 
BC, An. t. ii, p. 116, R. See Mart, 
vi, 39. GIF. 

78. ' All these grand preparations 
are made ; and for what end ? Why, 
that tliy chaste and exemplary wife 
may present thee with a fac-siraile of 
some prize-fighter.' 

' Made narrow by the crowds of spec- 
tators, L UB. as well as by the scaffoJd- 
ing erected a 1 o n g them, (note on 52 ;) 
from which poets recited epithalamia.' 
VAO. 

79. ' With the entire tree:' recto 
proceras stijnte laurus; Cat. Ixiv, 290 ; 
GRA. s. xii, 91. R. [s. iii, 1.55.] 

80. Under the canopy of a betlstead 
inlaid with tortoise-shell.' Kentanrtiai is 
' a fine-meshed (vii, 40 ;) net to keep oflF 



gnats,' ' a musquito net.' Hor. Ep. 9, 
16; s. 89; xi, 94 f; Sch. LUB. 
MAD. Mart. ix, 60, 9; xii, 77, 5; 
xiv, 87; Anthol. iv, 32; Plut. V. xlv, 
p. 927; Varr. R. R. ii, 10, 8; Prop. 
iii, 11, 45. R. 

Juvenal, when he gave his friend the 
name of Lenfu/us, had in view tlie fo!- 
lowinn; curious anecdote. The consuls 
Lentulus aml Metellus (690 y. R.) 
were observed by all the spectators at a 
phiy, to be extremeiy like a second and 
third rate actor, then on the stage ! V. 
Max. ix, 14, 4. The poet insinuates 
with malicious archness, that Ursidiiis 
coulil not comphiin that his ' son and 
heir' was of le^s ' noble' origin than 
himself. GIF. GliA. [but s. CW, p. 
}70tf,J 

81. Mirmillo; ii, 143 ff; PRA. viii, 
200, R. 

Expriinal is a metaphor taken from 
statuary. R. ' He is the very image 
of Euryahis.' 

82, The ' senator' was Vciento ; 
iv, 113, The ' gladiator,' Sergius, 
LUB. iii, 185. MAD. 

Hippia ; x, 220. R. A siraiiar story 
is told of AJcinoe and Xanthus; Par- 
then. Erot. 27. HNN. The elopement 
of Hippia could not have taken place 
much later than the middle of Do- 
mitian's reign, about which timo this 
Satire was composed, Paris, who 
is mentioned in 87, vvas put to death 
not long after ; and the pantomimic per- 
formers (here spoken of as the minions 
of the ladies) were ignominiously driven 
from the city. GlF. 

Ludius origiually was limittd to the 
significatioii of 'a stage-piayer:' but 
afterwards it becamethe properappella- 
tion of ' a gladiator.' SM. s. 104. Lu- 



216 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Prodigia et mores Urbis tlaninantc Canopo. 

85 Immemor illa domus et conjugis atque sororis 
Nil j)atria3 indulsit, ploranlesque improba natos, 
Utque magis stupeas, ludos Paridcmque reliquit. 
Sed quamquam in magnis opibus pluinaque paterna 
Et segmentatis dormisset parvula cunis, 

90 Contemsit pelagus : famani contemserat olim, 
Cujus apud molles minima est jactura cathedras. 
Tyrrhenos igitur lluctus lateque sonantem 
PertuUt lonium constanti pectore, quamvis 
Mutandura toties esset mave. Justa pericli 

95 Si ratio est et honesta, timent pavidoque gelantur 



dium is here a spondee by (rwn'|»)<r/j, as 
iu xi, 20; s. iv, 37; K. and iii, 7(5. 

83. Pharos wa.s a small islaud in the 
bay of Alexandria on which stood the 
celebrated light-house built by Sostra- 
tus, and accounted one of the seven 
wonders of the world. X UB. PRA. R. 

Either ' infamous' on account of the 
dissolute manneis which prevailed 
there; as /amosus Ccaiopifs; xv, 4G; or 
' famous,' R. as Jerusalem is called 
Jamosa m-bs; Tac. H. v, 2, 

Alesandria was made the seat of 
government when Egypt, after the dis- 
memberment of the empire of Alexander 
the great, was erected into an inde- 
peudent kingdom by Ptolemy Lagus 
founder of the ISIacedonian dynasty. 
Sch. LUB. Sil. i, 196. R. 

84. ProfUgia (iv, 97;) et mores, t» 
iia iusTf. R. s. 28(^1 

' Even CanopusYi, 26. PRA. 

86. ' She showed no regard.' FRA. 

87. "What can mark more strongly 
the madness of Hippia in setting a 
higher value on the Circensian games 
than on every thing which she ought to 
hold most dear, and that of the Eomans 
in being so devotedly fond of these 
amusements? iii, 223; x, 81 ; xi, 53. 
LUB.PRA.R. 

Paris was a celebrated pantomimic 
actor, who continued a great favourite 
withI)om)tian,till the empress Domitia 
becameenamouredof him ; upon which, 
he was put to death. Sch. vii, 87 ff; 
Suet. xii, 3 ; 10 ; D. Cass. Mart. xi, 14. 
There was another famoos actor of the 
same name, whom Nero put to death. 



Suet. vi, 54; Tac. An. xiii, 20; 22; 
27. PRA. 

88. i, 159; Ov. M. vii, 62 ff. R. 

89. ' The cradle' was either(l) ' de- 
corated with fringe.' Sch. ii, 124. LUB. 
R. Or (2) ' inlaid with tessellated 
wood,' or (3) ' veneered with tortoise- 
shell.' 80. PRA. R. 

91. ' The loss of reputation never 
gives noble ladies the slightest concern.' 
T. l" Many of theirladies and daugh- 
ters, to the intent to maintaine them- 
selves according to theirdignities, pros- 
titute their bodies in shamefull man- 
ner;'' Sir F. Grevill, Lord Brook, 
The Five Yeares of K. lames, p. 4.] 

Jactiira [e*/3»<ln- the metaphor is 
from a ship m a storm.] 

These ' soft chairs' are either those 
iii which they usually sat, or those in 
which thev were carried when they 
went out. r. L. FAR. i, 65; RRA. 
ix, 52; MAD. Mart. iii, 63, 7; xii, 
38,1. 

92. ' The Tusean or Lower Sea.' 
LUB. [BY, on H. 0. v, 10, 19. K.] 

93. ' The lonian Sea' lies bctween 
Sicily and Crete. L UB. As sonantcm 
is masculine, lonivm must agree 
with siniim, as loniiis iido remugiens 
sinus Noto, Hor. Ep. 10, 19 ; orfiuctum, 
BY. or pontum, as the Greeks call it 
To* 'livion, viz. ■jrivrav: R. thus^^<x?<5; 
Claud. XX, 334. HEI. 

94. ' So often' viz. the Tuscan, the 
lonian, the ^gean. Sch. 

95. Timent gelantitrque, ' they are 
frozen with fear.' R. See note on i, 
166. 



SAI. \J. 



()F JUVENAL. 



■21 



Pcctore ncc treiuulis possunt insislcrc plantis : 
Fortcm aninunn jujcstant rebus, quas lurijitcr audcnt. 
Si jubcat conjux, duruui cst consccnderc navim, 
Tunc scntina gravis, tunc sumnnis v(>rtitur acr : 

100 Qua; uKrcliun) scquitur, stomaclio valct. Illa marilum 
Convomit : liicc intcr nautas et prandct ct crrat 
Per puppem et duros gaudct tractare rudcntcs. 
Qua tamen exarsit forma.? qua ca])ta juvcnta est.'' 
Hippia quid vidit, jjroplcr quod Ludia dici 

105 Sustinuit? Nam Sergiolus jam raderc guttur 
Cccpcrat ct secto requicm spcrarc lacerto. 
Praetcrea multa in lacic defbrmia, sicut 
Adtritus galea mediisque in naribus ingens 
Gibbus ct acre malum senipcr stillantis occlli. 

110 Sed gladiator crat: facit hoc illos Hyacintlios ; 
Hoc pueris patriaeque, hoc pra^tulit illa sorori 
Atque viro. Ferrum est, quod amant. Hic Sergius idem 



97. viii, 165; MAD. s. 284 f ; Plaut, 
M. Gl. ii, 5, 54 ff. R. 

98. ' How hard it is!' ironically. 7?. 

99. ' The bilp;e-water is intolerable: 
the sky turas rounil and round;' i. e. 
' she is sick and giddy.' LUB. 

103. ' Her flame had neither beauty 
noryouth to recommend him.' LUB. 

104. ' "What did [Hippia (s. \iii, 
96;)] see in him.^' 

Ludia [' Mrs Player,'] ' the fencer'9 
truU.' GIF. 

105. Diminutives are used as terms 
of endearment : teneote meum pabim- 
buli/m, meum passercuhan ; Apul. FE. 

Till 454 V. R. when P. Ticinius 
MiEna introduced barbers from Siciiy, 
the Romans wore their beards long, 
and hence are called intonsi, barbati, 
and capillati. iii, 186; iv, 103; v, .30; 
vi, 26; xvi, 29; Hor. Od. i, 12, 41 ; 
ii, 15, 1 1 ; Tib. ii, 1 , 34 ; Varr. K.K. ii, 
11,10; Plin. vii,59; Tac. .-^n. xiv, 15. 
[(i.)] Their chins after this were 
trimmed, either by shaving, or by clip- 
ping. Plaut. Capt. ii, 2, \G. Young 
lads cherished their beardd till the age 
of twenty-one, (Ov. A. A. i, 518 ff; 
Mart. ii, 36, 3 ff; August. de Civ. D. 
iv, 1 ;) when it was cut and consecrated 
to some deity. iii, 186; xiii, 58. Non- 
dum barbatus denotes ' a boy ;' 15 f; 
barba denotes ' youth ;' 215 ; viii, 166 ; 

2 



barbati and barbatuli ' young men or 
lads,' xiii, 56; 58; who only cl ipped 
their beard, i, 25; x, 226; till man- 
hood, or the age of forty, at which they 
began to shave: and this was the time 
of life ' little Sergius' had arrived at. 
Scipio Africanus was tlie tirst who 
shaved daily ; afterwards depilatory 
applications were invented: ii, 107; 
Tac. An. xiv, 15; Gell. iii, 4; Plin. 
vii, 69. R.FE.LUB. 

106. ' From having been almost dis- 
abled by a cut in his arm, he was not 
without hopes of obtaining his dis- 
charge:' the sign of which was the 
being presented with a wnoden sword. 
Sch. LUB. 

107. ' l'or instance.' R. 

108. ' Galledwith his helmet.' MAD. 
viii, 203. R. 

109. 'A wen,' 3IAD. occasioned by 
frequent blows. LUB. 

" And sharp rheum trickled from his 
blood-shot eyes." GIF. 

110. ' The only recommendation he 
had was the being a gladiator.' 

' AII that is lovely.' Hyacinthusvi&s 
beloved by ApoUo, who accidentally 
killed him, and changed him into a 
flower of the same name. Ov. M. x, 162 
ff. PRA. Thus Prometheus is used 
for ' a cunning artificer;' iv, 133. R. 

112. ' 'Tia tbe steel they love.' [s. 



218 



V 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Accepta rude ccepisset Veiento videri. 

Quid privata domus, quid fecerit Hippia, curas ? 

115 Respice rivales divorum ; Claudius audi 

Quae tulerit. Dormire virum quum senserat uxor ; 
Ausa Palatino tegetem pra)ferre cubili, 
Sumere nocturnos meretrix Augusta cucullos, 
Linquebat comite ancilla non amplius una, 

120 Sed nigrum flavo crinem abscondente galero. 
Intravit calidum veteri centone lupanar 



253. The unfeminine character of tbis 
propensity is the more evidcnt, ywh 
ya^ raXXa [/.iv (pefiov crXsa, neiKn t Ij 
aXx>tv xa.) fihn^ov iiire^av' Eur. M. 265 f.] 
Fausti)ia the elder, wife of M. An- 
toninus Pius, Faustina the younger, 
wife of M. Aurelius Antoninus, and 
Lncilla, the wife of L. Aurelius Veius, 
amongst others, degraded themselvesby 
setting their affections on gladiators. 
GRA. ACH. 

113. See vii, 171. R- Horace uses 
this metaphorically, spectatuin satis, et 
donatum jam rude, quceris, McBcenas, 
iterum antiquo me includere ludo ; Ep. 
i, 1, 2 f. PRA. 

114. ' Dost thou feel coneemed .^' 
PRA. 

' Private' persons were so called as 
distinguished from the magistrates ; i, 
16 ; and, under the imperial government, 
from the emperors; iv, 66 ; xii, 107. R. 

115. The emperors themselves may 
be called ' rivals of the gods :' or as 
the word ' rivals' genei-ally denotes 
' competitors in love,' (Ov. A. A. iii, 
563; 593 ; &c ;) it may signify ' those 
who intrigued with empresses,' the 
emperors themselves being called divi 
becduse it was the practice to deify 
them after death. Sch. FE. 

116. ' His wife Messalina.' Sch. x, 
331 ff ; Suet. v, 26; 29 ; 36 f; D. Cass. 
Ix, 14 ff ; Aur. Vict. Caes. 4 ; R. Tac. 
An. xi, 12; 26; 30; FE. Plin. x, 63 s 
83. PRA. 

117. 'Totheimperial chamberinthe 
palace.' FAR. LTJB. s. Mart. xiv, 
147. MNS. 

' A coarse mattress.' Sch. v, 8. R. 

118. Et is omitted. The omission 
of the conjunction is common in Juvenal , 
and is sometimes awkward, as in 604; 
viii, 27; xii, 46 f. R. 



' The imperial harlot:' Augxista was 
the empress's title. MAD. Thus Cleo- 
patra is called meretrix regina ; Prop. 
iii, 11, 39 ; Plin. ix, 35 s .58. R. 

' A hood' or ' calash,'whichshe wore 
to conceal her face. LUB. viii, 145; 
PRA. iii, 170. MNS. 

119. ' She left hersleepinghusband.' 
116.5^5. 

' She took but one attendant, that she 
might not be suspected of being a lady 
of rank, and that her depraved conduct 
might be known but to one confidante.' 
SVL. Hor. S. ii, 7, 53; Suet. vi, 26; 
iv, 11 ; viii, 12. PRA. 

120. " Her dark hair coneeard Be- 
neath a yellow tire :" not only as a 
more effectual disguise; but because 
courtezans at Rome, if nature had not 
favoured them with auhurn tresses, 
wore false hair of a golden hue ; since 
that was the favourite colour. (s. Mart. 
V, 68.) This fashion was borrowed from 
the Greeks : aud the consequence was 
that matrons were equally anxious to 
have dark hnir : ^s. L, on T. <t. 4 ;] 
»u» §' Vfp aw oiKU)i rcHvSi , r^» yutaTxa ya^ 
rh» ffuip^tv oh S«r rd! <r^i^as ^avfas ^roiiif 
Menand. fr. GIF. Sch. Serv. FE. ga- 
lerus ' a wig ;' gausape, Pers. iv, 37 ; 
vi, 46 ; femina canitiem Germanis 
inficit herbis, et melior vero quceritur 
arte color. femina procedit densissima 
crinibus emtis, proque suis alios efficit 
cere suos ; Ov. A. A. iii, 163-166; s. 
V, 115; xi, 164. R. 

121. ' Warm from Lycisca's having 
but just left it ;' FAR. or ' which had 
nothing but the old patch-work quilt to 
keep it warm.' 31NS. 

' The stews' at Rome were constract- 
ed in the form of a gallery, along which 
were ranged, on each side, a number of 
contiguous cells, or little chambers ; 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



219 



Et cellam vacuam atque suam. Tunc nuda papillis 
Constitit auratis, titulum mcnlita Lycisciu, 
Ostonclitquo tuum, gouorosc Jiritannice, ventrera. 

12-5 Excepit blanda intrantes alque aera poposcit 
Et resupina jacens nuiltorum absorbuit ictus. 
Mox, lonone suas jaui dimittcnte puelkis, 
Tristis abit et, quod potuit, taraen ultima collam 
Clausit, adhuc ardens rigidio tentigine vulvai, 

loO Et lassata viris nec dum satiata recessit 
Obscurisque genis turjjis fumoque lucernce 
Foeda lupanaris tulit ad jiulvinar odoreu). 
Hip})omanes carn)euque loquar coctumquo voneuum 



GIF. like the arrangement in the 
wards at Greenwich Hospital or at 
Bedlam. 

122. ' Left vacant for her ovvn use.' 
SG. s. jiirat capit/os esse, quos emit, 
sitos FabiiUa, mom/itid, Pai/lie, peje- 
rat ? iiego. ]\Iart. vi, 12. 

Nieda ; s. xi, 1 TO ; R. ii, 71 ; OTtiuda 
papillis, as turpis genis ; 131. 

123. ' She took herstation.' The sim- 
ple verb is used; [^x, 239;] xi, 170; 
Claud. xix, 95; but prustare is more 
common ; ^,47; iii, (55 ; ix, 24. M. 

' Gilded ;' Juvenal is to be under- 
stood literaily. ThepapilltB were covered 
with gold leaf ; a species of ornament 
which is used by many of the dancing- 
girls and privileged courtezans of the 
East, to this day. GIF. 

Over the door of each cell was written 
' the name' and terms of the tenant; 
who ' stooJ' at the entrance, soliciting 
thepreferenceof the visitors. Messalina 
had probabJy engaged ' Lycisca' to 
give up her apartmeut, as being one 
that was much resorted to. GIF. FAR. 
PRA. Sch. LUB. insrriptce limina 
cellce ; Mart. xi, 46, 1 ; Sen. Contr. i, 
2; s. viii, 168. R. 

Lycisea is mentioned by Martial, iv, 
\7,\.PRA. ' ' 

124. MatroncB nostrcB ne adiilteris 
quidem ptus sui in cuhiculo, (/uam in 
publico ostend unt; Sen. de Ben. vii, 
9 end ; svb clara nuda lucerna; Hor. 
S. ii, 7, 48. R. 

See ii, 145. ' The womb that gave 
birth to a prince of the blood.' R. Bri- 
tannicus was the acknowledged son of 
Claudius by Mesaalina. Tac. xiii. Un- 



less we are to take the epithet ironically 
onaccountof his mother's infamous cha- 
racter. PRA. L UB. 

125. ' To pass the better for what she 
pretended to be, LUB. she' " Allured 
the passers by with maiiy a wile, And 
ask'd her price, and took it with a 
smile." GIF. 

126. ' And submitted to the embraces 
of many visitors,' 

127. ' The man who kept the stewa;' 
which were closed at midnight : LUB. 
the ninth (Pers. i, 133 ;) hour was the 
time, atwhiclithey were opened. GRA. 
s. note on i, 127. 

128. " Yet what she could, she did." 
GIF. 

129. ' Still burning with the excite- 
ment of violent lust.' 

130. " With strength exhausted, but 
unsated fires." GIF. 

131. " Cheeks rank with poisonous 
dews, The steam of lamps." GIF. ni- 
gra fornicis obtiius favilla ; Sen. in 
Priap. R. This line may be another 
instance of ?» J/a luoh. 

132. Redotes adhuc fuliqinem forni- 
cis; Sen. Coutr. i, 2 eud. R. 

' To her imperial consort's bed.' 
LUB. 

1 33. 'ifrafMtiis signified thrce things, 
(1) ' An Arcadian herb, which drives 
horses n;ad if they taste it.' Theocr. ii, 
48 f. (2) ' A lump of flesh on the fore- 
head of a foal just born.' See note on 
616; Virg. M. iv, 516 f; amoris vene- 
Jicium ; Plin. viii, 42 s 66. (.3) ' A hu- 
mour which runs from mares.' Plin. 
xxviii, 11 s 80; lentum virus, quod 
seepe niala legere noverca;, miscuerunt- 



2-20 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Privignoque dalum ? Faciunt graviora coacta; 

1.35 Imperio sexus minimumque libidinc peccant. 
" Optima sed quare Cesennia teste marito ?" 
Bis quingenta dedit; tanli vocat ille pudicam, 
Nec Veneris pharetris macer est aut lampade fervet : 
Inde faces ardent; veniunt a dote sagitta?. 

140 Libertas emitur: coram licet innuat atquc 



que hcrlas et non innuaia verla ; Virg 
G. iii, 280 ff ; Ov. A. A. i, 8, S ; Tib. 
ii, 4, 58 ; Prop. iv, 5, 18 ; .Elian. de 
Anim. xiv, 18. PRA. R. 

' The magic spell.' Virg. E. viii, 64 
to the end. LUB. 

' Mixed with food ;' L UB. or ' boiled 
down to increase its strength.' MAD. 
s. Suet. vi, 33; Liv. vi.i, 18. PRA. 

134. ' Sometiines out of incestuouf 
love, (sucli as Phffdra entertained for 
Hippolytus,) sometimes out of hatred :' 
PRA. or ' to remove him out of the 
way of their own chiidren.' s. 628 ; 
MAD. Virg. G. ii, 128; iii, 282 
(quoted above) ; Hor. Od. iii, 24, 17 f; 
Ep. 5, 9 ; Ov. Met. i, 147 ; (quoted in 
the note on i, 158); Tac An. xii, 2; 
l^^oa ya^ ri 'viavacc fj.>iT^uici riitiici; Toi} 
^poffff \^ii})rt; ovhiv riTriuTioa, Eur. Alc. 
320 f. R. 

13.5. ' By the ruliug principles and 
passions of their sex ;' LUB. or ' be- 
cause the nature of their sex renders it 
imperative upon them so to act.' 

' The least of their sins are tho.se 
whii h arise out of bist.' R. 

136. ' How is it theu (if all you say 
is true) that, according to her husbands 
account, Cesennia is such an excellent 
woman ?' R. Heiresses when they 
mairied, retaiued a considerable por- 
tion of their fortune, together with 
maiiy slaves, at their own disposal. 
So that it was not mere gratitude in 
the husband which induced him to put 
up with his wife's usurpation of autho- 
rity. The same was the case among 
tbe Greeks. " Menelau.^-, my father," 
says Hermione, " presented me with a 
considerable dowiy, to the end that I 
might speak with freedom!" GIF. s. 
30; 457 ff; Plaut. As. i, 1, 74; JVTe- 
n.Tch. V, 2. 15 ff; Aul. iii, 5, 60; 
(J 'hu<rTVX,i^i h/it7s fiiy oi 'riT^axoTts tm» 
Tov liiov trappftffiaii »a) tvi» t^u^hv, yutai^i 
'SouXei iMf/.t\i avT iXiufii^a». iiruT ix*'^ 



•^poix , ou^i Ti/jCfiv vraff^ofttv ; frix^ai yt 
xai fiiarhv yuvaiKilas ^oXrii- » tuv ya^ 
ayhpaiv 'iirTi vpoi xiivnv fiiXi. oi fttv yt 
iruyyviJfinv t^ouir aoixoufj.tvti aurai o 
abixouffai xui T^oityxaKouir' iri. av ouk 
IXS/lv a^^ouffiv, dv S' a^^tiv iXS'''' «/"«sXoiJ- 
iriv iTio^xouiriV olihi Iv xaxov i^ouo^i, xai 
xafiviiv Xiyouiriv iKatrrorf Ale.xis in Ath. 
xiii, 1 ; |or 7, »56; TivvSt ''■«• yuvaTxec 
trXouiriav Xa(S)UV, ix^' hia-roivav, ou yuvalx 
irr Anaxandr. in Stob. Ou the other 
hand, among the Scythians and Getee, 
non regil vintm ilotata conjnx ; Hor. 
Od. iii^ 24, 19. R. 1 he high-spirited 
barbarians of ibe north could not brook 
the idea of being dependent on their 
wives, and therefore would not receive 
any dowry with them : api/tl Gothos 
non mulier viro, sed vir inulieri dotem 
assignat, ne conjux, oh magnitiidinem 
dotis insolescsns, aliquando vx placida 
consorte proterva evadat, atfjue in ma- 
ritutn dmiinari co7itendat. GIF. s. 
Arist. Eth. viii, 10. 

137. See note on i, 92 ; PRA. i, 106; 
ii, 117; MAD. x, 335. After the time 
of Augustusthis constituted a senatoriai 
fortune. s. L, on Tac. An. ii, 86. R. 

' She gave him (i. c. brought with 
her) as her dowry.' MAD. 
' Eor no less a consideration.' 

138. Of Cupid — altera tela arcus, 
altera tela faces; Ov. Her. 2, 40. 
[Spectator No 311.] SVL. ED. 

' Not of Venus, but of Plutus.' GIF. 

' Emaciated.' Virg. E. iii, 100 f ; 
PRA. Hor. Od. i, 13,8; Ep. 14, 16. 
R. 

139. Inde is the same as a dote: 
SVL. 'from her having a thousand 
golden charms.' 

Ferus Cupido semperardentesacuens 
sagittas cole cruenta; Hor. Od. ii, 8, 
14 ff; Sil. V, 19. J?. 

140. ' Liberty to act as they please.' 
Ujcorem accepi, dote imperium vendidi; 
Plaut. Asin. i, 1 ; LUB. sunt multa 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



•2.il 



Rescribat ; \ iclua tst, locuples qua.* luipsit avaro. 
" Cur desidfrio Bibuhu Serlorius ardot .?" 

Si veruii) cxcutias, facies non uxor amatur. 

Tres rugjc subeant et se cutis arida laxet, 
145 Fiant obscnri dentes oculiquc nnnores : 

" Collige sarcinulas" dicet liberlus " et exi ; 

Jani gravis es nobis et siepc cmungcris, exi 

Ocius et propera : sicco venit altera naso." 

Interea calet et regnat poscilquc maritum 
150 Pastores et ovem Canusinam ulmosquc Falernas ; 



1« magnis (iotibiis inconunoditales, sitni- 
tus<iue intoterubiles: nam qiice indutata 
est, ea in potestate est viri: dotatee 
niactant et inalo et damno viros ; Aul. 
iii, 5, 58 ff. PRA. 

' In the husband's presence,* corain 
non sine conscio niarito ; Hor. Od. iii, 
6, 29 f ; i^ch. s. i, 5G ff; FRA. Tib. i, 

2, 21 ; Ov. Am. i, 4, 17 ff; ii, 3, 23 S. 
R. 

' She may tip the wink to her gallant.' 
GJF. 

141. ' And pen an answer to a billet- 
doux.' MAD. s. 234. 

' She is as good as a widow:' i. e. 
' quite as much her own mistress.' 
LUB. s. oOy. R. 

142. With the foliowing iines cora- 
pare Moore's ballad : " Believe nie, if 
a)l tbose endearing young charms, 
<fec." 

143. Qtdppe forma nostra nos ania- 
tores co/unt : /icec ubi immutata est, 
suum animiim alio cunferunt; Ter. 
Heaut. ii, 3, 9 ff; LUB. ii, 138. R. 

Eaxutere is properly ' to search for 
something supposed to be concealed 
about theperson.' E. R [Liv. vi, 15, 8] 

144. ' Two or thrce.' riiiani cito (me 
miserum l) laxantnr corpora riiyis, et 
perit in nitido i/ui fiiil ore, color ! Ov. 
A. A. iii, 73 {; Plaut. M. Gl. iii, 1, 
45 f. R. 

145. ' Her teeth.' s. Ov. A. A. iii, 
197; LUB. and 279 f; Hor. Od. ii, 8, 

3. R. 

14G. ' Pack up your baggage, and 
march.' This is a military phiase. 
The proper form of declaring a d i v o r c e 
was " Res luas tibi liabeto or agito." 
BR. ^ 

Nullum divortium ratum eU, nisi 
spptem civibvs Romanis preesentibus, 



prater libertiim e/us, r/tii divortiunt 
faciet; Paulus de Div. ix, ff'. R. 

Uxor, vade foras, aiit moribiis utere 
7iostris; Mart. xi, 104, 1. SVL. It 
was not till after the sixth or seventh 
century from the foundation of Kome 
that divorces becarae common. The 
facility with which the parties couid 
repudiate each other, at last, led to the 
greatest abuses. R. Senecacomplained 
nultuni jam repudio eriibescere, post- 
qiiam illiistres qiicBilani ac nobiles fe- 
mina; nou consiilum tiuniero, seil niart- 
toruni, annos suos coniputent, etexeant 
niatrimonii caiisa, niibant repudii; de 
Ben. iii, 16. LUB. 

147. Emiinyeris, another of the in- 
firmities of age, is opposed to sicco naso 
in the next line. ndnime sputator, 
screator sitrn itidem niinime mucidus; 
Plaut. M. Gl. iii, 1,52. J^. 

148. Altera ' a younger wife.' LUB. 

149. Interea ' as long as her beauty 
lasts.' LUB. 

' She is fiery and imperious.' PRA. 

' And asks whatever she fancies, 
without fear of denial.' MAD. Plaut. 
Aul. iii, 5, 24-61 ; Prop. iii, 13; (and 
11, 31 ;) Ov. Am. i, 10; Tib. ii, 4. R. 

150. Caniisium in Apulia was famous 
for its breed of sheep. LUB. lana 
laiidatissinia Appitla: oves circa Ta- 
renlum Canusiumi/ue summam nobili- 
talem liabent; Plin. viii, 48 s 73 ; vel- 
leribuspriniis Appiiiia, Parma secundis 
nobilis ; Altiniim tertia laiidat ovis; 
Mart. xiv, 155; VllA. Colum. vii, 2. 

' The eims round wbich Falemian 
(iv, 138; FRA. Sil. vii, 162-211; R.) 
vines are frained:' Virg. G. i, 2; 
MAD. stratiis Inimi pahnes viduas 
dcsidenit ulmos: viii, 78. R. 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



(Quantulum in hoc '.) pueros oranes, ergastula tota ; 
Quodque domi non est et habet vicinus, ematur. 
Mense quidem brumai, quo jam mercator lason 
Clausus et armatis obstat casa candida nautis, 
155 Grandia tolluntur crystalHna, maxima rursus 

Murrhina, deinde adamas notissimus et Beronices 



151. " Trifle? these!" GIF. 
PueroSf see note on iii, 264. 

' Gangs of slaves ;' ergastulitm lite- 
rally ' a work-house,' ' Brideweli :' y//m- 
decitn liberi homines populus est, r/uiu- 
decirn servi familia, quindecim vincti 
ergasfulum; Apul. L. s. xiv, 24. 
R. 

152. She is so covetous as to fancy 
fertilior seges est alienis semper in 

agris, vicinumque pecus grandius 
vber habet; Ov. A. A. i, 349 f. SVL. 
ED. 

153. (1) The feast of the Saturnalia 
in December was succeeded by the Sigil- 
laria, a fancy fair ; where seals, and 
other little articles, which the Romans 
used to send each other as presents 
(Macr. S. i, 10 end ; Gell. ii, 3 ; v, 4 ; 
BCE, pp. 217 f; 236 f.) were exposed 
for sale ' in white canvas booths' (casis 
candidis^ erected both in other parts of 
the city and also against the walls in the 
portico ofNeptune (D. Cass. liii, 27;) 
so as ' to hide' the paintings with which 
it was adomed, and the subjectofwhich 
was the Argonautic expedition. The 
handsome wife would not miss her op- 
portunity of extorting valuable fairings 
from her complaisant spouse. Sch. LZ. 
(2) Another interpretation is ' When the 
winter detains on shore the merchant 
(thus Hyacinthus and Prometheus, in 
the note on 110 ;) and his crew,who are 
equipped for starting as soon as weather 
will allow, but cannot yet commence 
theirvoyage; (Veget. iv, 39; Plin. ii, 
47 pr; Hor. Od.i, 4, 1 ;) sincethecabin, 
white with snow or hoar-frost, shows 
that the reign of winter is not past.' 
PRA. [s. HA, Chr. i, 93.] 

154. Livy xxx, 26, 1. 

155. [" (^rystal and myrrhine cups, 
emboss'dwith gems Andstudsofpearl," 
Milton P. R. iv, 119 f;] ' are taken 
from the merchant's;' GRA. or ' are 
wheedled out of the husband.' LZ. 

The word vasa is understood : their 
being grandia and maxima would of 
course enhance their price. non alibi 



crystallus reperitur, quam ubi maxime 
hibcrnee nives rigcnt et glacies, unde et 
nomen Grteci dedere; (*g»<rT«XXoy, GV, 
on Flor. iv ; iii, 76.) in deliciis femina- 
rum aliquibus de causis pracipuum. 
habent locum crystallina et murrhina, 
rigidi potiis utraque ; Plin. xxxvii, 2 s 
10, 11; Prop. ii, 18, 60; iv, 3, 52; 
PRA. R. Mart. iii, 82, 25. 

156. Pliny says that these vases were 
first introduced by Pompey after his 
victory over Mithridates: eadem victoria 
primum in tirbem murrhina induxit; 
primusque Pompeius sex pocula ex eo 
triurnpho Capitolino Jovi dicavit, quee 
protenus ad hominum nium transiere ; 
excrescitque indies ejus rei luxus ; 
XXX vii, 2; 7 f. Propertius, who had 
undoubtedly seen them, says murrhea- 
que in Parthis pocula coctafocis ; iv, 5, 
26; iii, 10, 22. This seems a verygood 
description of what we call p o r c e 1 a i n : 
SCA. but Pliny, who could not be ig- 
norant of it, adds Oriens murrhina 
m itiit : i nve n i u n t u r en ini ibi in 
pluribus locis, nec insignibus, maxime 
Parthici regni ; prcecipue tamen in 
Carmania. It is manifest that Pliny 
takes them for gems : and so he else- 
where terms them, xxxiii, 2 : in which 
heis foUowedby MartialjXiv, 113; xiii, 
107; and others. Thedistricts he men- 
tions still aflbrd a gem that answers, in 
some measure, to his description : it is 
a species of agate. GIF. FAR. Suet. 
ii, 71. R. The variety of conflicting 
accounts and opinions can hardly be 
reconciled without supposing two sorts 
of these vases ; one artificial ' the por- 
celain," the other a natural production. 
I have had in my possession a mineral, 
which bears the name of ' porcelain 
jasper,' (Chinesischer SpecAsiein ; Vel- 
theim.) but I do not know where it is 
chiefly found. [s. HAR, O. i, 5.j 

Adamas; Plin. xxxvii, 4. PRA. 

This Beronice was the daughter of 
Herod (Acts xii ;) Agrippa the elder 
(who was son of Aristohulus and an- 
other Beronice, and grandson of Herod 



SAT. M. 



OF JUVENAL. 



•2-23 



In digito factus pretiosior : hunc dcdit oliin 
Biirl)arus inccstae, dedit hunc Agri})pa sorori, 
Obscrvant ubi lcsta nicro pcdc sabbata rcgcs 

160 Et vetus indulget senibus clcraentia porcis. 

" Nullane de tautis gregibus tibi digna vidctur r" 
Sit fonuosa, decens, divcs, fccunda, vctustos 
Porticibus disponat avos, intactior omni 
Crinibus effusis bellum dirimente Sabina : 

165 (Rara avis in tcrris nigroquc siniillima cycuo) 
Quis feret uxorcm, cui conslant omnia ? Malo, 



the preat); he had two other daughters, 
Mariamne, and Drusilla (the wife of 
Felix. Acts xxiv, 24 ;) and one son, the 
Agrippa here mentioned. Acts xxv, 13 ; 
23 ; XX vi. The princess was more cele- 
brated for her beauty than for her virtue. 
Titus fell in love with her, and promised 
her marriage ; but, being apprehensive 
of an insurrection, dimisit invitus in- 
vitam. The ineidents which marle this 
ring so valuable mark the capricious 
and profligate extravagance which 
characterized the ladies of Juvenars 
time. GIF. R. PRA. [s. Paley, Ev. 
pt. ii, t), 7 .] 

158. Barbarus (iii, 66 ;) Agrippa dedit 
incestcE [' to his paramour'] (iv, 9;) 
sorori; [iii, 116;] s. Joseph. A. J. x, 
p. 673; PRA. R. [Livy ii, 23, 2; iii, 
6", q; vii, 25.] 

159. Beronice presented herself at 
Jerusaiem, barefoot and with her 
head shorn, to perfonn her vows on the 
restoration of her healtb. Jos. B. J. ii, 
15 ; Hegesip. B. J. ii ; FAR. See 
Exodus iii. 5 ff. PRA. This custom is 
now practised in the Jewish synagogues 
on particular days. MAD. s. 525 ; 
Suet. ii, 100. CS. 

See Tac. H. v, 4 ; Just. xxxvi ; 
Pers. V, 184. PRA. Juvenal, in his 
ignorance of the Jewish ritual, Iias con- 
founded * sabbaths' with fasts. Call. 
H. in Cer. 125 ; SN. xiv, 96 ; ;El. V. 
H. xii, 35. R. 

160. 'Long established.' Leviticus 
xi,7. LUB. 

Not that more indulgence was shown 
to ' old swine' than to y o u n g ones ; but 
because all hogs, being spared, lived to 
be o 1 d. Hence Augustus said : " melius 
est Herodis pormm esse quam filium.'" 
8. xiv, 98. R. 

161. ' Herds' of women. He iiad just 



been talking of herds of swine. 
S VL. s. 1 75. R. 

162. AU these excellencies will but 
generate pride : beauly, for instance, 
see Ov. F. i, 429 ; riches, 457 ff ; 
fruitfulness, 172 tf; nobility and chas- 
tity, 167 ff. ' Beautiful, gracefui :' piUcer 
et decens; Suet. xii, 18. R. The latter 
is a frequent epithet of Venus and the 
Graces. Hor. Od. i, 4, 9 ; xviii, 6. JN. 
uxor tibi sit pnella, qualem vutis vijc 
petal improbis maritus, dives, nobilis, 
erudita, custa; Mart. xii, 98, 1-3. 

163. It was their custom to adorn the 
porticoes and galleries of their mansionfl 
with the statues nf their ancestors. 
LUB. viii, I. PRA. It may also allude 
to the pictures of triumphant generals 
in the puhlic porticoes. Sch. 

' Morechaste,'i.e. ' neverapproached 
by any but a husband:' uxor f/uce mille 
procos intacta fugaret ; Stat. S. iii, 5, 
1 ff; HEI. intactee Sabince ; Prop. ii, 
6, 21 ; s. Hor. Od. i, 7, 5 ; iii, 11, 10; 
S. i, 2, .54 ; Vir/. JE. i, 345 ; Calp. ii, 1 ; 
Eur. Hip. 1044. R. 

164. Sabinae mulieres, (/uarum ex 
injuria bellum ortum erat, crinibus 

passis,. diri m ere injestas acies, 

&,-c; Liv i, 13; LUB. Ov. F. iii, 201 
tf. PRA. 

' The war' between Romulus and 
Tatius. Sch. 

The Sabines were a people of uncor- 
rupted morals, iii, 169 ; PRA. x, 299 ; 
xiv, 180; Mart. i, 63, 1; ix, 41, 5; 
Liv. i, 18; Ov. M. xiv,797 ; Am. i,8, 
39 f ; ii, 4, 15 ; iii, 8, 61 ; Hor. Ep. ii, 
39 ff; Ep. ii, 1, 2.5. R. 

165. Pers. i, 46; PRA. s. vii, 202. 
Zi. " A faultless monster,whieh the world 
ne'er saw ;" Sheflield, Essayon Poetrv, 
2.33. 

166. ' Who will tolerateP" 30. si 



•2-24 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Malo Venusinam, quam te, Cornelia mateu 
Gkacchorum, si cum niagnis virtutibus afFers 
Grande superciliuin ct numeras in dote triumphos. 

170 Tolle luum, precor, Hannibalem victumque Syphacem 
In castris et cum tota Carthagine migra. 

" Parce, precor, Psean, et tu, dea, pone sagittas ; 
Nil pueri faciunt, ipsam configite matrem !" 
Amphion clamal: sed Poean contrahit arcum. 

175 ExtuUt ergo greges natorum ipsumque parentem, 
Dum sibi nobilior Latouie grente videtur 



qua voles apte nuhere, nide pari ; Ov. 
Her. 9, 32 ; rriv xara, ffuvrov 'iXa' Suid. 
Plut. t. ii, p. 13, F ; Callim. Ep. xxxvii, 
ini?C, An. t.i,p.470. R. [?. Spectator 
No. 299.] 

Cotistare ' to be at one and the same 
time.' s. Virg. JE. iii, 518. Seh. 

107. 'A Venusian rustic.' s. i, 51. 
PRA. 

This Cornelia was the daughter of 
P. Com. Scipio Africanus, and the 
wife of Ti. Sempronius Gracehus, by 
whom she had twelve children. Plu- 
tarch (V. xxxix f ; s. ii, 24 ;) says she 
was fond of boasting of her father's 
victories over Hannibal and Syphax. 
So great was her haughtiness, that 
when King Ptolemy made her an ofFer, 
after the death of her husband, she was 
seriously oSended and rejected the al- 
liance with the utmost scorn. A brazen 
statue was erected to her memory in 
the public portico of Metellus with the 
above iuscription ; Piin. xxxiv, 6. 
Gracchorum eloqueniice mutfum con- 
iuUsse accepimus Corneliam matrcm^ 
cujus docfissimus sermo in posteros 
quoque est episfolis traditus ; Quint. i, 1 ; 
PRA. V. Max. iv, 4, 1 ; 6, I ; Sen, 
Cons. ad Marc. 16; Cic. Brut. 27. 
She was not the only disdainful dame 
of the Cornelian house. Prop. iv, 1 1. R. 

169. Supercilium; ii, 15; v, 62. i?. 
' If the triumphs of your house are to 

reekon as a dowrv.' s. libertas emifur, 
140. LUB. 

170. Scipio, with the aid of Masi- 
nissa, ronted Asdrubal and Syphax, 
(who was afterwards led by thelloman 
general in triumph,) and burnt both 
their camps in one niglit. Flor. ii, 6; 
PRA. Liv. xxx,5; IJ ; 13; 17; Sil. 
xvii, 88 ff. R. 



171. Carthage was destroyed by 
Scipio iEmilianus, (Liv. li ; PRA.) who 
married Cornelia's daughter Sempro- 
nia. R. 

See 146. R. " Prithee tramp !" 
Boileau has imitated this pa.>isage very 
happily : " Ainsi donc au plutot de- 
logeant de ces lieu.v, Allez, princesse, 
aUez avec tous vos aieux, Sur le 
pompeux dehris des lances Espagnoles, 
Couc/ier, si vous voulez, aux champs de 
Cerizoles;" Sat. x, 479. GIF. 

172. Niobe, thedaughterofTantalus, 
and wife of Amphion , the king of Thebes 
so eelebrated for his minstrelsy, (Plin. 
vii, 56 ; Hor. A. P. 394 ; PRA.) proud 
of her numerous progeny, insulted La- 
tona; who was signaliy avenged by 
her divine offspring, for Apollo slew all 
the sons and Diana all the daughters 
of the Phrvijian princess. Ov. 5l. vi, 
146ff; iC7J9. Cic. T.Q. iii, 63; Hor. 
Od. iv, 6, 1 ff; PRA. Hom. II. a 602 
ff ; Schol. Eur. Ph. 160 ff ; R. Apollod. 
iii, 5, 6.HY. 

Pfsan from traiun, or travti* ras aviat, 
Macr. S. i, 17. PRA. 

173. ' No wrong.' GV. crimine quo 
parv i ccedem potuere mereri ? Lue. ii, 
108. Sch. [iT Samuel xxiv, 17.] 

' The mother, whose haughtiness I 
know, from sad experience, to be most 
insufferable ; and in mitigation of whose 
punishment I have nothing to allege.' 
.'!. 169; 181 ff.BID. 

174. " Apollobendsbisbow.' GIF. 

175. ' She had to bury.' i, 72. PRA. 
' The herd.' 161. The exact number 

is very doubtful : Gell. xx, 7; PRA. 
M\. V. H.S.U, 36. LUB. 

^7?i^A?o«destroyedhimself. Ov. M. 
271. SVL. 

176. " Alihi Tantalus aucfor;. 



SAT. VI. 



OF JIVENAL. 



Atque eadein sciH>la Niobe re-ciiiulior ulba. 
Quaj lanti gra\ itas, qua; lorma, ut se libi sein})er 
Iniputet ? Hujus cnini rari summiquc voluptas 

180 NuUa boni, quotics aninio corrupla supcrbo 

Plus alocs, quam mcllis habct. Quis deditus autcm 
Usquc adco cst, ut non illam, (luam laudibus cffert, 
Horrcat in(pic dic septcnis odcrit lioris .? 

(iuajdam par\ a ([uidcm, scd non toleranda maritis. 

185 Nam quid rancidius, quam quod so non putat ulla 
Formosam, nisi qua^ dc Tusca Grx^cula facta cst l 
De Sulmonensi mera Cecropis ? Omnia Grajcc, 
tQuum sit turpe magis nostris nescire Latinc.f 
Hoc scrmonc pavcnt, lioc iram, gaudia, curas, 



Pleiadum soror esf genetrix mi/ii ; 
majcimiis Atlas est avus ;. . . .Juppiter 
alter avus :. .. .nescio f/uorjue auihte 
satam Titanida Cu-o Latonam prce- 
ferremilii-;' Ov. M. vi, 172 &c. PRA. 

177. This ' famous whi te sow' (xii, 
73 f; R.) was found by ^Eneas ne- r 
Lavinium, on the spot where Alba 
was afterwards built. Sch. Kidiculous 
as the incident is, it makes a con- 
spicuous figure in the /Eneid, (iii, 390 
ff; LUB. and viii, 43 ff; MAD.) where 
it is given with wonderlul gravity. 
(See Dionys. i. PRA.) Juvenal dis- 
regarded the anachroiiisni aud intro- 
duces ' the sow' merely to vex Domi- 
tian, who, being nuieh attached to 
Alba and interested in its glory, might 
be roortified at having tbis idle story 
so oftfn put forward in a ridiculous 
light. OW. GTF. 

l^Jii. Gravitas ' propriety of con- 
duct:' ii te delerlat gravitas, Lucretia 
foto sis licet usi/ue die ; Mart. xii, 104, 
21 f; [Spectator No. 306.] 

179. Imputet ; v, [4. R. ' To make 
out that you are greatly indebted to 
her, for her condescending so far as to 
become your wife.' MAD. 

180. With nulla understand est. 
PRA. 

Corrupfa, ' entirely spoilt.' 

181. ' More of bitterness than sweet- 
ness.' Sch. Plin. xxvii, 4 ; PR 4. amor 
et melle et felle est ferundissimus ; 
Plaut. Cist. i, 1 , 71 ; i«. Claud. x, 69 f. 
KG. 

' So devotedly uxorious.'!, UB. 20G. R. 

O 



183. ' Seven hours a day,' i. e. ' more 
than lialf his tiiiie.' LUB. Purs. iii, 4. 
PRA. 

184. Understand »v//a AKy</. R. 

185. ' Morenauseous.' G IF. Pers. i, 
.■«;LtrRxi,135;Plin.xxii,22eDd.R. 

186. The Roman ladies were guilty 
ofcopiouslyinterlardingtheirvernacular 
tongue with Grcekwoids: a piece of 
afiectation similar to that with which 
the British fair have betn charged, nf 
introducing French phrases upon all 
occasions. MAD. 

' A Greek demoiselle:' contemptu- 
oiislv. PRA. iii, 58. R. rHor. 0. iii, 

10, ii f.] 

187. The inhabijtants of Suhno, a 
town of Pelignum, (the birthplace of 
Ovid, LUB.) spoke a provincial Latin 
dialect : the Cecropians, (ii, 92;) or 
people of Athens, made use of the 
purest and most elegant Greek. R. 

188. ' Our countrywomen would 
blush to betray ignoranee of Greek: 
they ought rather to feel ashained that 
they know so little of thtir native lan- 
guage.' ipsum Latine lnriui est illud 
rjuiilem in magna laude ponendum ; 
sed non tam sua sponte, rjuam rjiiod est 
a plerisr/ue neglectum, non eiiim tani 
prceclririan est scire Lafine, ijuam 
turpe nescire: ner/ue tam id milii 
oratoris boni, qtiam civis Romani pro- 
prium videtnr ; Cic. Brut. 37. FAR. 
The verse is probably spurious, and is 
omitted in some uiss. BA. 

189. ' Thev express thcir fears,' 
FAR. 



•2 G 



226 



THE SATIRE8 



SAT. VI. 



190 Hoc cuncta effundunt aniuii secreta. Quid ultra ? 
Concurabunt Gra;ce. Dones tanien ista puellis : 
Tune etiam, quam sextus et octogesimus annus 
Pulsat, adhuc Grsece } Non cst hic sermo pudicus 
In vetula. Quoties lascivum intervenit illud 

195 Zi2H KAI *TXH? Modo sub lodice relictis 
Uteris in turba. Quod enim non excitet inguen 
Vox blanda et nequam ? digitos habet. Ut tamen oranes 
Subsidant penna?, dicas ha3C mollius Haimo 
Quamquara et Carpophoro ; facies tua coraputat annos. 

200 Si tibi legitimis pactam junctamque tabellis 
Non es amaturus, ducendi nulla videtur 
Causa; nec est, quare coenam et mustacea perdas, 
Labente officio, crudis donanda; nec illud, 
Quod priraa pro nocte datur, quum lance beata 



190. ' Nay more.' R. 

191. ' You may excuse suchfooleries 
in girls.' LUB. 

192. Senectus ptilsat ; Sidon. Ap. 
Ep. V, 9 ; Carm. ii ; Stat. Th. iv, 477. 
R. ' What ? thou too whom more than 
fourscore winters have buffeted and 
battered!' Compare also densis ictihus 
pulsat; Virg. M. v, 459 f ; Hor. Od. i, 
4, 13. 

195. Cion tibi non Ephesos, nec sit 
R/iodos, aut Mitylene, sed domus in 
vico, Lalia, patricio, ZflH KAI 'Sf TXH 
lascivum congeris usqiie, proh pudor! 
HersilicB civis et Egeriee; Mart. x, 
68. PRA. 

' Under the counterpane.' Mart. 
xiv, 148; PRA. s, vii, (36. 

With relictis understand verbis. 
LUB. 

196. ' In company.' Sch. Ov. Am. 
iii, xiv, 7 ff. R. 

' What passion would not the endear- 
ing and wanton expression excite.' 
Pers. i, 20 f; LUB. Mart. xii, 98, 8 ; 
nec blandce voces cessent nec improba 
verba; Ov. A. A. iii, 795 f. R. 

197. Neqnam; s. Gell. vii, 11 ; from 
Cic. Phil. vii. PRA. 

Digitos habet ' it is as bad as the 
touch.' MAD. 

Et would make the construction 
easier ; the sense is plain : ' Yet Cupid's 
wings would droop, however soft your 
tones and words; your wrinkles tell 
your ago;' 651 ; x, 249 ; tu licet et 



manibus blandis et vocibus instcs ; 
contra te fa cies imperiosa tua est ; 
Mavt. vi, 23, 3 f. R. 

Hcemus and Carpophon/s ■werc actors 
who excelled in female characters from 
the softness of their voices. PRA. iii, 
99. MAD. 

200. Juvenal now reduces Ursidius 
to a dilemma; ' you must either love 
your future wife or not ; if you do, you 
will be led a life of slavery and misery ; 
if you do not,marriage will not augment 
your happiness, and you are incurring 
a great expense for nothing.' BRI. 

Tahulce; ii, 119; R. see note on 
25- 

201. ' For taking to yourself a wife.' 
R. 

202. ' Bride-cakes,' which were dis- 
tributed among the guests at their 
breaking up. Sch. Mustaceos sic facito: 
farince siliginccE modium ununi 7nusto 

con.spergito; anisum, cuminum, adipis 
p u, casei libram, et de virga lanri de~ 
radito, eodein addito; et nbi definxeris, 
lauri folia subtus addito, quum coques; 
CatoR. R. 121 ; Cic. Att. v, 20; FRA. 
Plin. XV, 30. R. 

203. ' Which you will have to dis- 
tribute among your friends, (who have 
done you the honour of waiting npon 
you at your wedding-feast,) before they 
have half digested what they have 
already cramnied.' Sch. PRA. s. Mart. 
xiv, [1 &c;] PC, iv, 20 end. R. 

204. A eonsiderable sum of money 



SAT. VI. 



OF JIJVENAL. 



227 



205 Dacicus et .scripto radiat Gcrmaiiicns uuro. 
Si tibi simplicitas uxoria, deditus uni 
Est auinnis ; subinitlo caput cervicc parata 
Ferrc juguni: nullani invenies, quaj parcat anianti. 
Ardeat ipsa licet, tormeutis gaudet amantis 

210 Kt spoliis. Igitur longe minus ulilis illi 

Uxor, (iuis([uis crit bonus optandusque marilus. 
Nil umquain invita donabis conjuge: vendes 
Hac obstanlc nihil ; niliil, h;ec si nolet, emetur. 
Hicc dabit afrcclus : ille cxcludctur aniicus 



was put into a plate, and presented b_v 
the bridegroom to tlie bride on the 
wedding-night as a sort of purcba.^se of 
her person. Sch. This custom was not 
peculiar to Ronie; it obtained among 
the Greek.' (S^f^io» ^u^ot) likewise, as 
among the Jews, and is found among 
many eastern nations. (Parkh. Heb. 
Lex. ")nD, No. 3.) It also prevailed 
under the name of Morgeiigabe, or 
' morning present,' over a gieat part of 
the North of Europe {morganlica ; Legg. 
Longobard.) where some faint traces of 
it are stiil to be found : and something 
of the kiod was customary in many 
parts of England, and perhaps is so 
still, under the n;ime of ' dow-purse.' 
BR.PLA. MAD. GIF. 

Beatce: i, .S9. R. 

205. Juvenal enjoyed this allusion 
(see note on 1 77 ;) to l3omitian's boasted 
victories in the JJacian war, which was 
one of the most dishonourable circum- 
stances of his reign. He aspired to the 
conduct of it in person ; and, as might 
have been anticipated, his cowardice 
kept him aloof from danger, and his 
voluptuousness ruined the discipline of 
the camp: tbus every tliing weiit on ill 
under his aupices. Happily for the 
army, he left it at last, having pre- 
viouslydespatched his laurelled let- 
ters to Rome; where the obsequious 
senate decreed that medals shouid 
be struck, and st.itu's raised to 
commemorate his success; and that he 
should come among them at all times in 
triumphal robes. GIF. LUB. Suet. 
X, 2; 6; 13; Tac. Agr. 39 ff; Mart. 
ii, 2 ; viii, 26 ; 6.5 ; Stat. S. i, 1 ; 2, 180 
f; iv, 1,2; 2, 66 f. R. 

Undeistaiid numun, whicl» took its 



name from the person represented 
thereon, as Philippns and Darius; 
Auson. Ep. v ; and xvi ; Jacobits, Louis 
dor, Napoleon, «fec. R. Having never 
met with any medal of Domitian 
with these titles, which are coinmon on 
Traj an'sco)ns, I ratherthinktheiatter 
are here meant, and, consequently, that 
the satire was not v.ritten till Trajan's 
reign. ACH. See CW, L. ix, p. 215. 
Martial dedicates his cighth book, 
Inip. Cces. Aug. Gernianico Dacico. 
GIF. [s. U, on L. ii, 21, 7.] 

' On the legend of the gold.' ACH. 
scriptus ceterno Jiippiter auro ; Mart. 
xi, 5, 3; s. xiv, 29L R. 

206. ' If you are so very simple as 
to devote your whole soul to your wife, 
and to her aione.' (piXoyvniei' Cic. T. 
Q. iv, 11. BRI. 

Uvorius; (s. 181 ;) Virg. JE. iv, 266; 
Ilor. Od. i, 2, 20. R. 

207. See ncte on 43. MAD. Love 
is often compared to a ' yoke :' xiii, 
22; Hor. Od. i, 33, 12; 35, 28; ii, 
5, 1. R. 

209. ' However much a woman may 
love a man, still she delights to torment 
him and to fleece him.' Sch. 

210 Aiitica spoliatrix; Mart. iv, 29, 
5; .SFX. s. 149 ff. R. 

' Less useful' (by the figure XH'^*' 
rir/iii) for ' more pcrnicious :' see note 
on a^^raos' IJer. iii, 81. 

211.' The better and kinder her hus- 
band, the more does she impose on him 
and abuse his good-nature:' PRA. so 
that good honest men get the worst off. 
MAD. 

212. See Piaut. Men. i, 2, 5 tf. 
R. 

214. ' She will prescribe to you, 



228 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



215 Jaui senior, cujus barbam tua janna vidit 
Tcstandi quum sit leiionibus atquo lanistis 
Libevtas et juris ideni contingat arense; 
Non unus tibi rivalis dictaljitur hercs. 
" Pone crucem scrvo." " Meruit quo criminc scrvus 

2-20 Supplicium r Quis teslis adest r Quis detulit .'' Audi. 
Nulla umquam de morte hominis cunctatio longa est." 
" O demens, ila servus homo est .'' Nil fecerit, esto : 
Hoc volo, sic jubeo, sit pro ratione voluntas." 
Imperat crgo viro; sed niox ha^c regna relinquit 

225 Permutatque domos et flamea conterit : inde 
Advolat et spreli repctit vestigia lecti. 



whom you are to like and vvhom you 
aie to dislike.' MAD. 

' Will be shut out' of your house. 
LUB. Ov. A. A. iii,587 f. 

21.5. ' "VS"hose beard:' see note on 
105. R. 

216. ' "While pimps, feneing-masters, 
(iii, 158; PRA.) and even prize- 
fighters' " Have power to will their 
fortunes as they please, She dictates 
thine, aiid impudently dares To name 
thy very rivals for thy heirs.'' GIF. 

217. ' The arena,'(ii, 144; PRA.) 
[fcr ' the ampitheatre,' OW, and thatj 
for ' the combatanti in the amphi- 
theatre.' LUB. 

218. See 115. Literally ' persons 
living on the opp^site banks of the 
same river.' SVL. 

219. A pithy dialogue now follows, 
showing the high hand with which she 
carries her arbitrary measures. 

Crucifixion, as is weli known, was 
the peculiar punishment of slaves, X. 
and the lowest malefactors. s. Cic. "V err. 
V, 6 ; R. (xiii, 105; Sen. Cons. ad 
Marc. 20; de V. B. 19) It was 
abolished by Constantine on his con- 
version. PRA. 

The husband mildly ventures to sug- 
gest, that it niight be humane, atleast, 
to have legal evidence of the culprit's 
guilt. BR. ' What is the charge ? 
What is the evidence P Who laid the 
information ?' LUB. s. 552 ; x, 69 f. 
The following piece of advice is among 
D. Cato's wise sayings: «/7 lei/ierr 
ttxori de servis rrede qiierenti; Dist. 
iv, 45. R. 

220. ' Hear ali thire is to be said,' 



or ' what he hjis to say for himself.' R. 
audi alteram partem. 

221. Among the Romans the exe- 
cution of oftenders was delayed, by de- 
crees of the senate, for ten days. PRA. 
potest enim pcena dilatu exigi, non 
potest exacta revocari ; Seuec. L UB. 
de vita et spiritu hominis laturiim sere- 
teyitiam diii mnltumque ctinctari opor- 
tere, ncc prcecipit i studio, ubi irrevocabile 
sitfacfuni,agitari ; Amm. Marcell. But 
this humane sentiment was anticipated 
by the Grecian k- gislator : >i/u.os aXXoi 
irt^) Saiarov, Mfl fiictv (».o'iot yifit^ai x^ittif 
ukXa vroXXd; Plat. Ap. Socr. GJF. 
^^Rambler No 114.] 

222. ' Thou driveller I So, a slave 
is a man!' MAD. servi sunt, imo 
hoinines ; servi suiit, imo conservi ; et 
ex iisdem tecum elementis constant 
alunturque, atque spiritum eumdem ab 
eodem principio carpunt, &j-c. Macr. S. 
i, 11 ; Sen. £p. 47; PRA. s. xiv, 16 
f; Flor. iii, 20; R. [Liv iv, 56, 5; 
Bp Porteus L. viii, 8, "p. 231 f.] 

223. [Sermons by A. W. Hare, ii, 
14,6] ■ 

224 ' Evcn this ahsolute tyranny will 
not long content her wanton capriccs : 
but she abdicates her despotic sway, 
where her word was a law, and sallies 
forth in search of new conquests.' 
MAD. s. Prop. ii, 16, 28 ; iv, 7, 50 ; 
Cic. Ep. ix, 18, n. 6; R. See also 
Pope Mor. Ess. ep. ii. 217 ff. 

225. ' And by her frequent weddings 
wears out her bridal veil.' Sch. ii, 124. 
PRA. 

226. ' Returns to lier first husband.' 
LUB. [Livv i. 58.1 



SAT. VI. 



OF JIJVENAL. 



'2-29 



Onialas paiilo ante fores, pendentia linquit 
Vcla doiniis el adhuc virides in limine ramos, 
Sic crcscit numcrus ; sic fiunt octo niariti 

230 Quin([ue jur auctuunios : titulo res digna sepulcri. 
Desperanda tibi salva concordia socru. 
Illa docet spoliis inidi gaudere mariti ; 
Illa docet, missis a corruptore tabellis, 
Nil rude nec simplex rescribere : decipit illa 

235 Custodes aut ;erc domat : tunc corporc sano 
.Advocat Arcl)igcnen onerosaquc pallia jactat. 



227. ' Before the expiration of the 
Jast honey-moon.' See 79 ; FRA. and 
62. MAD. 

22.S. In the interior of their houses 
they had fevv doors : the entrances to the 
aparlments were closed by hano:ings of 
tapestry; ix, 10.5; Poll. x, 32. R 

229. See 14G. ' Eight husbands in 
five years.' Jiilia lex cx quo renata 
est, certe non plus triresima liix est, ct 
nuhit decimo jam Tlietaina viro. (fU€B 
nubit toties, non niibit ; aihdtera lege 
est\ Mart. vi, 7; inscripsit tumuto 
septem celchnita virorum SE FECISSE 
Chloe: fjuid pote simplicius ? Id. ix, 
16. PRA. \n tbe former epigram 
there would be little point unless tege 
is taken to mean ' not indeed aceording 
to the letter of the law, but unquestion- 
ably according to the spirit of it.' As 
the dervise told tlie king of Tartar)- that 
he ougbt not to consider the mansion, 
which had experienced sncb a succession 
ofoccupants, in the lightof a palace, as 
it was to all intents ;ind purposes no 
better than a caravansary. Hor. S. ii, 
J22 ff; [Pignotti, F. xxix. AnEnglish 
lady declared to an intimate friend, 
that she bad neverknown,in tbe course 
of all her life, what it was ro have an 
hour's uneasiness or unhappiness. She 
wa.s then married for ihe t b i r «1 time !^ 

2.30. As to tbe lalter epigram it may 
be observed tbat, although it was cus- 
tomary forladiesto have tbeir husbands' 
names recorded on tbeir monuments, yet 
virtuous matrons prided tbemselves on 
having been the wife of but one man, 
and would naturally wish to have this 
honourable distinction specifiedon their 
tomb: in lapide huic uni nupta 
fuisse legar; Prop. iv, II, 36; and 
again ; Jilia, tu fnr tencas u n u m, nos 



imitata virum; id. 68. This passage 
tben is a bitter, perhaps an overcharged , 
sarcasm on the wives of his time, who 
were so lost to all sense of decorum, as 
to be notbing loath to have their in- 
continence blazoned on their tomb- 
stones; R. G/jF. justin the same way, 
as Cbloe was of such brazen effrontery, 
that she would not bave cared if her 
epitaph (titulus) had not only enu- 
merated her husbands, but also stated 
the fact that she bad been instrumental 
to their deaths. 

231. Sa/va ' as long as she lives.' 
SVL. 

232. .See 1-19; 210; R. and note on 
parcntes, 13. 

" With savagejoy, tofleece A bank- 
rupt spouse." GIF. 

233. ' Bytheseducer.'s. 277 f ; xiv, 
25-30 ; :ind the quotation from Lucian 
at A'M ff; R. scriptce tahellce ; Ov. A. 
A. iii, 621 ff. 

2:^4. ' To write back.' 141. R. 

235. ' The spies set on her daughter'» 
conduct by tbe suspicious husband.' 
PRA. MAD. s. Ov. A. A. iii, 601 flF; 
611 flf; 6.52 flF; LUB. see also 347 f. 
R. 

' Though her daughter is perfectly 
well ;' fallajc (egrotat; Ov. A. A. iii, 
641 ff. LUB. 

236. ' She calls in Archigenes :' a 
first-rate physician in tbe reigns of 
Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan. Sch. 
LUB.nVn, 98; xiv, 252. He was a 
native of Apamea in Syria, and the 
author of many medical works. By 
Archigencs here is meant any medical 
man ; as by Heliodorus, 373. BQi. 
Tbe mother's object is to get her son- 
in-law renioved from bis wife's room, 
on tbe pretence of keeping ber quite 



230 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Abclilus interea lalet et sccretus adulter, 

Impatiensque moraj pavet et praeputia ducit. 

Sciiicet exspectas, ut tradat mater lionestos 
240 Atque alios mores, C[uam quos habet? Utile porro 

Filiolam turpi vetulae producere turpem. 

Nulla fere causa est, in qua non femina litem 

Moverit. Accusat Manilia, si rea non est. 

Componunt ipsaj per se formantque libellos, 
245 Principium atque locos Celso dictare parala). 
Eudromidas Tyrias ct femineum ceroma 

Quis nescit? Vel quis non vidit vulnera pali? 



quiet. R. It may be thought that the 
lover was to be introduced in a doctor's 
disguise. Sch. Our author perhaps 
hints at the immorality of the physieians 
themselves, as being either principals 
or accessories in the crime. Plin. xxix, 
l ; Mart. xi, 72. HNN. 

' Tosses off the bed-clothes as too 
heavy.' LUB. Ov. Am. i, 2, 2 ; Her. 
21, 169 f; Prop. iv, 3, 31 ; 8, 87 ; s. 
Plaut. Truc. ii, 5, 26. B. 

238. ' Is all in a tremor.' lcetusque 
per artns hurror iit ; Stat. Th. i, -193 f ; 
spes(fue audaxque ttna tnetus et fiducia 
pallcns : nilfixutn cordi : pugnantejcire 
paventque : cottcurrit sumnios animosum 
frigus in artus; ib. vi, 393 ff; it mem- 
bris gelidvs sudor: latoque pavore pro- 
tnissa evolvit; Sil. iii, 215 f; xvi, 432. 
HS. 

239. See xiv, 25 ff. B. 

' Do you expect forsooth P' 75; ii, 
104. B. 

240. ' Lucrative :' the old beldame 
makes money by it. B. 

241. ' To bring forth ;' viii, 271 ; 
Cic. Terr. i, 12; Sil. i, 112; or ' to 
bringup;' xiv, 228 ; Plaut. Asin. iii, 
1, 40 ; Bac. iii, 3, 51 ; J?. or ' to prosti- 
tute ;' Seh. [or ' to bring out.'] 

Kaxov Ko^axos xkxov uit, L UB. 

242. ' Where a woman has not a 
fi nger in the pi e.' 

243. ' If she be not defendant, she 
will be plaintiff.' MAD. 

Manilia. There was a common wo- 
man of this name, who was prosecuted 
for wounding a masiistrate with a stoue : 
Gell. iv, 14; PBA. V. Max. viii, 3; 
aurat aSixeuireu xa) ^^oriyxaXovr tri' 
Alex. quoted at 136. ]i. 



244. ' They draw up and frame in- 
dictments without anj' help from the 
attorney.' LUB. In our civil-law 
courts the ferm libellus is still in use, 
and answers to ' a declaration' at com- 
mon law, which contains the complaint. 
MAD. 

245. ' Both the exordium and the 
topics to be used ;' LUB. or ' the title 
and section of the law on which the 
stress of the actiou rests :' PLA. ' both 
chapter and verse,' as we say. 

A. Corn. Ce/sns, who died in the 
reign of Tiberius, left behind him seven 
books of Institutes. Sch. He also wrote 
both on rural and military affairs : but 
he is best known as aphysician. Quint. 
xii, ult. PBA. It is customary with 
our author to give the name of some 
well-known professor of a former age to 
some contcmporary master of the art. 
GJF. There was also a P. Juventius 
Ce/sus, who was prEetcr (854 y.r.) under 
Trajan, asd consul for tlie second time 
(S82 Y.R.) under Hadrian. He was an 
emineut lawyer, and wrote Commen- 
taries, and Books of Letters, Digests, 
and C^uestions. His father bore the 
same name, and is occasionally men- 
tioned in the Digests. GRA. HEJ. R. 

' To dictate' as a master to his scholar. 
R. s. V, 122. 

246. See i, 23; iii, 68 ; 103. T. SM. 
Out of vanity they had these rugs lined 
with purple silk. FE. i, 27; PRA. iii, 
283. B. 

From the ej>\thet /etnitieiitn , we may 
suppose that they used a more delicate 
unguent than the common gladiators. 

247. Atitiqui ad patos exercebant 
tirones: scvta de vimine in modiim 



SAl. \ l. 



OF JUVKNAL. 



•J.31 



(^11(111 ciivat adsiduis sudibus scutoque lacessit 
Atquo ouines inqjlet nunieros, di<j;nissiina jirorsus 
250 Florali niatrona tuba ; nisi si quid in illo 



cratiuin corruinndata lexubant^ ita iit 
diiplum poiulus cratis habcrct, (juaiii 
scutuin publicum Itnbere consuevit : 
iii/eiui/iie c/>ir<is /ii//iciis, dupli aquc 
ponderis, pro gladiis tironibus dabant. 
pa/orum aulein usus nonso/um inilitibus, 
sed etiam gladia t orib us plurimum 
prodest. a singulis tironibus singuli 
pali dejigebantur in terrain, ita ut nu- 
tare non possent et atj' pedibus eini- 
nerent. confra illuin palu /«, tniii<iuam 
conlra ai/rersariuin, tiro citin cratc il/a 
et clava ve/ut cuin g/adio se exerccbat 
et scuto; ut nunc (/uasi caput aut 
faciem peteret : in (jiia meditaiionc ser- 
' vabatur illa caute/a, ui ita tiro ad in- 
ferenditin vu/nus insurgeret, tie qua 
parts ipse pateret ad p/agani; Veget. i, 
11. LUB. R. 

The words sudes ' stakes' (iv, 128 ;) 
and rudes ' wooden foils' are sometimes 
eonfounded. Probably rudibits is the 
oorreet reading liere. Sch. L. vibrure 
sudem; Sil. viii, 554 ; i, 321 ; s. Liv. 
xl, 6; 9; xxvi, 51 f; Ov. A. A. iii, 
615; Veget. ii, 43; Prop. vi, 1, 29; 
vecles; Veget. i,9; va^^tixis tra^sTs' 
Xcn. Cyr. ii, 3; 17 ff; R. ED. Uv. F. 
ii, 367. HS. 

249. ' Goes through all the move- 
ments of the exercise,' MAD. or ' per- 
forms the whole exercise with precision 
at the word of command.' LUB. s. 
Plin. Ep. ix, 38; Pan. 71; Cic. Div. 
i, 13. R. 

250. ' The trumpet which assembled 
(iii, 34 f ;) the courtezans at the festival 
of Flora.' Lactant. i, 20 ; L UB. Pers. 
V, 178; Ov. F. V, 183-378; PRJ. 
V. Max. ii, 10, 8; Sen. Ep. 97; Plin. 
xviii, 29; Varr. L. L. iv, 10; vi, 3; 
R. see also x, 214; Virg. ^E. v, 113. 
L. 

The F/ora/ia were first sanctioned by 
the government, in the consulship of 
Claudius Centho and Seinpronius Tudi- 
tanus, (513 Y.r.) out of the fines then 
exacted fur trespasses on the grounds 
belonglng to the people: (this is Ovid's 
story.) even then, th( y vvere only oc- 
casional ; but about eighteen years afte; - 
wards, on account of the unfavourable 
spring, the senate decreed that they 
shouid be celebrated annually, as the 



most effectual metiiod to propitiate the 
goddess of the season. They probably 
had their rise in a very remotc age, 
and, like the Lnpercitlia, were the un- 
couth expressions of gratitude of a rude 
and baibarous race, handed down by 
tradition, adopttd by a people as yet 
but little refined, and fioally, degeiie- 
rating into licentiousness amidst the 
general corruption of manncrs. These 
games were celebrated ou the la^t day 
of April, and the first and second day 
of May; and with an indecency hardly 
credible amongst civilized people. The 
lovvestworaen appeared upon the stage, 
and exhibited a variety of obscene 
dances, feats of agility, &c. These 
miserable wrelches assembled at the 
sound of a trumpet ; and the leadcr of 
this immodestband must havecertainly 
required all tlie impudence, and all the 
profiigacy, which .juvenal sees in his 
fem;de fencer. The people cliiimed a 
privilege of calling upon them, to strip 
themselves; which wa.s regularly done 
with immense applause ! Val. Maxi- 
mus says, that when Cato once hap- 
pened to be present at these games, the 
spectators were ashamed to call upon 
the ladies as usual. Cato, who seems 
to have expected it, asked his friend 
Favorinus, why they delayed ; and was 
answered, otit of respect to him ; upon 
which he immediately left the theatre, 
to the great joy of the people, who pro- 
ceeded toindemnify themselves for their 
reluctant forbearance. Martial has an 
epigram on this anecdote, in which he 
puts a very pertinent question : " Why," 
says he to Cato, " since you knew the 
nn.ture of these games, did you go into 
the theatre? was it merely that you 
might come out again P" By the way, 
among many other puzzling circum- 
stances in the Roinan histury, how are 
we to account for the high character 
which Cato obtained from his country- 
men. A parent witliout affection, a 
husband without attacliment, a master 
without humanitj', and a republican 
withouc political honesty, he has yet 
come down to us, as one of the most 
virtuous men of his age ! In his actions, 
there would seem little more than proofs 



232 



THE SATIRKS 



SAT. VI. 



Pectoie plus agitat verffique paratur arenae. 
Qucm pra^starc potcst mulier galcata pudorem, 
Quae fugit a sexu ? Vircs amat. Haec tamen ipsa 
Vir noUet fieri : nam quautula noslra voluptas ? 

255 Quale dccus rcrum si conjugis auctio fiat ? 
Jialteus et maniciu et crista) crurisque sinistii 
Dimidium tegimen ; vel, si diversa movebit 
Proelia, tu felix, ocreas vendente puella. 
Hae sunt, quae tenui sudant in cyclade, quaruiu 

260 Delicias et panniculus bombycinus uvit. 

Adspice, quo fremitu monslratos perferat ictus 



of a hard heait, a wily head, and an 
impudence that would have scandalized 
a Cynie. GIF. [s. al.so J. Earl of 
Orrery, L. xiii, p. 167 f-] 

The word ' matron' is used with in- 
dipnation. R. 

Nisi si; Ov. Her. 4,111. HS. ' Un- 
less she meditates some moremaseuline 
feat.' Mart. Sp.vi. PRJ. 

252. ' What sense of shame can 
there be in a woman, who is so for- 
getful of her sex as to assume the 
helmet.P' MAD. [Heraldry does nol 
allow ladies either helmets or crests.] 

253. ' Eohust and manly exercises.' 
LUB. [s. 112.] 

254. ' How little is our pleasure in 
comparison with theirs !' Ov. M. iii, 
320 ff ; BEO. s. xi, 166 f ; Ov. A. A. 
i, 342; Prop. iii, 19. R. 

255. ' Of your wife's wardrobe.' 

256. These arms are those of the 
Samnite, according to Livy ; d/w exer- 
citus erant : scuta alterius aiiro, a/te- 
rius argento ccelaverunt : spongia pec- 
tori tegumentum (i. e. halteu s); et s i- 
nistrum crus ocrea tectu ni ; 
galece cristatae, (juee speciem magni- 
tudini corporum adderent ; tunicae 
(this is tlie reading here according to 
Sch.) auratis militihus versicolores, ar- 
gentatis lintece candidce. (And after 
the slaughter of the Samnites) Homani 
ad honorem deum insignihus armis 
hostium usi sunt : Campani, ah su- 
perbia et odio Samnitium, gladiatores 
eo ornatu armarunt Satn?iit i umgue 
nomine compellarunt ; Liv. ix,40. Per- 
haps manic<B may mean ' sleeved 
tunics,' vvhich would be hetter suited 
to women. Gell. vii, 12; Suet. i, 45; 



tunicce ihanicas habent; Virg. /E. ix, 
616. The retiarii wore only a tunic: 
s. ii, 143; viii, 200-208 ; and note on 
263. R. 

' The left leg' was advanced when 
they fought, and but half-covered with 
a plate of iron, both that it might be 
less cumbrous and because the rest of 
the leg was protected by the shield. 
LUB. Macr. S. v, 18. Virgil on the 
contrary, describe.s the Hernici as hav- 
ing the right leg protecttd and the left 
bare; M. vii, 689 f. PHA. 

257. ' If your young wife (ii, 59;) 
engages as a retiarius or secutor, you 
may think yourself a lucty fellow, for 
she will then have a pair of boots to 
sell.' Sch. LUB. PRA. R. 

259. ' In a thin muslin frock.' LUB. 
It had a border of gold: Prop. iv, 7, 
40; Virg. yE. i, 649. R. India muslin 
has a golden selvedge. 

260. ' To whose charms even a thin 
silkenhalf-hanilkerchiefisinsupportably 
hot.' Sch. s. i, 27-29; ii, 65 ff; viii, 
101. R. 

261. See267; and viii, 200 ff; R. 
virfortis ingemiscit, ut se intendat ad 

firmitatem ; ut in stadio cursores ex- 
clamant, quam maxime possunt: fa- 
ciunt idem, quum exercentur, athletee: 
pugiles vero, etiam (juum feriunt ad- 
versarium, in jactandis ccestibus inge- 
7niscnnt ; ?ion, quod doieant animove 
succumbant, sed quia profundenda voce 
omne corpus intenditur, venitque plaga 
vehementior; Cic. T. Q. ii, 23 sq. 
PRA. " Mark, with what force, as 
the fuU biow descends, She thunders 
HAH !" GIF. Buchanan has a Latin 
epigram on this suhject. 



s\r. VI. 



OF JUVEXAL. 



2.l;J 



Et quanto galeae curvctur pondcrc, quanta 
Poplitibus scdoat, qtiain dinso fascia libro, 
Et ride, scaphiuni j^ositis (juuni suniitur arniis. 

265 Dicite vos ne])tcs Lepidi ca^cive Metclli, 

Gurgitis aut Fabii, qua^ ludia suniscrit umquam 
Hos habitus .? (|nandc) ad })ahun gcniat uxor Asyli? 

Seniper habet litcs altcmaque jurgia lectus, 
Tn quo nu])ta jacet: mininnun dormitur in illo. 

270 Tunc gravis illa viro, tunc orba tigride jJcjor. 
Quum simulat gemitus occulti conscia facti 
Aut odit pucros aut ficta pellicc ]»lorat, 
Ubcribus semijer lacrumis scmperque paratis 



* Which sbe has been shown by her 
fencing-master.' Seh. 

' She thrusts honie.' PRA. 

263. " How close tucked up for 
iight, behind, beforc." GIF. 

Faseia ' a roU of clothes (s. Mart. 
vii, 66, 4 ;) in a thick mass.' l'RA. 

264. Plaut. Bac. i, 1, ,S5 ff. ' You 
will laugh to tind what a mistake you 
had made with regard to the sex of the 
combatant.' 

The scaphium was an oblong ' pot' 
used by woraen ; Mart. xi, 12, 26 ; that 
which men ustd was callfd kisanmn. 
R. 

265. ' High-born dames nowassume 
a garb and play a part which a gladi- 
ator's wife or an actress wou!d once 
have heen ashamed of.' Sch. LUB. 

M. JEm. Lepii/t/s, ctnsor 584 Y. it. 
twice consul, chit-f ])on'iff, and prim e 
of the senate Otie of tlie second tri- 
umvirate and many consuls bore the 
sarae name. LUB. PRA. 

Metetlus; iii, 138 f. LUB. 

266. Q. or M. Fab. Giirges, (son of 
Fab. Max. Rullianus,) was consul 462 
and 478 Y. u. and prince of the scnate. 
He was named Gurges froni having 
squandered his fortune during his 
youth: in later life he reforraed and 
wa« fcxempiarv in his conduct. LUB. 
Macr. S. ii, 9; iii, 13; T.in. vii, 41 ; 
Plut. V.x; Liv. X :il,l. H.PRA. 

Ludia; s. 104; MAD 82. U. 

267. See 247; 261. R. 

.<4*^/u« was a prize-fighter. LUB. 

26c<. The Satirist now touches upon 
tbe comlorts of a curtain-lecturc. MA l). 
hoc decet uxores, dos est uxoria liles; 
Ov. A. A. ii, 165 &c; iii, 373 ff; Am. 

2 



ii, 2, 35 ff; dies ac noctes cum cane 
a:tatein exigis; Plaut. Cas. ii, 6, 9 ff. 
LUB. R. 

270. Tigris Indica fera velocitatis 
treiiiendce est, <fute, vacinim rejieriens 
cubile, fertur preeceps odore vestigans. 
raptor appropinquaute freinitu, abjicit 
uiiuiii e ratuli.s. tollif illa iiiorsu et 

pondere etiam ocyor facta reportat : et 
mox redit, iterumque consequitur ; donec 
regresso in narem rapfore^ irrita fe- 
ritas sfpvit in littore; Plin. viii, 18 
s 25. PRA. [This mode is stili fol- 
lowed: Peter Parlev, Asia, p. 98.] 
Melaiii,5; Solii). 17; Scii. iSled. 861 
ff; Luc. V, 405; Mart. iii, 44,6 ff; viii, 
26; R. Proverbs xvii, 12; Hosea xiii, 
8. MJD. 

271 . " When, conscious of her guilt, 
she feigns to groan, And chides your 
ioose amours, to hide her own." GIF. 
Tbe duped husbnnd setsdown her grief 
and jealousy to the score of her exces- 
sive love. ()v. A. A. iii,*>77 ff: Ani. i, 
8, 79 f; u(r« di rov ru^cvraf Ta.iSiff)capiev 
K1.1 oaKovw) iTCiTXiiiriift Ktti aTiva.yfi.ut 
iuXui! 'yivtaTaf Luc. I) M. xxvii, 7. 
a.Xuria6ai vTc yvtaixoi xaXijs xai TfiCf 
riOovri)) Ti ifiiXriaai l^riffrajuim; xai h xai^u 
oax^Zaui. xai fiClTa^u ruv Xoyat iXttitui 
uTOffritul^af id. Tox. 15. R. 

■272. ' rhe servant lads.' PRA. 

Pellex: 627; ii, 57- 

•273. Ut Jlfrent oculos erudiern suos; 
Ov. R. A.690. See xiii, 133 f; Ov. 
Am. i, 8, 83 f ; A. A. iii, 2:»1 f; Her. 
2, 61 f; Juss<e prosiliunl lacrumee; 
Mait. i, 34, 2; Prop. iv, 1, 144 R. 

The metaphor is taken from troops 
well-disciplined and trained to niov6 
here or there «t command. S.h. 

H 



•234 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



In statione sua atque exspectantibus illam, 
275 Qiio jubeal manare inodo: tu credis amorem, 
Tu tibi tunc curruca places flctumque labellis 
Exsorbes, quae scripta et quot lecture tabellas, 
Si tibi zelotypa3 retcgantur scrinia mccchge ! 
Sed jacet in servi complexibus aut equitis. Dic, 
280 Dic aliquem, sodes, hic, Quintiliane, colorem! 

" Ilasremus : dic ipsa." " Olim convenerat," inquit, 
" Ut faceres tu, quod velles, nec non ego possem 
Indulgere mihi : clames licet et mare ccelo 
Confundas, homo sum." Nihil est audacius illis 
285 Deprensis: iram atque animos a crimine sumunt. 

Unde haec monstra tamen vel quo de fonte, requiris ? 
Praestabat castas humilis fortuna Latinas 
Quondam nec vitiis contingi parva sinebant 
Tecta labor somnique breves et vellere Tusco 

"Tears, that marshalPdattheirstation Sodes is formed from si and aiides, 
stand, And flow irapassion'd as she (wbich oceur stparately in Plautus,) 
•■ '^^" Cic. Orat. 45; Festus; Non. 2. It 

qualifies an imperative. F. Livy xxiii, 
47, d. 

281. ' We are aground, quite at a 
stand still; the lady must speak for 
herself.' LUB. 

283. See ii, 25; R. and 75. 

284. ' I am a mortal, therefore frail 
by nature.' ni/iil est jam qiiod tu mihi 
succenseas ; fecere tale ante alii spec- 
tativiri : Juonamrin amare est hiimanum 
aufem ignoscerc est. ne sis me objiirga^ 
hoc non voliintas me impulit ; Plaut. 
Merc. ii,2,46ff; Ter. Heaut. i, 1, 25; 
Cic. Off. i, 9 LUB. R. 

286. Monsfra; ii, 122; prodigia; 
84 ; R. 645. [forsifan et Priami fue- 
rintqiicefala rei/uiras, Vir. yE. ii,505.] 

The good old times are again de- 
scribpd, in xi, 77-180. R. Conipare 
Ezekiel on the profligacy of the Jewish 
women ; xvi, 49. MAD. 

•1^7. S?e 5--24; and, on the happy 
effects of iudrstrious poverty, Hor. Od. 
i, 12, 41-44; iii, 2, 1 tf; 6, 17 ff; Ov. 
R.. Am. 136-168; 745 ff; R. Aristoph. 
Pl. 467 ff. 

2SS. 'Tobecontaminated.' jR.v,128. 

289. ' Lowly roofs:' humiles casas ; 
Virg. E. ii, 29 ; when Romuleo recens 
horrebat regia cu/mo ; JE. viii, 654. 
LUB. 



gives command " GIF. 

274. On the hiatus, see i, 151. R. 

Illam for ilta, is a Grecism. R. An 
accusative dependent on a preceding 
verb, is often used where one would 
expect a nominative. Hyg. fab. 34; 
CiEs B. G. i, 39. HEI. 

276. ' Like the hedge-sparrow' which 
sits on the cuckoo's eggs ; so you rear 
abrood, of which you are not the parent, 
though they are hatched in your own 
nest." Plin. x. 9; Arist. H. An. vi, 7; 
X), 29; 37. PRA. R. 

Et videatflen t e m ; nec tcedeat os- 
cu laferre ; et sicco lacrumas com- 
btbat ore tuas; Ov. A. A.ii, 325f; 
lacrumasque per os''ula siccat; 
Ov. F. iii, 509 ; Ker. 11, 54. R. 

277. " Could you now examine her 
scrutore, What amorous lays, what 
letters would you see."' GIF. s. 233. R. 

279. ' But suppose ycu catch her 
lyinsj.' PRA. Petr. 126. R. 

' Siave or knight, for to her it matters 
little which.' R. 

280. ' Quintilian, with all bis rhetoric, 
could find no colourableexcuse for such 
flagrant misconduct:' Sch. [' he wnuld 
throw up his brief.'] s. vii, 155; MAD. 
and 186; colorem dare rebus de- 
formibus; Quint. iii, 8, 3; a metajihor 
from painting. R. 



SAT. vr. 



OF JUVENAl.. 



'w>.'}5 



290 Vexatae durjeque manus ac proxiuius Uibi 
Haunibal ct stantcs Collina turre uiariti. 
Nunc patiniur longaj ])acis uiala. Sievior arinis 
Luxuria incubuit victuuique ulciscilur orbem. 
Nullum crimcn abest lacinusquc libidinis, ex quo 

295 Paupertas Romaua perit. llinc Huxit ad i.stos 
Et Sybaris colles, liinc et Rhodos et jNIiletos 
Atque coronatum et petulans madidumque Tarentum. 
Prima peregrinos obsco^na Pecunia mores 
Intulit et turpi li-egerunt soecula luxu 



290. Lucretia was found by Tarquin 
thus employed. SVL. 

Medis husiilis in l/oiiis artiim civi- 
tafem retiiiebaf ; Sall. B. J. 41 s 45; 
LUB. s. Liv. xxvi, 10; PKA. fcil. 
xii, 541 ff. R. 

291. Ilan/iiLa/; 170. PRA. 

' On guard at the Colline gate.' Sch. 

292. i, 87; ifle diu tiiites popnlus, 
qui prcefnit orbi, qui trahcas et sceptra 
dahaf ; nunc inhonorus, egens, perjert 
miserahile pacis sup/iliciuiii, nu/ioi/ue 
palam circunulafus liosfe ohsessi i/is- 
crimen habet; Claud. xv, 96, drc, KG. 
R. 

293. See x, 218. R. nova fehrium 
terris incubuit rohors; Hor. Od. i, 3, 
30 f. MAD. 

' The world' Tn» eiKeuftinti* ' the sub- 
jugated provinces of tlie Itoman em- 
pire.' i?.. orhem nam totuiii victor 
Roiiianus hnhehat. SVL. s. SS, on »/- 
titvfiim, 3. [s. Ov. F. i, 85 f.] 

294. e-ee ix, 131 ff; MJD. Hor. 
Od. iii, 24, 42 ff ; Liv. prf. end. R. 

Dejiitwit; iii, 62; s. ib. 60 tf; 69 ff. 
R. 

295. Hinc ' from opulence, power, 
and luxury:' PLT. PRH. or ' hence- 
forth.' R. 

296- ' The seven hills on which Kome 
was built.' PLT. PRIL ix, 131. R. 

Syharis (which gave rise to the pro- 
verbs Si/haritica siis, niensa, ^-c ;) was 
a voliiptuous city of Muyna Grtecia, 
FAR. R. foundcd by the companions 
of Phiioctetes. Sch. 

Rhodos, in the Carpathian sea, off 
tbe Carian ctiast. FAR. Pind.Ol.vii; 
Strab. xiv; Plin. v, 31 ; Hor. Od. i, 7, 
1; Ath. xiii, 2; Gell, vii, 3; s. viii, 
113. PRA. 



Miletos, the chief city of lonia, ou 
the confines of Cariaand Lydia. FAR, 

297. Tarentuin, a town of Messapia, 
on a gulfof the same name. PllA. The 
epithets denote the dissolute mjinntrs 
of its inhafitants. ' Crowned with 
flowers:' v,36. ' Wanton and insolent,' 
as persons are when in their cups. 
' Wet and soaked' either in wine (/?•- 
fi^tyfiivos , urgfiMcnv Hesych.) or with 
oiutuieuts: it Is caWed unctuiu; Sidon. 
v, 430 ; (as uncta Corinthus; viii, 113 ;) 
iiiol/e; Hor. S. ii, 4, 34 ; iiiihe/fe-, Ep. 
i, 7i 45. huc vina et unguenta et 
niinium hrevcs f lores aiuveneB ferre 
juhe rosee; Od. ii, 3. 13 f; s. ix, 128; 

xi, 122. R. MAD. [" Welcome joy 
and feast, Midnight shout and revelry, 
Tip.-y dance and jollity ! Braid your 
locks with rosy twine, Dropping odours, 
dropping wine;" Milton, Co. 102- 
106.] 

298. " Wealth first, the ready pander 
to all sin, Broaght foreign manners, 
foreign vices in." GIF. luxuriee pere- 
yrinee origo ah exercitu Asiatico in- 
vecta in Urhein est : inde primum lectos 
ceratos, 8fc. Liv. xxxix, 6. R. Juve- 
nal had perhaps in his mind the words 
of Phocyilides, and those of Creon ; 
Soph. Ant. 301 ff; rk ^^^fiuT at^^a- 
Tciffi Tifi.icjTara ovtafi.it t£ tX£/Vt»» ru* 
h a.v(^eain>is 'ix"' Eur. Pl;. 1-19 f ; Jl N'N. 
s. i, il3; Sall. B. C. 11. 

2iJ9. Fregerunt ' have enervated' or 
' rendered etJeminate:' iii this sen.«ewe 
have ra wra KaTiayarit' Pliot. "242 ; and 
ra xanxKairfiiiia fAiXn and h xartayuTa 
fiouriKh are opposed to fi it^^ditii. Plut. 
M. Ixxx, Opp. t. ii, p. m. I13'i; 1 138. 
frangitur ipsa siiis Roina supcrba 
bonis: Prop. iii, 13, 60. R. 



230 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



300 Divitisc molles. Quid enim Venus ebria curat ? 
Iiiguinis et capitis qusc sint discvimina, nescit, 
Gvandia quie mediis jam noctibus ostrea mordet, 
Quum perlusa mero spumant unguenta Falerno, 
Quum bibitur concha, quum jam vcrtigine tectum 

305 Ambulat et geminis exsurgit mensa lucernis. 
I nunc et dubita, qua sorbeat aera sanna 
Maura, Pudicitiae veterem quum prseterit aram, 



fiOO. ' A woman vrho p.dds drunken- 
ness to lewdne«!S.' DO. omne vitinm. 
ebrietas et intendit et detegit, olstantem 
mnlis conatibus verccundiam removet] 
Sen. Ep. 83; SVL. V. Max. ii, 1, 5; 
s. 418 if ; Prop. ii, 33, 25 ff. -R. 

301. " Take head or tail, to her 'tis 
much the same." GIF. Suet. iii, 44 
f; Arist. Eq. 1281 tf; jB. Hor. Ep. 
viii, 19 f. Seh. 

302. ' Fat oysters, as provocatives.' 
LUB. Their size renders mordet [s. 
note on 9; iv, 142;] preferable to the 
other reading sorbet. 

Noctes medias, qnvm pulmo Falerno 
arderet; iv, 137 ff. PRA. 

303. Si ca/id/im potas,ardenti mtn-r/ia 
Falcrno convenit et melior Jit sapor 
inde mero; Mart. xiv, 113; 110; 
uvpta cnov fiiyvvtris «vra)s tviiov: this 
wiiie was ealled «Tvaf fivffimTns or 
u.vlplt)is- JE\. V". H. xii, 31 ; Plin. xiii, 
3-5; xiv, 3; xxxi? BRO. R. This 
most extravagant custom was, in the 
days of the elder Pliny, contined to a 
few : in the tinie of Martial H was com- 
monennugh; anditcontiuued infashion 
to the decline of the empire : te fo- 
liis Arnhes ditent \ Claud. xix, 226. 
Savage nations will have recourse to 
the most nauseous mixturefor the sake 
of procuring a teraporary delirium : 
strong infusions of aromatic ointments 
in wine are said to produce giddiness ; 
and it is not altogether iniprobable, that 
tliis profligate people (as the extremes 
orbarbarism and refinement sometimes 
meet) might be influenced by consider- 
ations of a similar uature, and adopt 
this monstrous expedient for the mere 
purpose of accelerating and heightening 
the effects of intoxication. GIF. [s. 
Horne on the Scriptures, iii, 443.] 

To drink the wine ' sheer' was the 
characteristic of drunkards. R. con- 



tinnis vexata madet vindemia nimhis: 
non potes vt cupias, vendere, caupo, 
merum; Mart. i, 57; callidus imposuit 
nnper midi copo Ravoinee ; cnm pete- 
rem lui.rtnm vendidit ille merum\ 
iii, 57 ; i, 12 ; «fec. [s. xii, 8, note; Job 
ix, 2; 5.] 

3i»4. Concha is e'ther a capacious 
drinking-vessel formedlike ' ashell,' or 
the ves-el which held the unguent. 
LUB. 419. i»f^J£>. [Hor.O.ii, 7,22f.] 

305. " Ava.ira.ivfv; iSoxti fioi vt^ipi^tf- 
6oti Tfiovr. Koi ri (rvriA.aio\i a.VTo avtrraKptro' 
Luc. D. iMar. ii, 2; oholia^a xsfaXhf, 
roht laif^ia vi^ir^i^ii Theogn. 503 ff; 
Eur. B. 916 ff; Sen. Ep. 83; V. Flac. 
iii, 65 ff ; Virg JE. iv, 469 f ; Sen. Ag. 
728; R. (jnes snnt singula. bina videt; 
Ov. A. A. iii, 764. 

306. ' Gonov/!' a common expres- 
sionof censure or derision ; x, 166; 310; 
xii, 57; LUB. R. [Vir. E. i, 74; 
{MY.) Ov. H. 9, 105 ; 17, 57 ; L. Au. 
363.] 

From sanna comes snbsannare. See 
nn^eonPers i,58;62; iii, 86 f ; v, 91 ; 
-R. turpi sonorngosis naribns introrsum 
redncto sjjiritu coucrepantes ; Amm. 
xiv, 6 ; i«» pha (rifiuravrts , ^pi^pof artXyii 
iia rZv ftvx,rri^u>v fiax^ov xai ("»* ovTus 
tfTu) us civo x^ovtov f^oy^itfrts' Petr. 
Alex. in Theodor. E. H. iv, 22; nari- 
bns corrugatis aerem sorbens inhonestos 
strepitus promit ; Sever. Ep. in Baron. 
Anu. t. V. VAO. 

307. There were two temples of 
Chastity at Rome ; one of Patrician 
Chastity in the Forum Boarinm or 
' Cattle-market,' the other of Plebeian 
Chastity in the Vicus Longus or ' High 
Street.' The former was the more 
ancient. LUB. GIF. Liv. x, 23. R, 

' She passes the temple, not only 
without saluting it, but even witb a 
sneer.' R. They are not content with 



SAT. VI. 



()!■ JUVENAL. 



•287 



Tullia quid dicat notae collactea Maurae. 
Noctibus hic ponunt lcctica.'^, niicturiunt hic 

310 Elli^icnique dcvc longis siplionibus iniplent 
Incjuc vices equitant ac luna tcste moventur. 
Indc domos abeunt : tu calcas luce reversa 
Conjugis urinam magnos visurus amicos. 
Nota Bonie sccreta Deiv, quum tibia himbos 

315 Incitat et coniu pariter vinoque fcruntur 

Adtonita) crincmque rotant uhilantque Priapi 
Ma^nades. O quantus lunc ilUs mentibus ardor 
Concubilus ! quae vox saltante hbidine ! quantus 
IUe mcri veteris per crura madcntia torrens ! 

320 Lenonum ancillas posita Saufeia corona 



every variety of wantonness, iinlecs they 
show their contenipt of the poddess of 
Chastitv at her antiquated anil neglected 
altars. SPY. 

308. Quid ' what impious jeers.' 
GIF. 

' Wtll-known;' x, 224. GIF. 
' Her foster-sister;' iftoydkaKns. 
LUB. 

309. ' Herethey alightfrom theirlit- 
ters: and the very first thing they do, 
i» to show their thorough contempt of 
the deity within whose precincts they 
assemble.' i, l.Sl. H. 

310. ' And bedew the image of the 
goddess with copious irrigations.' L UB. 

311. ' The cha.ste Moon (Hor. C. 
S.) is witness (s. viii, 149 f ; Manil. i, 
283;) to their filthv orgies.' vii, 240; 
Romans i, 26 f. LUB. R. MAD. 

313. ' ()n your way tosee.'i, 33; iii, 
127 ff; 184; v, 76 tf. MAD. R. 

314. See ii, 86 tf; LUV. rtXtra) Js 
(cTifpnTci xa) X^V^ dti^Sv uTtTra fiurTn~ 
(la' Luc. -Ani. 42. R. 

Quiiiii varniina lumbutn iniranf; 
Pers. i, 20 f; GRJ. s. i, 45 ; ix, 69 ; 
Pers. iv, 35. R. 

' Theflute-the horn;' ii, 90fr. i^J5. 

315. ' With wine:' magno cratcrc; 
ii, 87. R. 

Fcrri is said of those who ' rush 
wildly' under the impulse of some irre- 
sistible stimulus : illue mcnfis inops, vf 
ffumii fvrialis ErirlUho iinpulit in cotlo 
rrine Jacntfe, feror; Ov. Her. 15, 
139 f ; (BU.) R. notcs on <pii)t<r6ai- Her. 
vii, 210, [68;] viii, 87, [83;. 91. 



316. ' Bewildered :' Liv. xxxix, 16; 
Hor. Od.iii, 19, 14. R. 

Capnt jactare ef cotnas rofare 
fanafia/m est ; Quint. xi, 3. Our au- 
thor seems to have borrowed Lucan's 
description of the priests of Cybele ; 
crinemquc rotantes sanguineum 
populis ulularu nf tristia Galli; i, 
666. The Gallus is elsewhere similarly 
represented a.s po/j.^tiroii! iouav Xvrvo- 
ftauls TXi>xaft,ovi , and £S/»»i(r« S" ivg-tpo- 
(pdXiyya xif^ar Antip. Sid. Ep. xxvii, 
2 ; lt<. R. Ihe priesfs of Isis also, as 
demisso capite cervices lubricis infor- 
quenfes notihus crincsque pendulos ro- 
tantes in circulum ; Apul. Met. viii, p. 
214 ; s. Ep. XXV, p. 246; Eur. B. 150; 
864; Iph. A. 758; Cat. Ixiii, 23 ff. 
BUS. 

Ululant ' howl or yell' {oXoXvXovfif) 
is applied to sounds of frantic mirth or 
woe indiscriminately. Mart. v, 42, 3 ; 
Luc. i, 567 ; Virg. JE. iv, 609 ; Stat. 
Th. iii, 158 ; Call. H. in Del. 258. R. 
^ ' Of Priapus;' ii, 95; PRA. and vi, 
75 ; i. e. ' devoting theinselves to the 
god of obscenity.' Scb. R. 

317. Manas ' a frantic female,' de- 
notes properly a Bacchante. GV. The 
adlition of the god's name is an instance 
of the metaphor by analogy mentioned 
by Aristotle, Kh. iii, 4, 2; xi, 4. 

318. ' As lust dances in theirveius.' 
s. Arist. N. 1393; Arista>n. Ep. ii, 5; 
Theocr. iii, 37 ; Cal. H. in Cer. E. R. 

319. ' They have drunk so niuch, that 
they cannot retain the liquor.' G V. 

320. ' Saufeia, or Laufella,' ix, 117; 



238 



THE SATIRES 



sAT. vr. 



Provocat et tollit pendentis praemia coxaj. 

Ipsa Meclullina? fluctum crissantis adorat ; 
fPalmam inter dominas virtus natalibus a,'quat.t 
Nil ibi per ludum simulabitur : omnia fient 

325 Ad vcrum, quibus incendi jam frigidus aevo 
Laomedontiades et Nestoris hcrnia possit. 
Tunc prurigo moraj impatiens, tunc femina simplex, 
Et toto pariter repetitus clamor ab antro : 
" Jam fas est : admitte viros !" Jam dormit adulter, 

330 Illajubet sumto juvenem properare cucullo. 
Si nihil est, servis incurritur. Abstuleris spem 
Servorum, veniet conductus aquarius. Hic si 
Quaeritur et desunt homines ; mora nulla per ipsam, 



xii, 45 ; M art. iii, 72 ; a matron, chal- 
lenges the common prostitutes {leaonis 
puellce^ 127;) to contend with her, and, 
by throwing each aiitagonist, bears off 
the prize: GV. R. which w as a gam- 
mon of bacon. Sch. fiirca levut ilte 
hicorni sordidn terga siiis nigro pen- 
ilentia tigno\ Ov. M viii, 647 f; s. vii, 
119; xi, 82. HS. RIG. 

Posita corona ' a prize being pro- 
posed:' com^p^xe prinmm meriii laiide 
coronam ; Virg. M. v, 355 ; with trcs 
prae m i a prim i accipientjiavaque capiit 
nectentur oliva: primns equum plia- 
leris insignem victor habeto : 308 ff; 
imitated by Silius xvi, 300 ff; 606; 
rie'ivai a.ifXK- Hom. II •*■ 653 ; 740. Tt 
raight also mean ' her chajjlet being 
laid as'de.' R. s. iii, 5C. 

321. [Posid. in Ath. iv, 154, B. 
DB.] 

322. ' Extols to the skies the graceful 
motionofthewanton ^Jedullina.' Fluc- 
tiim is a metaphortrtken froni the billows 
or the sea : thus ahris Ktuaauv vy^ov 
vuTDV aia^ii Pind. P. iv, 16 f. [Pers. i, 
20, note.J 

323. ' Manly prowess raises the 
victorious fair to the level of high-born 
dames.' LUB. R. [Probably aspurious 
iine. DB.] 

324. " Nothing is feign'd in this un- 
natural game." GIF. 

325. ' To the life.' R. 

Illius ad tactiim Pylius juvenescere 
possit, Titlioniisque annis fortior esse 
suis; Ov. Am. iii, 7, 41 t ; Mart. vi, 
71, 3 f; xi, 60, 3 f; xiv, 203. R. 



' Frozen with age' opposed to ' warra 
youth;' 369. R. [i Kings i, 1 f.] 

326. Priam, son of Laomedon. L UB, 
Virg. M. viii, 158. R. 

Annther periphrasis: s. iv, 107- ' The 
ruptured Nestor.' GIF. Ov. M. xii ; 
PRA. pondiis Nestoris; Plaut. s. x, 
205; Cels. iii, 24, 9; v, 18 ; Mart. xi, 
84, 5. R. 

327- ' The woman peeps out siraple 
and undisguised.' GRA. BRI. [s. 
Spectator No 217 ] 

328. ' The den ;' probably some 
vaulted cellarin whicli their gross rites 
were carried on. jR. 

329. These worcs are addressed to 
the female porter. R. 

' The gallant is not yet up.' 

330. ' The mistress lells her maid to 
go and bid the young man put on a 
hood, and come without delay.' R. s. 
118. MAD. See al.so Tib. i, 9, 71; 
quoted at 462. 

331. ' If nothing of the kind is to be 
found.' LUB. Arist. Th. 491 f. L. 

' They fall foul of slaves.' s. 279. 
LUB. 

332. • The attendant who drew water 
to fill the baths.' This class of men had 
got a bad nairie from being often hired 
by the ladies to carry letters to their 
sweethearts; Fes tus. i/iViV". The per- 
sons employed about t!ie baths, we 
may conclude, would not be very at- 
tractive: and the oflice itseif was 
looked upon as very degrading. note on 
Her. iii, 14, [54]. 

333. ' There wouUl be no hesiration 



SAl. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



2Sii 



(iuo minus iuiposito chuiein submittat asello. 

335 Atquc utinani rilus veteivs et publica saltem 
11 is intacta malis agerentur sacra: sed omnes 
Noverunt Mauri atque ludi, quae psaltria penem 
Majorem, quam sunt duo Ciesaris Anticatones, 
llluc, tcsticuli sibi conscius unde fugit mus, 

340 Intulerit, ubi velari pictura jubctur, 



on her part to follow the foul example 
of Pasiphae.' xii, 111 twicu. R, 

335. * If such inipurities niust be, 
would Ihey were restrictcd to inodcrn 
rites and private occasious, that we 
mipht avoid the scandal which now 
arises from theni.' Sch. 

336. ' 1 1 is known al! over the world :' 
oiiinibiis et lippis uofiaii et ton.suribus 
esse, ' to be kuovrn all over the city;' 
Hor. S. i, 7, 3 ; II. ' to be matter of 
puhlic notoriety.' ii, 58. 

33". " Whaisiriging-wench produced 
hiswaieVast ;is two Anticatos." GIF. 

This was Cludius ; who, whon a very 
young man, had an iutrigne with Pom- 
peia, the wile f f Julius Ca;sar. As the 
lady was narrowly watched by her 
motl.er-in-law, Aurelia, they had few 
opportuniticsof meeting; tliis irritiited 
their impatience, and forced them upon 
an expedient, as flagitiiuis as it was 
nevv. The mysteies of the Boiin Dea 
were so respected by the Konians, that 
none but MOiien had the piivilege of 
ofliciating at tbem ; every niale, even 
of animals, was driven from the house, 
and every statue, every picture of the 
masculine kind scrupulously veilcd. 
Clodius dressed himself like a woman, 
aud knocked at the door of CaRsar's 
house, where the mysteries were then 
celebrating. One of Pompeia^s maids, 
who was in the secret, let him in ; but 
unluckily, while she was pone to ae- 
quaint her mistress with his arrival, 
the impatient Clodius advanced tovvards 
the nssembly. On the way, he was 
met by another domcstic, wbo, taking 
him fpr one of her own sex, began to 
toy with him. Clodius vvas confused; 
which the other perceiving, insisted on 
knowing who and what he was. His 
voice, and still more his agitation, 
betrayed him. The women, struck vvith 
horror at such a y.rofanation, covered 
the .nltar and the implements of sacri- 



fice with a veil, and drove the intruder 
from the house. Inime''iately after, 
they left it themseives, and went to 
acquaint their husbands with the un- 
precedented abomination. Clodius vva.s 
iustantit accused, and wo\ild have been 
condemned ; but for tlie clandestine 
infiuence of Pompej' aud CsBsar, (of 
whom lie was a necessary tool,) and a 
species of bribery almost too infanious 
for belief, though asserted as a fact by 
Cicero. GJF. [" In the Vilia Pam- 
philia stands the statue of a man in 
woman's cloaths. A learned mcdallist 
in Rome has lately fixed it to Clodius, 
for one sees the same features and 
make of face in a medal of the Clodian 
famiy;' ADD, R. p. 114.] 

338. The iuference is that Pompeia 
loved Clodius, hecause he was more 
than twice the man that Cfcsar was. 
Cfesar had uot only seduced Servilia, 
the sister of Cato and mother of i-irutus, 
X, 319; but had writfen tvvo bouks, 
against Cicero's work entitled ' C ato,' 
which he named ' A n t i c ato.' Suet. i, 
66 ; PJut. V. xxxiv, Oj p. t. i, p. 733, c ; 
Gell. iv, 16; Ci:. Att. xii, 41; xiii, 
48; Div. ii, 9; Top. 94. R. 

The volumes of the ancients were 
so cnlled from their cylii;drical form. 
Sch. GRA. PRA. 1 here is also an 
insinuation that C-csar^s honour was 
more touehed by his wife's infidelity, 
tlian C'ato's was disparaged by all the 
obloquy with which Csesar had assailed 
it. LUB. 

339. ■ Rites held so sacred that the 
presence of any male (were it t!ie very 
least animal) would be a profanation.' 
Sch. [s. MuscA in Ainsworth's L. D.j 

340. Submotis extra eoHspectum om- 
nibus viris, ut picturae quofpte 
mnscHlorum animaliu m coiite- 
gantur, Sfc; Sen. Ep. 97. R. Such 
extreme delicafy is not very unlike 
that of the maiden lady, who carried 



240 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. vr. 



QuaBcuraque alterius sexus imitata figurara est. 
Et quis tunc hominum contemtor numinis ? aut quis 
Simpuvium ridere Numaj nigrumquc catinum 
Et Vaticano fragiles de raonte patellas 

345 Ausus erat ? Scd nunc ad quas non Clodius aras ? 
Audio, quid vcteres olim moneatis amici : 
" Pone seram ; cohibe." Sed quis custodiet ipsos 
Custodes ? Cauta est et ab illis incipit uxor. 
Jamque eadem summis pariter minimisque libido, 

350 Nec melior, silicem pedibus quae conterit atrura, 
Quam quee longorum vehitur ccrvice Syrorum. 
Ut spectet ludos, conducit Ogulnia vestem, 



her notions of proprietj' so far as never 
to allovv of male and female authors 
occupying the same shelf in her library. 

342. Quis; see note on iii, 49. 

' Even in those days, bad as they 
veere, gross profaneness had never 
reached the height it now has.' s. xiii, 
53. LUB. Juvenal is always laudator 
te7)iporis acfi; Hor. A. P. 173. SVL. 
Or ' then' may refer to fjuondam, 288; 
and ' now,' 345 ; to mmc, 292. R. 

343. Siitipifvii/m from simul bi- 
bere, because ' alt the priests drank 
from it:' Sch. probahly the same as 
simpullinn or simpuliim ; vas parvum, 
non dissimile cyatho, </uo vinum in 
sacrijiciis libahatur; Fest. (juo vinum 
dahant, iit 7ninntatim funderent, a 
gnttis guttum appellarunt ; et (fuo 
sumehant minutatim, a sumendo sim- 
pulii m nominavere : in hujusce locum 
in conviviis e Grcecia successit epichy- 
sis et cyathus, in sacrificiis remansit 
guttuni et simpvlum; Varr. L. L. iv, 
26 ; R. in fictilihus prolihatur simpu- 
viis (or simpullis); Plin. xxxv, 12 s 46; 
Cic. de Legg. iii, 36; paupertas iin- 
perium populo Rmnano fu ndavit a pri- 
7nordio, proque eo in hvdiernum diem 
diis immortalihus simpuvio et catino 
fictili sacrificat; Apul. Ap. p. 285, 41. 

PRA. 

' Of Numa,' wbo was the founder of 
religious rites at Rome. Flor. i, 2. 
PRA. 

' The dish of dark earthen-ware.' 
PRA. 

344. ' Brittle,' because they were not 
of go'd or silver. R. in Vaticaiiis con- 
dita 7nusta cadis; Mart. i, 19, 2. The 



Vatican was one of the seven hills, 
which produced clay used in the manu- 
facture of pottery; and its name was 
derived from vaticinium: Gell. xvi, 17; 
Fest. PRA 

345. " Now daring Clodii swarm in 
every fane." GIF. ' 

346. ' Old-fashioned friends:' but 
' the times are long gone by, when 
such precautions would have been of 
avail.' MJD. 

Olim ; iv, 96. R. 

347. Apposita sera; Ov. Am. iii, 14, 
10. HS. 

' Restrain her by surrounding her 
with spies and keepers,' ffter the 
Greek eustom. PC, iv, 13. R. 

348. ' She is cunning :' decipit illa 
cuslodes aut cere domat; 234 f; Tac. 
A. xi, 35; Ov. Am. iii, 4; A. A. iii, 
611-658 ; Prop. ii, 6, 37 ff. R. 

350. ' The poor woman who tramps 
afootoverthe muddy pavements.' LUB. 
Prop. ii, 23, 15; Prud. e. Sym. 582. 
The pavement at Eome consisted of 
hard lava. WK, on Lucr. i, 316 f. 
R. 

351. ' Tall Syrians :' s. i, 64 f ; FRA. 
iii, 240. MAD. 

352. Ogulnia, a poor but ambitious 
matron, whose character appears no 
better than that of anv other lady of 
those days. LUB. PRA. s. iii, 180- 
183. R. 

' Tn order to appear in style, she is 
obliged to hire every requisite.' ibid. 
and vii, 143. It is mentioned as cha- 
racteristic fif meanness: fiii ■roiaatctt 
tl^amivaf . dXXk i/AirlouaSai tis ras s^sSauf 
Theoph. xxii. CS. R. 



3AT. VI. 



OV JIJVENAL. 



•211 



Conducit coraites, sellani, ccrvical, araicas, 
Nutricera, el flavam, cui dct raandata, puellaui. 

355 ILec tauicn argcnti supcrcst quodcuraquc paterni 
Levibus athlctis ac vasa novissiraa douat. 
Multis res angusta dorai : sed nulla pudorem 
Paupertatis habet, nec se raetitur ad ilhun, 
Quem dedit ha;c posuitque raodura. Taracn utile quid .sit, 

360 Pro.spiciunt ahquando viri ; frigusque faraeraque 
Formica tandera quidara cxpavere magistra. 
Prodiga non sentit pereuntera feraina censura 
Ac, vehit exhau.sta recidivus pullulet arca 
Numus ct e pleno seraper tollatur acervo, 

365 Non uraquara reputat, quanti sibi gaudia constent. 
Sunt, quas euuuchi imbelles ac molha semper 



353. Matrons seldom went out with- 
out ' a large retinue of waiting-women' 
to aceompany them. CS. 

' A chair and cushion;' i, 65; in 
which slie was carried to the Cireus, 
and in which she sat while there. L. 
LUB. 

' Female clients:' nec Laconicas 
tnihi trah icit honestne purpnras 
clientae; Hor. Od. ii, 18, 6. f. /?. 

354. ' A nurse,'that she may appear 
to have a family. LUB. 

' A yellow-haired girl, to pass for her 
confidante,' PRA. and to attract notice, 
(see note on 120;) as it was considered 
a beauty to have such hair : P/iylUs 
ftava; Hor. Od. ii, 4, 14; flava Chloe; 
Od. iii, 9, 19; MAD. s. v, 115. R. 

355 f. See 82 ff; MAD. Mart. iv, 
28. R " She wastes the wreck of 
her patemal store On smooth-faced 
wrestlers : wastes her little all, And 
etrips her shivering mansion to the 
wall." GIF. 

356. Levis; iii, 111. R. 
Novissimus; xi, 42. R. 

357. Pudor paupertatis (1) ' a dread 
of thedisgraoe of poverty, especially as 
it is owing to her own folly and extra- 
vagance.' MAD. R. or (2) ' the modest 
frugality which is, or should be, at- 
tendant upon poverty,' FAR. MAD. 
R. or (."5) ' a fear of being ridiculed for 
the notorious discrepancy between her 
meansand herexpenses.' BRI. FAR. 

2 



paupertatis pudor et fuga; Hor. 
Ep. i, 18,24. R. 

358. See xi, 35 ff. R. 

359. Mensura census ; xiv, 316. R. 

360. Parvula {iiam exemplo est) 
magni formica laboris ^r ; Hor. S. i, 1, 
33 ff; FAR. Proverbs vi, 6-8. 

362. [Hor. O. iii, 11, 2/.] 

363. They act as if the money chest 
was like Fortunatus's purse in the 
story. FA R. 

" As if the gold, with vegetative 
power, Would bloom afresh, and spring 
trom hour to hour." This is a plain 
allnsion to a notion very generally 
receivedamongtheancients,thatmines, 
after being exhausted, somctimes re- 
produced their ores. GIF. recidiva 
arborum su?it, quce aliis sectis repul- 
lulant ; Isidor. SC. Virg. jS,. iv, 344 ; 
Ov. F. iv, 45; Sen. Tro. 472; Claud. 
xliv, 66. HS. G. R. 

364. Suave est ex magno tollcre 
acervo; Hor. S. i, 1, 51. R. 

365. ' Their sensual indulgences.' 
PRA. Tib. i, 5, 39, cfec. R. 

366. See i, 22 ; aiunt illos maxitnos 
mulierum amatores, sed nihil potcsse; 
Ter. Eun. iv, 3, 23 f; Mart, vi, 67. 
BRO. M. SCA. 

Sunt qnas delectent : Hor. Od . i, 1 ,3<fec. 

' Unwarlike,' a metaphor derived from 
the same source a^ prudia; Virg. G. 
iii, 98; Hor. Od. i, 6, 17 f; Sch. 
Claud. xx,'27l-283. /?. 



242 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Oscula delectent et desperatio barbse 

Et quod abortivo non est opus. Illa voluptas 

Summa taraen, quod jam calida matura juventa 

370 Inguina traduntur medicis, jam pectine nigro. 
Ergo spectatos ac jussos crescere primura 
Testiculos, postquam coeperunt esse bilibres, 
Tonsoris damno tantum rapit Heliodorus. 
Conspicuus longc cunctisque notabilis intrat 

375 Balnea, nec dubie custodem vitis et horti 

Provocat, a domina factus spado. Dormiat ille 
Cum domina: sed tu jam durum, Postume, jamque 
Tondendum eunucho Bromium committere noli. 
Si gaudet cantu ; nullius fibula durat 

380 Vocem vendentis praetoribus : organa seraper 
In raanibus : densi radiant testudine tota 



' Soft' i. e. ' beardless :' mollia basia 
are opposed to duro ore; Mart. xi, 22, 
1 f. R. 

368. See ii, 32. U. 

369. Domitian, merely out of oppo- 
sition to his brother Titus, prohibited 
the making of eunuchs, and was fol- 
lowed in this by other emperors. Saet. 
xii, 7; Mart. vi, 2 ; ix, 7 ; 9 ; Stat. 
S. iii, 4, 63-80; S. iv, 3, 13 ff; Xiph. 
Ixvii, 2; Philost.V. Ap. vi, 17; Phot. 
Bibl. p. 509? Amm. Marc. xviii, 4 f. 
jR. 

370. ' Complete adults, ia glowing 
youtb, (325 ; J?.) with every sign of 
manhood.' MAD. 

Medicis ' to the surgeons who are to 
perform the operation.' LUB. 

371 ft". " When every parfs to full 
perfectiou rear'd, And nought of man- 
hood wanting, but the beard." GIF. 
Therefore the barber is the only (i, 136 ; 
VAL.) loser: LUB. as the shoemaker 
was the only sufferer by the Socratic 
philosophers going barefoot ; Arist. N. 
104. HNN. 

373. Seliodorus is ' the surgeon.' 
Sch. Paul. iEgin. iv, 49 ; R. [s. 236.] 

374. Tngens semivir; 512 f; grandes 
Galli; Pers. v, 186. R. 

375. The baths were the scene of 
much wickedness. ix, 35; xi, 166; 
Mart. i, 97, 11 ff. R. 

' He challenges, without hesitation, 
Priapus himself.' ii, 96; PRA. Antip. 



Ep. iv, in BC, An. t. ii, p. 7 ; Tib. i, 6, 
27; HY. Cat. xix, 15; Diodor. iv, 6. 
R. 

376. Domina; 30. R. 

378. Brornius, a favourite youth of 
Ursidius, named perhaps after Bacchus 
from his beauty. LUB. The origin of 
the epithet may be found in Ov. M. iii, 
288 ff. 

Committere noli ' do not allow this 
lad to enter the lists with the eunuch.' 
See note on i, 163. R. In what waj', 
or why, neither does Juvenal say nor 
are the commentators agreed; there- 
fore it is needless to enquire. 

379. f/lror is understood. LUB, 

' No singer, but what she completely 
tires out by her unconscionable demands 
npon his vocal powers.' There is here 
a double periphrasis: (1) voceyn ven- 
dentis prcetorihus for cantoris; (as sva 
funera celsi praetoris vendere 
litdis, viii, 192; 194; means ' to be- 
come gladiators;' jR.) because the 
prsetor, who exhibited the games, hired 
the performers : and (2) fibula (73; 
PRA.) cantoris for cantor. BRI. 
LUB. The object of infibulation was 
frustrated by their singing in private 
till they were hoarse, to please the 
ladies. MAD. 

380. ' Musical instruments.' LUB. 

381. On the invention of the lyre 
by Mercury, see Hor. Od. i, 10, 6 ; 
iii, 11, 3. jR. Of Phoebus it is said, 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



243 



Sardonyches : cri.spo niiraerantiir pectine cljorda), 
Qiio tencr Hedymeles operas dedit : liunc tcnct, liuc se 
Solatur grato(jue indulgt-t basia plcctro. 

385 Quaxlaiu do nuiuero Lamiarum ac nominis alti 
Cum farre et vino Janum Vcstamque rogabat, 
An Capitolinam deberet Pollio quercum 
Sperare et lidibus promittere. Quid facerct plus 
.Egrotante viro .? medicis quid tristibus erga 

300 Filiolum ? Stctit ante aram, nec turpe putavit 



inslriictam fidem gemmis et denlibus 
Indis sustinet a lava ; tetuiit inanus 
allera plectruvi; Ov. M.ii,167. MAD. 
Some understand ' the sparkling of the 
jewels in the rings of the fair amateiir.' 
LUB. 

382. ' The sardonyx ;' Pers. i, 16 ; 
Fli.i. s. xiii, 138 f ; R. a gem of the 
colour of the human nail. MAD. 

Crispo is to be taken transitively, 
' causing vibrations.' Sch. It is more 
commonly neuter, as linguce hisulcce 
jactum crispum; Pacuv. in Nonn. 
crispum movere latus; V^^irg. Cop. 2; 
JE. i, 313. /{. 

' The quill' was made of ivory. Sch. 
ohloquitur n u m e ris septem discrimina 
vocum,Jamfjue eadem d/giiis,jam pec- 
tine putsat ehurno; Virg. AL. vi, 646 
f. MAD. 

' Are run over in order,' MAD. 
LUB. 

383. Te)ier; ' soft;' LUB. i, 22; 
xii, 39. R. 

Hedymeles {ftSu ' sweet' fiiXoi ' me- 
lody') the fictitious name of her fa- 
vourite harper. LUB. 

384. * She consoles herself in bis 
absence' or, perhaps, ' when he is no 
more.' SVL. cava so/atis eegrum 
testudine aviorem; Virg. G. iv, 
464. 

' Dear' for its former owner's sake. 
SVL. 

385. ' The Lamian family' was men- 
tioned, iv, 154. LUB. 

' High' i. e. ' noble ;' viii, 40 ; 131 ; 
R. Ov. F. iv, 305; HS. s. 607. 

386. " With the usual offerings, meal 
and wine." GIF. ix, 122; FRA. note 
on tuXal- Her. i, 160, [62.] 

Janus and Vesta were very ancient 
Roman deities. L UB. quum in omni- 
hus rcbus vim habeant maximam prima 



et extrema, [Revelation xxii, 13;] 
principem in sacrificando Janum esse 
voluerunt :. . . .Vestce vis ad aras et 
focos pertinet; itaque in ca dea, i/uee 
est rerum custos intimarum, omnis et 
precatio et sacrificatio extretna est ; 
Cic. N. D. ii, 67; s. Dion. H. ii. PRA. 
As to Janus s. 393; Ov. F. i, 172 ff; 
Macr. S. i, 9; and on Vesta, Paus. v, 
14; R. Cali. H. in Cer. 129. SN. 

387. ' The Capitoline oak' i. e. the 
crown awarded to the victorious com- 
petitor for the musical prize in the 
Capitoline games. This festival was 
celebrated every fifth year, in honour 
of Jove, and vvas instituted by Domi- 
tian. Sch. LUB. Tarpeias quercus; 
Mart. iv,54, 1 f ; SCA. Suet xii,4; and 
Schol. Gell. v, 5; Plin. xvi, 4. PRA. 
There were also prizes for borse-racing 
and gymnasties: s. vii, 86; Mart. iv, 
i, 6; viii, 82, 7; ix, 4, 8; 41, 1. R. 

Pollio was an eminent musician' 
MAD. vii, 179; Mart. iv, 61, 9. R. 

389. Tristibus not only means ' if 
the doctors shook their heads and gave 
over their patient;' MAD. but also 
that ' the physicians would show more 
feeling than the unnatural mother.' R. 

390. This description of the mode of 
consulting the aruspex (ii, 121 ;) is very 
minute and accurate. Pliny says that 
the stated formsof prayer were obsei ved 
with the most scrupulousexactness, and 
that a monitor (probably a minor priest) 
stood by the suppliant to prevent the 
slightestaberration, xxviii,2; V. Max. 
i, 1. TertuUian finely contrasts the 
practices of the Christians with those 
of their pagan adversaries : illiir su- 
spicicntes Christiani, manibiis cxpan- 
sis, quia innocuis ; cnpite nudo, qiiia 
non eruhescimus ; denique sine moni- 
tore, qnia dc pcctore oramus! It was 



244 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Pro cithara velare caput ; dictataque verba 
Pertulit, ut mos est, et aperta palluit agna. 
Dic mihi nunc, quaeso, dic, antiquissime divum, 
Respondes his, Jane pater ? Magna otia cceh : 

395 Non est, ut video, non est, quod agatur apud vos. 
Heec de comcedis te consulit ; illa tragoedum 
Commendare volet : varicosus fiet haruspex. 

Sed cantet potius, quam totam pervolet urbem 
Audax et ccetus possit quam ferre virorum 

400 Cumque paludatis ducibus praesente marito 
Ipsa loqui recta facie strictisque mamillis. 



the custom first to touch tlie altar, Sil. 
iii, 82 ; standing before it with the head 
veiled, to prevent interruptioa from any 
ill omen ; Mart. xii, 77, 1 f; Virg. M. 
iii, 405 ff; Plut. M. xx, 2 ; 10; 13; 
Macr. S. i, 8; iii, 6; then to vrheel 
round to the right in a circle, and also 
to fall down and performadoration hy 
kissing the hand. Suet. ix, 2. PRA. 
GIF. R. 

391. ' A harp' for ' a harper.' LUB. 

392. ' "Went through;' peregit; v, 
122 ; R. or ' put up.' Sch. Plin. xviii, 
4. G. 

" And trembled, and turn'd pale, as 
he explored The entrails, breathless for 
the fatal word." GIF. s. Plin. xxviii, 
2; Liv. Cic. Div. i, 16; ii, 29; 32; 
PRA. pecinhim reclusis pectoribus in- 
hians, spirantia consuUt exta; Virg. 
2E. iv, 63 f. R. 

393. Here the poet indignantly apo- 
strophizes the god. Sch. s. ii, 126-132. 
R. 

394. ' Father' was a title of reverence 
used towards deities in general, but to 
Janus in particular. BR. Macr. S. i, 
9 ; PRA.HY, Exc. v, on Virg. M. vii ; 
s. xiii, 81; Virg. ^. i, 155; V. Flacc. 
i, ll;Petron.4i.i?. [St Matthew xxiii, 

9.] 

' There must be many idle hours in 
heaven.' Juvenal here, as elsewhere, 
ridicules the popular mythology ; DO. 
and, at the same time, the Epicurean 
notion of the quiescent leisure of the 
gods ; Lucr. vi, 57; Hor. S. i, 5, 101 
ff; Sen. Ben. iv, 4 ; D. Laert. x, 77; 
but insinuates that they had better not 
meddle at all with hmnan affairs, than 



concern themselves about such indecent 
foUies as werenow referred to them. R. 
397. ' The soothsayer will find his 
legs swell, from being kept standing so 
constantly.' Varicosus denotes ' having 
the veins swollen.' Hippocr. Aph. vi, 
21; DO. Pers. V, 189; PRA. Plaut. 
Epid. v, 2, 5; G. Cels. vii, 8 ; 17 ; 31 ; 
Paul. ^g. vi, 82; Avicenn. often. 
Cicero, (Quint. xi, 3, 143 ; Macr. S. ii, 
5 ; Sidon. Ep. v, 5 ;) Maritis, (Cic. T. 
Q. ii, 15; Piut. V. xxii, pr. Plin. xi, 
45 s 104;) and many others suffered 
from this cause. R. Ov. A. A. iii, 304. 
HS. 

398. ' She had better be musical, 
than be addicted to gadding and gos- 
siping.' PRA. {L\yj iv, 40.] 

399. " Oh these Encounterers ! 
so glib of tongue, They give a coasting 
welcome ere it comes; And wide un- 
cLisp the tables of their thoughts To 
every ticklish reader: set them down 
For sluttish spoils of opportunity And 
daughters of the game;'' Shaksp. Tro. 
and Cress. iv, 5. GIF. 

400. ' With generals in full uniform.* 
MAD. The paludamentum was the 
military robe of commanders when they 
went to put themselves at the head of 
their troops. L TJB. 

401. ' Looking them right in the 
face,' i. e. ' boldly;' x, 189 ; BY, on 
Hor. Od. i, 3, 18. R. [Eur. Hec. 959 f ; 
(nn.)Soph. CE.R. 247ff.] 

Strictis ' exposed from the dress being 
tightly laced round the body.' BRI. 
Lucian. Am. 41 ; Mart. xiv, 66; 134, 
1; Cat. Ixiv, 65; R. Ov. A. A. iii, 
274. HS. 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



245 



llxc ciidcin novit, quid toto fial in orbe ; 

Quid Seres, quid Thraces agant : sccreta novcrciE 

Et pucri : quis anict, quis divipijitiu* adullcr. 

405 Dicct, quis viduani pncguantcni fccerit ct quo 

Mensc, quibus verbis concunibat qua;que, raodis quot. 
Instantcm rcgi Armcnio Parthoquc conieten 
Prima vidct; faniam rumoresque illa rccentes 
Excipit ad portas : quosdam facit: isse Niphatem 

410 In populos magnoque illic cuncta arva teneri 



402. Id f/md in aurem rex regincB 
di.rerit, scii/n( ; quod Juno fabulata 
cum Jove ; r/uee neffuc futura neque 
facta sunt, iamen sciunt; Plaut. Trin. 
i, 2, 168 ff; CNT. Theoph. Ch. 8 ; 
Theocr. xv, 64 ; Mart. ix, 36. R. 

403. Seres. Ammian. xxiii, end. 
PRA. See note on ii, 6G. 

T/iraces ' the people of Romania.' 
PRA. 

' The clandestine amours.' PRA. 

404. ' Her young step-son.' LUB. 

' What gallant is in high request, so 
as to be the bone of contention among 
the iadies.' Mart. vii, 75, 1 ; Sen. Br. 
V. 7; de Ira, iii,23; RU. GV. Stat. 
Th. V, 722; S. v, 3, 129. R. 

406. Juvenal seems to have had 
before his eyes, Ov, Am. ii, 8, 27 f- 
R. 

' Whether she talks Latin or Greek.' 
191; GV. 195. PRA. 

407. Mutantemregnacometen; Lue. 
i, 529 &c; LUB. magnum terris ad- 
stare cometem ; Id. Sch. cometas 
Grceci vocant, nostri c r in itas ; hor- 
rentes crine sanguineo et comarum 
modo in vertice hispidas; Sfc; Plin. ii, 
25 f; stella crinita, qua: su/nmis 
potestatibus exitium porte/idere vulgo 
putatur, SfC ; Suet. vi, 36 ; v, 46 ; 
Cic. N. D. ii, 6 s 14 ; Sen. N. Q. vii ; 
Plut. M.lxii,3,2; PRA. Tac.A.xiv, 
22; XV, 47; Virg. G. i, 488 ; V. Flac. 
V, 367; 370 f; U. Sil. viii, 638. 

Armenia, the kingdom of Tigranes 
the ally of Mithridates, and Partliia, 
Pers. V, 4 ; veere countries in the vicinity 
of Mount Taurus. PRA. 

Trajan undertook an expedition 
against the Parthians and Armenians; 
and, about the same time, an earth- 
quake occurred at Antioch and the 
vicinity, in which mountains subsided 
and rivers burst out. 1). Cass. Ixviii, 



24 ff; Xiph. Ixviii, 17-23. L. LUB. 
But if this satire was written before 
Trajan's reign, we should rather under- 
etand our author to be speaking of what 
occurred in Vespasian's reign : ne in 
metu quidem ac periculo mortis ex- 
tre/no abstinuit jocis : nam quutn inter 
prodigia cetera mausoletim CeBsarvm 
derepente patuisset el stella i/i cwlo 
crinita apparuisset ; a/teru/n ad Ju- 
lia//i Calvina//i, e gente Augusti, perti- 
nere dicebat, altcru//i ad Partho/nim 
rege/n, qui c ap illat u s esset ; Suet. xii, 
23. (Both the Armenians and the Parthi- 
ans wore their hair vei j' long. HNN.) 
After all, perhaps, Juvenal is but 
amusing himself with the ignorance of 
this tittle-tattle-monger, whom he in- 
troduces confcunding what she had 
heard and fabricating what she had 
not. R. GIF. s. Theoph. Ch. 8. CS. 

408. ' Fame,' what is generally and 
confidently reported ; ' rumour,' wliat 
can be traced to no authority, but 
originates in mischief and ispropagated 
by credulity. Quint. I. O. v, 2. R. 

409. Excipit ' catches by lying in 
wait,' (Liv. ii, 4 ; xl, 7.) R. ' intercepts.' 
GIF. putting thequestioD f^n Tixaniy^ 
[Acts xvii, 21 ;] to every one who ar- 
rives from abroad. LUB. Livy xxii, 
12,7. ' 

Ire is applied to the fierce attaek of 
anenemy; Virg. ^E. ix, 424; Ov. F. 
v, 713. /{. 

Niphates, Hor. Od. ii, 9, 20 ; Virg, 
G. iii, 30; is properly a mountain of 
Arnunia, part of the Tauric chain, 
frnm which the Tigris takes its rise. 
Plin. V, 27. The geographers do not 
notice any river of tliis narae : that 
which the poets mention (Luc. iii, 245 ; 
Sil. xiii, 765;) is perhaps merely tlie 
Tigris in the earlv part of its course. 
R. GIF. 



246 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI, 



Diluvio, nutare urbes, subsidere terras,' 
Quocumque in trivio, cuicumque est obvia, narrat. 

Noc tamen id vitiuni niagis intolerabile, quam quod 
Vicinos humiles rapere et concidcre loris 

415 Exorata solet. Nam si latratibus alli 

Rumpuntur sonini ; " Fustes huc ocius" inquit 
" Afferle !" atque illis dominum jubet ante fcriri, 
Deinde canem. Gravis occursu, teterrima vultu 
Bahiea nocte subit ; conchas et castra moveri 

420 Noctejubet; magno gaudet sudare tumultu, 
Quum lassata gravi ceciderunt brachia massa, 
CalUdus et cristae digitos impressit aliptes 
Ac summum dominae femur exclamare coegit. 



411. ' Sink down.' s. Tac. A. ii, 47, 
3 ; li. Plin. ii, 69 f. PRA. [CW, L. on 
C. p. 193.] 

412. ' The places where three ways 
met,' ' places of publie resort.' MAD. 

414. ' To have her poor neighbours 
taken up and cut to pieces.' L UB. 

415. ' Afterlistening to theirprayers 
and entreaties ;' had it not been for 
which, she would have had them fiogged 
to death. LUB. In this and the fol- 
lowinglines Juvenalisprobablyalluding 
to some recent and well-known trans- 
action. R. [iii, 300.] 

From her ' sound slumbers' we may 
infer that she was not an invalid, so as 
to he seriously disturbed ' by the barking 
of the dog.' 

417. ' The owner of the dog.' LUB. 

418. Nec visu facUis ; Virg. M. iii, 
621. Sch. 

419. Conchas ; see note on 304. 
MAD. It would appear from the 
followiug epigram to have been a vessel 
to batbe in, formed in the shape of a 
shell : transferat hnc liquidos fontes 
Heliconia Nais et patulo conchcB divitis 
orbe fluat : namque latex, doctce qni 
laverit ora Serence, ultra Pegaseas 
nuinen hahchit aquas\ Claud.lv; BA. 
s. Coluni. xii, 5 ; 50 j Cato B. R. 13; 
66. R. 

Castra moveri ; a military raetaphor, 
LUB. asin273ff; ' thecampequipage:' 
MAD. from the parade with which 
she moves. PRA. 

Balnea ; sec note on i, 49; MAD. i, 
143. Before the dynasty of the em- 



perors, the time for a bath was theninth 
hour, and the tenth hour was supper- 
time. Afterwards, however, the time 
of bathing was, in su mmer, changed 
to the eighth hour. xi, 204 ff; Tac. A. 
xiv, 2 ; L. Exerc. Pl. 648 ; SM. Spart. 
Hadr. 22 ; Lampr. Sev. 24 ; Plin. Ep. 
iii, 1,8; Vitr. v, 10 ; Artemid. Oneir. 
i, 66; Mart. iii, 36 ; iv, 8 ; vii, 1 ; x, 
48,1 ff; Ixx, 13; xi, 53. R. 

420. There was a small room con- 
nected with the bath, where they excited 
perspiration by violent exercise pre- 
viously tobathing. R. 

421. ' The dumb bells.' Sen. Ep. 57 ; 
L UB. si/pra halneum habifo : cnniforti- 
ores ejcercentur et manus plumho graves 

jactant, gemitus audio, audio crepitum 
illisce manus hutneris , quce , prout plana 
pervenit aut concava, ita sonum mutat', 
id. 56 ; sunt exercitationes etfaciles et 
breves, quce corpus sine mora laxent 
[lassent ?]; cursusetcum ponderealiquo 
manus motce et sa/fiis, ^-c ; id. 15 ; PRA. 
L. aXrn^ai f^o} vfiYivits x.^i^avXnh7s' Luc. 
de Gyinn. o "Si f/.oXvlileci»as x^^t^aViovi 
k^oiyivif s;^;»v i^u^efioXii' id. Lexipb. 5 ; 
Mart. vii,66, 6; xiv, 49; Sen. Ep. 58 ; 
Arist.de Anim. Inc. 3; Probl. v, 8; 
Paus. Eliac. i, 20 f ; Mercur. de Art. 
Gymn. ii, 12. R. 

422. ' So sly as to know how far he 
might venture without offence.' LUB. 

' The anointer (iii, 76 ; Ter Eun. iii, 
5, 29 ff; Claud. xix, 106 f. R.) has 
rubbed in the oil on every part of her 
body.' 

423. ' And produces a sound by ap- 



SAT. VI. 



01' JUVENAL. 



'247 



Convivae uiiseri interea somnoqiie fanieque 
425 Urguentur. Tandeni illa venit rubicundula, toluni 
Q^nophoiiun sitiens, plenu quod tcnditur unia 
Adniotuui iicdibus, de quo sextarius alter 
Ducitur ante cibum, rabidam facturus orexim. 
Dum redit et loto terram ferit intestino, 
430 Marnioribus rivi properant aut lata Falernum 

Pelvis olet : nam sic, tamquam alta in dolia longus 
Deciderit serpens, bibit et vomit. Ergo maritus 
Nauscat atque oculis bilem substringit opertis. 
Illa tamen gravior, qua;, quum discumbere coepit, 



plying it to ber flesh smartly with his 
hollow hand.' FAR. See Senecaquoted 
above. PRA. uncfi verbere vapu/ai 
magisfri; Mart. vii, 66, 8. R. [" I 
became famous for my skill in the 
offices of the bath. No one understood 
better than I {nen fjiiix ra//idior, Per. 
iii, 51 ; ED.) the dififerent modes of 
rubbing or sbampooing, as practised in 
India, Cashmere, and Turkey ; and I 
had an art peculiarto myself of making 
the joints to crack, and my slaps eeho ;" 
Morier, Hajji Baba, i, 1.] 

Exc/atnare intimates that if the lady 
had proper feelings of delicacy, she her- 
self would have ' cried out,' when the 
fellow presumed to take such liberties. 
Sch. 

424. ' All this while she has been 
keeping a party waiting, who were en- 
gaged to sup at her house.' LUB. 

425. ' Glowing from her exercise at 
the bath.' LUB. s. Mart. iii, 51 ; vii, 
34; xi, 48; Plut. V. xviii,. 22; 
Xiph. Hadr. Spartian. R. 

426. Mart. vii, 66, 9 ff. R. ' Thirst- 
ing for whole flagons.' They used to 
drink off a large quantity of wine at one 
draught, that it might operate as an 
emetic. 429 ; [v, 96 ;] Cic. for Deiot. 7 ; 
LUB. Cels. i, 3; Ath. xv, 1 ; Mart. 
V, 79, 16 ff; vii, 66, 10; Parrh. Ep. 
36; R. Suet. ii, 77; E. id. ix, 13; 
CS. xiii, 216; iv, 67; Mart. xii, 83. 
MAD. 

Tendifur ' is fiiled.' GRA. v, 80, 
note. 

The urna was a wine-measure holding 
somewhat raore than three gallons and 
a half. GRA. 

A27. It waa ' put at her feet,' be- 



cause it was too large to be set on the 
table. R. 

' A second pint.' Mart. vi, 79. LUB. 
At one time, to drink wine was con- 
sidered a heinous oftence in a woman. 
The Italian women were generally 
abstemious ; the women of Gret.'ce were 
the reverse. 300 ff; Ath. x, 11; Plin. 
xiv, 13. je. 

428. ' Is tossed off.' Sch. xii, 9; 
Hor. Od. i, 17, 22 ; iv, 12, 14. frahitur 
and 'iXx,trai are the same. R. 

' A ravenous appetite :' LUB. rabies 
edendi; Virg. yE. ix, 63 f. R. 

429. ' After rinsing her stomach, 
the wine returns and falls in a cascade 
on the floor.' PRA. non minus per- 
vigi/ant, non minus potant, et oleo et 
mero viros provocanf ; atque invitis 
ingesta visceribus per os reddunt et 
vinum omne vomitu remetiuntur ; Sen. 
Helv. 9 ; GIF. Lucian. Tim. 45. R. 

430. ' Rivers gush over the marble 
pavement of the saloon.' LUB. xi, 173 ; 
tiata/jant pavitnen/a mero, madebant pa- 
rietes; Cic. Phil. ii, 41; heres mero 
tinguet pavimcntum superbum pontifi- 
cum potiore cwnis ; Hor. Od. ii, 14, 26 
ff; R. see Hafiz in Sir W. Jones'3 
Pers. Gram. p. 37. 

431. Pelvis; iii, 277- 

432. Serpents are said to be very 
fond of wine. Plin. vii ; x, 72 s 93; 
xxii, 23; Arist. H. A. viii, 8; ER, 
prov. iii, 10, 98. LUB. R. 

433. " The husband turns his head, 
Sick to the soul, from this disgusting 
pcene, And struggles to suppress his 
rising spleen." GIF. 

434. In this passage Messalina is 
gianced at, who, after the assassination 



•248 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



435 Laudat Virgiliura, perituras ignoscit Elissae, 
Committit vates et comparat; inde Maronem 
Atque alia parte in trutina suspendit Homerum. 
Cedunt gramraatici, vincuntur rlietores, omnis 
Turba tacet ; nec causidicus nec praeco loquatur, 

440 Alteia nec mulier: verborum tanta cadit vis, 
Tot pariter pelves, tot tintinnabula dicas 
Pulsari. Jam nemo tubas, nemo asra fatiget : 



of Nero her fifth husband, followed up 
the study of rhetoric so as to be able to 
declaim with great fluency : Sch. but 
see note on 448. 

A/ S« ofv yuvaTxiS (xc.) ya^ au xa) TsSs 
uoro tZv yvvaiiiuii a^ovOic^iTai, to thai 
•rivas ahrali Tii^Traiiiv^ivou; , //.ktSoZ utoti- 
XsTs ^uvovTas xa) tS/ (po^iiw va^i-yfofjiivous ) 
Iv ydi7 Ti xa) touto tuv aXXui» xaXXtaviir- 
//.xTcov aUTaTs ^oKii , r>v Xiynrai,us •XiVai- 
diufiivai Ti iiai xa) <piXoiropoi, xa) •proioutriv 
S.<rfjt.aTa oii voXu tTis y^aT^ous a^ooiovTa' 
xa) oia oi) TauTa fiicr^coTovs xai avTai 
vTi^idyovTai pnrooa; xa) yoa,f/.fji.aTiKovs xa) 
cpiXocropous dx^ouvTai S' aliT&iv -Ttivixa 
ilToi fjt,iTa%u xo(rf/,oufiivai xai Tas xof/,as 
^i^irXtxo/jt.svai, (4o.'>;) h ira^a tS Oil^Trvov' 
aXXoTi ya^ ouK ayovtri a^p^oXitv ■roXXdxis 
?£ xai fiira^v tov (piXotroipov t) oh^iovto; , 
9) a(i^a 'rr^otriXioZtra u^%\% •rra^a Tou fioi;^eu 
y^afjt,fJt,dTiov oi Ti •Jri^) ae>ip^07vvy,s IxiTvoi 
Xoyoi ijTdtri 'm^ift.%vovTi; , i^rT av ixsivn 
avTiyod\paja tZ f/.oipf^M iTtafao^dfin ir^os 
Tnv dxp'iairiv' Luc. * <r I. fjt,itr6. auv. 30 ; 
s. 233 tf ; and Moliere in ' lns Femnies 
savantes.^ R. 

' To take their places at table.' LUB. 
Pers. i, 30 L R. At their entertain- 
ments, and espeeially between the 
courses, it was the fashion, in imitation 
of the Greeks, to di«cuss literary topics. 
448 ff; xi, 177 ff; Petr. 55; 59; R. 
WO, on Plat. Symp. iv, 1. 

435. ' Vindicates the poet for his 
having made Dido (called Eli.ssa; JE. 
iv, 335; Ov. Her. vii, 193; HS.) fall 
by her own hand.' Or 'justifies the 
queen for having destroyed hevself, 
considering all thecircumstances of the 
case.' August. Conf. i, 13 f; Suet. vi, 
31; Auson Epig. cxviii; PRA. HY, 
Exc. i, on Virg. M. iv. R. 

Claudian tells his royal patroness 
Strena, who was another of these blue- 
stocki ng dames, Pierius lahor et vetenon 
tibi carmina vatmn ludiis erant : r/nos 



Smyrna dedif, quos Manttia, libros per- 
currens, damnas Helenani nec parcis 
Elissce ; xxix, 146-148. 

436. Cojnmittere', 378; R. i, 163. 
MAD. 

" Adjusts her scales, And accurately 
weighs, which bard prevails." GIF. 
Among the ancient aud modern critics, 
who have engaged in a similar task, 
may be mentioned, Prop. ii, 34, 61 ff; 
Macr. S. i, 24 ; v f ; Plut. M. Ixxxiv; and 
tlsewhere; Quint. x, 1; Gell. iii, 11; 
ix, 9; xvii, 10; SCA, Poet. v, 2; 
U ', and HY, in two preliminary 
Disquisitions ; [and Dr. Trapp.] PRA. 
R. 

437. Trvtina is, properly, ' the hole 
in which the tongue of the balance 
moves.' s. vii, 113 f; Pers. i, 6 f ; iv, 
10; V, 100; {KG.) Tib. iv, 1,40 ff; 
{HY.) Hor. S. i, 3, 72 ; Ep. ii, 1, 39 ; 
Cic. de Or. ii, 38. J^. 

439. Loquatur ' can put in a word 
edgewise.' 

440. 'No,nor eveu another woraan !' 
this is the climax. 

' Such is her volubility,' torrens di- 
ceiidi copia; x, 9. 

441. Understand ut.quot verha. LUB. 
He alhrdes to the proverb Aa^iavaTov 

Xot.Xxi7ov, ER, i, 1, 7 ; Call. H. in Del. 
2S6; SN. Virg. lE. iii, 46G ; Serv. 
comparing the lady's tongue to the 
clapper : s. Hor. S. ii, 3, 274 ; ixre 
rigenscnrvopatulum componor in orbem, 
mohilis est intus linguce crepitantis 
imago ; non resonat positus, inotus 
quoque saepe resultat', Sympos. ^nig. 
Ixxix ; s. Xenarch. in Ath. xiii, 1. Of 
a like kind are the expressions tympana 
eltjquenticE ; Quiut. v, 12, 21 ; TUfiVavo^ 
(putrav Theodor. in BC, An. t. ii, p. 43 ; 
aii^a x^oTaXov Eur. Cy. 104; R. ' that 
rattlt of a Feilow.' 

442. This cu?tom originated from the 
notion that witches caused eclipses of 



SAT. VI. 



OF JIJVENAL. 



24!) 



l.'ua laboranti poterit .succunere Jjun;v. 
Imponit fineui sapiens et rebiis honestis. 
445 Nam qua^ docta uiiuis cupit et facunda vidcri, 
Crure tenus niedio tunicas succingere debet, 
Caidere Silvano porcum, quadrante lavari. 
Non habcat matrona, tibi qn;L' juncta reciinibit, 
Dicendi genus aut curtum sermonc rotato 



the moi^D,by bringing its poddess down 
from her sphere by their incantations, 
in order that she inipht communicate 
magic potency to certaiu herbs, To 
prevent the spells of these sorceresses 
from being heard and taking eftect, the 
superstitious heathens used to make a 
great noise by the heating of brass, 
sounding of trumpets, whooping and 
holiowing. and the like. COJVLEY. 
Plin. xi, -l-I ; ii, 12 s 9 ; eern nitxiliaria 
Lunce; Ov. M. iv, 334; T. Virg. E. 
viii; Sen. Med. "94; Hip. 787; Luc. 
vi ; Apul. As. i ; FRA. Tac. An. i, 28 ; 
L. Sil. viii, 500; Tib. i, 8, 21 f; Ov. 
M. vii, 207; R. Claud. iii, 147. 
KG. 

443. * Suffering an eclipse.' Sch. Livy 
xxvi, 5, marg. 

444. ' The education of females ought 
not to be neglected, but still there is a 
medium iu all things, and it will be 
wise not to make a woman so over- 
learned a.« to unfit her for the domestic 
duties which devoive on her st-x.' s. 
Hor. S. i, 1, lOG i; ii, 111 ff. ii. The 
other interpretation, however good in 
itself, seems to require sed instead of 
najH in the next line: itisthis; ' She 
beconiesa philosopher; Sch. an<l,hence, 
even lays down her theories on the 
chief good as the grand end (ri 
riXii) of all moral action :' BRl. LU B. 
GIF. or ' gives the definitions and dis- 
tinctions of right and wrong.' MAIJ. 

445. ' Too great a scholar;' Tib. iv, 
6, 2. HY. 

446. ' To wear the short tunic of the 
men.' Sch. The following directions 
are given for the dress of an orator: 
tunicee prioriiiiis oris iiifra (/envi 
paitti/m, posterioribus ad medios pop- 
tifes vsijitc perveniant : nam ivfra mii ■ 
tierum est, siipra centiniunum. toijee 
pars anterior mediis crvribns ojt- 
time terminatur, ^-c ; Quint. xi, hist ; 
PRA. Gell. vii, 12; Plaut. Poen. v, 5, 



24. Jt. 

447. Men, only, sacrificed to Silva- 
nus; Sch. CatoR.R. women to Ceres, 
BRI. and to Juno. FE. s. [ii, 98;] 
Hor. Ep. ii, 1, 143. R. 

According to the ms glossaries, ladies 
did not usually frequent the public 
baths ; if thcy did go thither, they were 
adniitted gnUis, as they were then ex- 
pected not to be nipgardly of their 
favours. FE. s ii, 152 ; "Vitruv. v, 10 ; 
R. Hor. i,3, 37; BRI. nisi forte mu- 
lier potens f/uadrantaria itla permutn- 
tione familiaris facta erat balneulori; 
Cic. for Ccel. PRA. 

448. Non sit doctissima conjitx ; 
Mart. ii 9it, 9; LUB. tr/>(ph Ss f^itru' 
fivt ya^ i'» y' IftoTf SofiCis t"» (p^mouira -rXuny 
n yvtaTxa •)^^y) ri> yaj To.yicu^yov f/.aXXev 
itTixTli KuT^is i> TaTj roifaiiTif Eiir. Hip. 
(i35 If. GRA. 'Ihe loilowing stanza 
is much superior in just and liberal 
thinking, " Give me, next good, an 
understanding wife, P)y nature wise, 
iiot learned by much art; Some know- 
ledge on her side, vvith all my life More 
scope of conversation impart : Be^ides, 
her inborn virtues fortity ; They are 
most firmly good, vvho be.st Inow why ;" 
Sir Thonias Overbury, The Wife. G IF. 
Here again our author has an eye to 
some literary lidy ot that age: R. (see 
noteon 434 ;) very probably Sulpiciathe 
female satirist, with whnni the particu- 
lars closely agree. HNN. 

' Let her iiot use,' or ' let her not 
have at her fingers end.<;' i.e. ' let her 
not be a rhetorician.' 

' .loined in wedlock.' 

449. 'Asetstyle of diction.' PRA. 
Or ' eacli kind of oratery,' viz. the de- 
mon-itrative, deliberative, and judicial ; 
or the Asiatic, llhodian, Attic, and 
Laconic. R. 

' Andlether not be alogician.' PR.4. 
Ciirtiim because ' curtaiied of one 
premise.' 



2k 



•250 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



450 Torqueat entliymema nec historias sciat omnes : 
Sed qaaedam ex libris et non intelligat. Odi 
Hanc ego, qu» repetit volvitque Palffimonis artem, 
Servata semper lege et ratione loquendi, 
Ignotosque milii tenet antiquaria versus 

455 Nec curanda viris Opicae castigat amicse 
Verba. Solcecismum liceat fecisse marito. 

Nil non permittit mulier sibi, turpe putat nil, 
Quum virides gemmas coUo circumdedit et quum 
Auribus extentis magnos commisit elenchos. 

460 Intolerabilius nihil est, quam femina dives. 
Interea faeda aspectu ridendaque multo 



' In well-romided period:' or sermo 
rotatus may be that which Cicero 
calls versum dicendi genus ; Part. 5. 
M. 

450. ' Let her hurl;' the metaphor 
is taken from a dart. FAR. s. vii, 
193; eadtni illa sententia, velut lacerto 
exeussa, torquetur ; Sen. Ep. Demo- 
sthenis vibrant fulmina ; Cic. Or. 70 ; 
jacutari dicta et sententias ; Petr. 109 ; 
and Quint. xi, 3, 120; Lucian Pisc. 
6. R. M. Piiidar has a similar me- 
taphor : ToXXd uot vr iyxeovo; uxitt 
jSsXjj £»Sav SV7-; <fa.DiT^a.; tfavavra iruviToTrtv' 
Ol. ii, 149 ff; s. Psalm Ixiv, 3. 

'Evtluf/.tifici' Arist. Rh. i, 2, 4; Cic 
Top. 13 f; Quint. v, 10, 1; 14,24; 
viii, 5, 9. PBJ. R. 

451. Neque ullumyerhum faciat jper- 
plexahile.1 neque ulla lingua sciat loqui 
nisi Attica; Plaut. Asin. iv, 1, 47. 
SVL. 

452. M. or Q. Remthius Patamon, 
an eminent grammarian in the reigns 
of Tiberius and Claudius, and Quin- 
tilian's preceptor ; he was so conceited 
as to say that literature was born with 
him and would die with him. He also 
said that Virgil had predicted, in the 
third eclogue, that he should be the 
critic of all poets: Varro he used to 
call a learned pig. LUB. He was, in 
fact, an arrogant, luxurious, and pro- 
fligate ped:int, rendered infamous by 
vice of every kind, and one, to whom 
no youth could with safetv be trusted. 
GTF. Suet. de 111. Gr. 23; PRA. viii, 
215 ff. R. 

454. ' An antiquary.' Suct. ii, 8(5. 
R. 



455. ' Which men would nevertrouble 
their heads about ' FAR. 

OpiceE-. seeiii,207. FAR. 

456. ' Let a husbaud, at any rate, 
commit a solecism without the certainty 
of being taken to task for it.' Soloe, a 
maritime town of Cilicia, to whiuh Pom- 
pey transported a colony of pirates : 
these people corrupted the purity of the 
Greek dialect. Solwcismus est cum 
pluribus verbis consequens verbnm su- 
periori non accommodatur ; Cic. to Her. 
iv, 12; Gell. v, 20; PRA. Mart. xi, 
20 ; L UB. s. Plin. xxix, 1 s 7 ; R. but 
s. Her. iv, 117. 

45S. ' Green gems,' i. e.' emeralds or 
beryls.' v, 38; Tib, i, 1, 51; Phsed. 
iii, 18, 7. R. 

4 i9 ' The ears being stretched down- 
wards by the weight of the pearls.' 
FAR. geinmiferas detrahit aures lapis 
eoa lectus in unda\ Sen. H. 0E.661. jR. 

These ' large pearl ear-rings' (s. ii, 
61;) were pear-shaped. Plin. ix, 35 s 
m ; PRA. Isid. Or. xvi, 10. R. They 
eonsisted probably of a large drop 
formed of several pearls; for such 
pendants were worn and admired in 
Juvenars time. video uniones non sin- 
gulos singulis auribus comparatos ; 
ijam enim exercitatee aures oneri fe- 
rendo sunt;) junguntur inter se, et in- 
snper alii bini suppanguntur. tion satis 
muliebris insania viros subjea rat, nisi 
bina ac terna patrimonia sitigrilis auri- 
bus pependissent ! Sen. Ben. GIF. 
tnargarita tribacca ; Petr. 55. B(E. 

460. SeeSO; 136 ff; R. 224. FAR. 

461. See Lucian Am. 38 f. R. ' While 
she stavs at home her skin is covered 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



'2[)l 



Pane tumet facies aut piuguia Poppajana 
Spirat et hinc miseri viscantur labra luariti : 
Ad mocchum venict loca cute. Quando videri 

465 VuU formosa domi .'' moechis foliata parantur. 
His emitur, quidquid graciles huc mittitis Indi. 
Tandem aperit vultum et tectoria prima reponit: 
Incipit agnosci, atque illo lacte fovetur, 
Propter quod secum comites educit asellas, 

470 Exsul H}-ioerboreum si dimittatur ad axem. 



with poultices and plasters,th;ir it may 
be kept fair andsoft for going out.' SM. 
I remembcr to have heard, many years 
ago, of one Mrs G., a widow lady, who 
(while in weeds) used to sleep with her 
arms in bread-aud-milk poultices. She 
married for her second husband Sir 
Charles D., in whose famiiy she had 
originally lived as cook. s. Her. iv, 75. 
' Tbe pomatum brought into fashion 
by Poppaea,' the mistress, and after- 
wards the wife, of Nero; the emperor 
avenged the cause of two husbands, 
whom she had abandoned, by a violent 
kiek which occasioned her death. Sch. 
GIF. Suet. vi, 35; Tac. An. xiii, 45 f ; 
xiv, 1, 60; XV, 23; xvi, 6. R. 

462. See ii, 107. LUB. In the fol- 
lowing passage, Juvenal had Lucilius 
in view : quum tecum est, f/ttidvis satis 
eat : visuri alieni sint /lomines, spiram, 
pallas^rcdimicula promit; xv. L. But 
the more immediate subject of his imi- 
tation seems to have been a passage of 
Tibullus : tune putas illam pro te dis- 
ponere crines aut tenues deuso pectere 
dente cvmas? ista hcec persnadet facies 
auroque lacertos vinciat et Tyrio pro- 
deat apta sinu ? non tibi sed juveni 
cuidam viitt bella videri, devoveat pro 
quo remque domumque tuam; i, 9, &7. 
GIF. 

463. ' The husband'8 lips are glued 
with this viscous paste, if he attempts 
to kiss ber.' FAR. 

464. ' She will not go to see hergal- 
lant, till she has washed her skin from 
all these detestable cosmetics.' SM. 
LUB. ii, 105. R. 

465. ' Fragrant ointments, prepared 
from the leaves of spikenard and other 
costly ingredients.' Scb. Nardinum 
sive /oliatum constat omphacio, ba- 
ianino junco, nardo, amomo, mfjtrha, 



balsanio ; Plin. xiii, 1 end; LUB. 
and 2 ; PRA. and 3 end ; xii, 26 s 59 ; 
Mart. xi, 28, 9; xiv, 110, 2: 146, 1; 
Claud. xix, 22«; (^GES. BA.) Hor. 
Od. ii, 7, 8 ; 11. St Mark xiv, 3 ; St 
John xii, 3. MAD. 

446. Quidquid, i. e. ' not only per- 
fumes but jewels.' R. See Esther ii, 
12. MAD. 

' Slender,'from being ' unencumbertd 
with fat.' LUB. Herodotus iii; PRA. 
s. V, 53. R. Owing to this circum- 
stance, Lascars are considcred excel- 
lent subjects for anatomical demonstra- 
tions. 

467. " For him, at length, she ven- 
tures to uncase, Scales the first iayer of 
rough-cast from her face." GIF. SM, 
on Spartian. formosam faciem niyro 
velamine celas: detege velfaciem, ^-c ; 
Mart. iii, 3, 1; 4. K. 

Reponil ' remoyes.' LUB. 

468. Agnosci ' to look like herself.' 
MAD. 

469. Poppsea, 462; Plin. xi, 14. 
SM. See note on ii, 107. PRA. 'H 
«£ 2a)S,'v>) ccuTti ouras vn^zr^vpyietf utm 
TUf Ti tifiioyovs ras a,yov(Tas avjvv Iti- 
^^V9ot, ffTra^Tioi vroiiTo^ai. xat enous •tiv- 
Taxoffixs a^TiToKous x.a.ff fifii^av afiik- 
yiadat, 'iv I» t^ ya.XaKri ethruv \eunTar 
Xiph. Ixii, 28. GIF. 

470. The 'exile' is merely hypo- 
thetical. 

' The Hyperborean ciime:' Plin. iv, 
12; Virg. G iii, 196; (//Y.) so called 
as being beyond the north wind. 
SM. To a person standing at the 
north pole, every wind would be south- 
erly, as his face,his back, and both his 
hands would be turncd .lue soutli. It 
was a delightful spot according to Pin- 
dar, irt»7at •Wi» B«gia ^uxi''^' ^'- '•'? 
56 f. 



Q52 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Sed quae mutatis inducitur atque fovetur 
Tot medicaminibus cocta^que siliginis ofFas 
Accipit et madidaj, facies dicetur an ulcus ? 
Est pretium curac penitus cognoscere, toto 

475 Quid faciant agitentque die. Si nocte maritus 
Aversus jacuit ; periit libraria, ponunt 
Cosmeta) tunicas, tarde venisse Liburnus 
Dicitur et pcenas alieni pendere somni 
Cogitur : hic frangit ferulas, rubet ille flagellis, 

480 Hic scutica : sunt, qua? tortoribus annua praestent. 
Verberat atque obiler faciem linit ; audit amicas 
Aut latum pictse vestis considerat aurum, 
Et ca^dit ; longi relegit transversa diurni, 
Et ciiedit ; donec lassis csedentibus exi 

485 Intonet horrendum, jam cognitione peracta. 



471. Mntatis ' various.' SM. The 
fathers of the Chiirch were very severe 
in their invectives against these mere- 
tricious cosmetics. HNN. 

472. S/ligine; v, 70. PRA, 

Offas ' poultiees;' Plin. xv, 7- GRA. 

473. " But tell nie yet ; this thing, 
thus daub'd and oil'J, Thus poulticed, 
plaister'd, baked by turns and boiPd, 
Thus with pomatums, ointments, lack- 
er'd o'er, Is it a face, Ursidius, or a 
soreP" GIF. 

474. Pretiiim [Sen. E. 22;] cureB is 
the same as operce pretium ' worth 
while.' Sch. [Livy iii, 26, 4; Hor. E. 
ii, 1, 229.] 

475. ' If her husband tum his back 
townrds her, and go to sleep.' MAD. 
KuhvSu a^raffT^a^piis' Luc. D. JVi erc. M. 

A similar description is given of 
Circe: Petr. 132. R. 

476. Periit ' is half-killed.' BRO. 
Libraria ' the houselieeper,' MAD. 

' the woman who weighed out the 
wool, or flax, for the maids to spin.' 
Sch. 

477. ' The lady's maids strip to be 
flogged.' BRO. s. 490 S; PRA. Pers. 
iii, 1 ; 35: Ov. Am. i, 6, 19. R. 
[Frederick of Prussia, father of the 
Margravine of Bayreuth, flogged the 
maids of honour.] 

' The Liburnian ;' iii, 240. PRA. 

478. ' He is punished, because the 
h u s b a n d slept.' L UB. 



The phrase pcndere pasnas is derived 
from the custom of paying a certain 
weight of money as a mulct. Fes- 
tus. 

479. Frangit i. e. ' has them broken 
about his back.' viii, 247- R- 

Feru/as ;i, 15. FRA, Thesewerethe 
mildest instruments of punishment, and 
the /lagel/a the most severe ; Hor. S. i, 
3, 119 f. MAD. 

480. ' Some pay so much a year to 
the beadle for flogging their servants 
when required.' Festus. 

48 1 . Verberat — c(xdit — et ccedit ; iii, 
37; 116; 186. R. 

Obiter; iii, 241. PRA. 

' Enamels her face.' GIF. 

' Chats with her friends.' Festus. 

482. Plin. viii, 48; PRA. s. x, 27; 
Ov. Her. 9, 127- {B.S ) R. 

483. ' Eeads over the items in along 
memorandum-book,' in which were 
entered her daily accounts. GRA. 
Gell. V, 18 ; Lucian quoted at 434 ff; 
C. ]Sep. XXV, 13. R, 

485. ' Thunders out.' i?tiitari ver- 
borum fu/mi7ia; Cic, LUB. [Liv. 
lii, 48.] 

Horrendu7n is put adverbially : 517; 
Virg. M. xii, 700. R. 

Jam cognitio7ie peracta : either 
' having linished looking over her 
memoranda.' BRI. or ' having gone 
through the trial and punishment of 
her slaves.' LUB. 



s.vr. vi. 



OF JUVENAL. 



•253 



Praifectura domus Sicula non milior aula. 

Nam si constituit soliloque decentius optat 

Oniari tt ])ropovat janiquo exspcctatur in liortis 

Aut apud Isiaca^ potius sacraria k-nic ; 
490 Disponit crinem laceratis ipsa capillis 

Nuda iiumero Psccas infelix nudisque mamillis. 

" Altior liic quare cincinnus .^" Taurea punit 

Continuo flexi criuien facinusque capilli. 

Quid Psecas admisit l Ciua^nam est hic culpa puellae, 
495 Si tibi displicuit uasus tuus ? Altcra hevum 



486. ' The governinent of the family 
is more tyrannical than any of the 
courts of Sicily :" SG. alluding to 
Phalaris tyrant of Agrigentum, and 
Dionysius and Agathocles tyrants of 
Syracuse. Ptrs. iii, 39; Cic. T. Q. v, 
57 ; Just. XX ff ; Sch. PRA. Hor. Ep. 
i, 2, 58 f. MAD. 

4t*". ' She has made an assignation.' 
LUB. iii, n. MAD. 

488. ' And is In a hurry, as her 
gallant must be now waiting for her.' 
MAD. 

' In the garJens of Lucullus,' which 
were a fa^ourite promenade and rendez- 
vous. ilAD. 

489. ' The sacred precincts of the 
temples of Isis' were prostituted to 
the same purpose : therefore the priestess 
is here calied ' the procuress.' Sch. 
Plut. >I. xxvii ; Joseph. A. J.xviii, 4 ; 
10. ^A'. FRA. The women resorted 
to these temples under the pretext of 
observing religious vigils. BCE. ix, 22 
ff; Ov. A. A. i, 77 ff; iii, 635 ff; 
Mart. xi, 48, 4. Tsis herself might be 
called Isiaca tena by periphrasis : 
mullas illa facit, quod fiiit ipsa Jovi ; 
Ov. 78 ; R. MAD. [id. Am. ii, 2, 25.] 

490. See Ov. M. iii, 155 ff. Juvenal 
gives to the waiting-raaid the name of 
one of the chaste Dian's nymphs, ib. 72 ; 
who attended on the person of the god- 
dess, and assisted at her toilet in the 
grotto of the vale Gargaphie. This is 
very humorous, if we consider the cha- 
racter of the lady here spoken of ; she 
is attended at the toilet by her filles de 
chambre, who have each, like those 
nyiiiphs, a several ofFice in adorning 
her person ; while all these pains, to 
make herself look more handsome tlian 
nsiial, were because she was goiug to 



meet a gallant. The sad condition of 
poor Pserris bespeaks the violence which 
she suffered, from her cruel mistress, 
on every the least offence. However, 
this circurastance of her torn and dis- 
hevelled locks seems a farther parody 
of the account which Ovid gives of oue 
of the atteudants, who dressed the 
goddess's hair : doctior ittis Ismenis 
Crocale, sparsos per colta capittos col- 
tigit in noduni , quantvis erat ipsa sotutis ; 
ih.\m-\70 ; ^vh.FAR. MAD. See 
also Lucian. Am. 39 f ; Sen. Br. Vit. 
12; Claud. x, 99 ff; Call. H. in 
Pail. 22. (SA'.) R. The dishabiUe 
of this girl raight also be owing to 
her being obliged to run aud dress 
her irapatient raistress, without hav- 
ing time to arrange lier own hair or 
dress. DX. ACJI. A rhyrae occurs 
in this and the following line; it is not 
a solitary instance: in Ovid quoted in 
the note on iii, 19 ; [the first two lines 
are not consecutive ; but s. Arist. R. 
796 f; Lucr. iv, 476 f; Vir. E. viii, 
80.] 

491 . Psecas from ■v/^ixa^nv ' to bedew' 
Sch. with fragrant essences : BCE. as 
Plccusa in Martial (see cext note) from 
vXixiif. R. 

492. Unus de toto peccaverat orbe 
comarum annutus, [' ringlet'] in- 
certa non Lenejixits acu. Iioc facinus, 
Latage specuto, r/uo viderat, utta est, 
etceciditsectis icla Ftecusacomis. desine 

jam, Latage, tristes ornare capittoSy 
tangat et insanum nulta puetta captit; 
Mart. ii, 66, 1-6. PRA. 

Taurea ' the thong of buirs hide.' 
PRA. 

495. Lavuni ' on the left ;' Virg. lE. 
ii, 693; ix, 631 ; R. V. Flac. i, 156. 
HEl. 



254 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Extendit pectitque coraas et volvit in orbem. 
Est in consilio matrona admotaque lanis 
Emerita quae cessat acu : sententia prima 
Hujus erit ; post hanc letate atque arte minores 

500 Censebunt, tamquam famaj discrimen agatur 
Aut animae : tanta est quajrendi cura decoris. 
Tot premit ordinibus, tot adhuc compagibus altum 
^dificat caput. Andromachen a fronte videbis : 
Post minor est : credas aliam. Cedo, si breve parvi 

505 Sortita est lateris spatium breviorque videtur 
Virgine Pygmaea, nulHs adjuta cothurnis, 
Et levis erecta consurgit ad oscula planta ? 
Nulla viri cura interea, nec mentio fiet 



497. ' An elderly dame is sitting in 
council,' dum de dngulis capillis iit 
consilinm itur; Sen. Br. Vit. 1'2 ; s.iv, 

Admota lanis^ i. e. librai-ia ; 47(3. R. 

498. Emerita is a metaphor from a 
soldier who has earned his discharge, 
by havine served the time for whioh he 
enlisted. BRl. 

' From the crisping-pin ;' FAR. or 
' from the needle,' owring to the failure 
of her ej^esight. L UB. 

Sententia. .censebunt is a metaphor 
taken from the proceedings of the 
senate. SVL. 

501. [Spectator No 98.] 

502. " So high they build her head, 
such tiers on tiers 'VVith weary hands 
they pile." GIF. In womtn this toque 
was called xo^vfifios, in men x^alivXos, in 
hojs ffxi^Ties Schol. onThuc. UCE.xiii, 
165 ; cetsce procul aspice frontis honores 
suggestumque comee ; Stat. S. 1, 1, 113 
f ; turritaque premens frontem matrona 
corona; Luc. ii, 358; alienis capillis 
turrilum verticem struere ; Hieron. to 
Demetr. csxx, 7; tHrritum tortis caput 
accumulare in altuni crinibus ; Prud. 
Psycli. 183; Manil.v,l47; R. Tertull. 
de Cult. Fem. and M. ; Capell. de Nupt. 
iv. HNN. JuvenaVs meaning is well 
illustrated by the coins of Trajan and 
Hadrian, and hence this satire would 
seem to have been written during one 
of those reigns. ACH. Such, for in • 
stance, is the head-dress of Trajan's 
wife Plotina, of his sister Marciana, of 



his niece Matidia, of Hadrian's wife 
Sabina, and of his daughter Matidia. 
This preposterous fashion did not con- 
tinue at court above forty years, being 
exploded by Annia Galeria Faustina, 
the wife of Antoninus Pius. VAL. J. 
SM. 

603 Andromachet, Eurip. And. R. 
omnibus Andromache visa est spatiosior 
(eqno : unus, qui modicam diceret, 
Hector erat : Ov. A. A. ii, 645 f. 
MAD. In another place Ovid calls 
her longissima; A. A. iii, 777. LUB. 

' Andromache before ; a dwarf be- 
hind.' GIF. si solum spectes hominis 
capid, Hectora credas; si slantem vi- 
deas, Astyanacta putes : Mart. xiv, 
122. R. 

504.. 507. ' What, if Nature has 
given her but a short allowance of waist 
and if, without her high-heeled shoes 
she is no taller than a Lilliputian miss 
so that she must spring lightiy on tiptoe 
in order to catch her sweetheart's kiss ? 
s. xiii, 210. But the sense is obscure 
R. 

505. Spatium ; s. spatiosior in the 
note on 503. 

506. ' Pygmv^^wKyjKotrof.^half-a-yard 
hieh.' SC. xiii. 167 tf ; Plin. vii, 2 ; 
Gell. ix, 4 ; Ath. ix, 11. PRA. 

' Buskins' were boots with high 
cork-heels whieh tragedians wore ; SC. 
(as comedians wore the sock :) hence 
co^/H<w//«issometimesputfor' tragedy' 
or *a tragic style.' 634; vii, 72; xv, 
29. R. 



SA|-. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



256 



Danmoruiu : vivit tamquaiu vicina niarito. 
510 IIoc solo propior, quod aniicos conjugis odit 

Et servos, gravis est rationibus. 

Ecce furentis 

Bellonae matrisque deiim chorus intrat et ingens 

Semivir, obscceno facies revercnda minori, 

Mollia qui rupta secuit genitalia testa 
515 Jam pridem, cni rauca cohors, cui tympana cedunt 

Plebeia et Phrygia vestitur bucca tiara. 

Grande sonat metuique jubet Septembris et Austri 



509. See 141 ; R. al/Ti yuTcoy- Lon- 
gU3 iii, p. 77,20; p. 92, 'G7. BOI. 

510. ' The only difference is thi.s, that 
she hates her husband'.s friends anil ser- 
vapts, ancl pUtrues him with her bills; 
which his neighbour does not ' Sch. 
LUB. 

611. The transition is very abrupt : 
and we now come to the mo.st curious 
part of the Satire, and one which the 
author has Ijiboured with uncomnion 
care ; nor is there any portion of his 
works in wliich his genius is more con- 
spicuous. GIF. 

512. The frantic votaries of Cybele 
ha.\e been alreadv spoken of ; ii, 111 ; 
LUB. iv, 123 ff; Lactant. i, 21. Thrse 
of Bellona, sister of M ars and goddess of 
war, were not more .«ane. They ran up 
anddown, iancing their arms with sharp 
knives, (like the priests of Baal, i Kings 
xviii, 28 ;) on the 23d or 24th of March, 
which was her festival, and, in allu- 
sion to those saneuinarj* rites,was called 
The day of b1ood. PRA. MAG. 
s. Tib. i, 6, 43 ff ; HY. nec turba cessat 
enlheata Bellonce; Mart. xii, 57, 11. 

' Enters the house:' the sudden tran- 
sition seems as though the poet had 
eanght the contagion of their enthu- 
siasm, and started off from his former 
subjectunintentionally. R. See note on 
Her. i, 55, [92 ;j and 174, [57]. 

513. 'Thelusty eunuch' whoofficiated 
as tbeir high priest. VRA. 374; ibunt 
temimares et tympana fundetit; Ov. 
F. iv, 183; R. grandes Galli; Pers. 
T, 186. GIF. 

' A personage to be reverenced by his 
obscene inferior.' femineee voces et mota 
insania vino obscoenif/ne greges et 
inania tympana ; Ov. M. iii, 536 f ; viri 
molles, obsrceni, el sem iviri \ Li v . x x x i i i , 
28; R. s. ii, 9. 



514. ' Who has emasculatcd himself 
vvith a broken shell.' .«. ii, 116; xvi, 6 ; 
testa; Plin. xxxv, 12 s 46; xi, 49; 
fetro ; Lactant. v, 9 ; saxo acuto ; Ov. 
"F. iv, 237 ff; acutosilice ; Cat. Ixiii, 5 ; 

/?. [POL, on Exodus iv, 25.] 

515. ' Hoarse' either from continual 
singing and shouting, see note on i, 2 ; 
viii, 59; or frora having a cracked 
voice; Slaer. vii, 10. FAR. R. 

' Drums' for ' drummers,' LUB. by 
raetonymy. PEA. [Her. i, 27, 83.] 

516. ' His cheek is covered with the 
lappets of a Phrygian turban. Sch. GRA. 
tiara, verbum Grcecum est, usu ver- 
sum in Latinum ; de quo et Virgilius 
^^ sacerque tiaras" (iE. vii, 247;) 
genus pileoli, quo Persarum et Chaldce- 
orumgens utitur; Hieron. on Daniel iii ; 
quartum vestimenti genm est rolundum 
■pileolum, quale pictum in Ulyssao con- 
spicimus, ifuasi sphceree media sit divisa,. 
et pars una ponatur in capite. hoc Grceci 
Tia^ar, nonnuHi galerum vocant. non 
habet acumen in sunniio, ncc totum 
usque ad comam caput tegit, sed tertiam 
partem a fronte inopertam relinquit, 
atque i'a in ocripitio vitta constrictum 
est, ut non facile labatur ex capite. est 
atiiem byssinum et sic fabre opertum 
linteolo, ut nulla aci/s vestigia exlrin- 
secus appareant ; id. de Vest. Sac, 
PRA. viii, 259; x, 265; Paris, cum 
semiviro comitatu , Mceonia mentnm mitra 
crinemque madentem suhnixus; Virg. 
lE. iv, 215 ff ; juvai indulgere choreis, 
et habent redimicula /nitrce, id. \\, 615 
f; (HY.) V. Flac. vi, 700; {BU.) 
Claud. iii, 198 (GES.) R. See note 
on xv^&affiitf • Her. v, 49, [40]. 

517- Grande sonat; s. 485 ; « ii fi.tt.ytt 

d~da Kaiofiitttt ?;^S)» »u* ir' riotfia/a tS 
(futri. T a /ji, /jiiyiSis di. u( aiis n rii, 
a»a» ^a yut, Aaifiatds n iftov Tatras 



256 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. vr. 



Adventum, nisi se eentum lustraverit ovis 
Et xerampelinas veteres donaverit i])si, 
520 Ut, quidquid subiti ct magni discriminis instat, 
In tunicas eat et totum serael expiet annum. 
Hibernum fracta glacie dcscendet in amnem, 
Ter matutino Tiberi mergetur et ipsis 
Vorticibus timidum caput abluet : inde Superbi 



«a-E/JiaT» »a) Tleiyxs tai 'EjivviJarf Luc. 
litKvoft. y. Ihc Archiga//iis,coni^\i\ted 
by the superstitious woman, now delivers 
au oracle, big with menaced evils from 
the gods to guilty sinners, and urges 
her to propitiate the wrath of heaven 
by offerings and penances and expiatory 
rites. In iike manner the priestess of 
Bellona utters her predictions in Tib. i, 
6, 51 ff; see also the oracles delivered 
in Arist. Eq. 1010 ff. f/itnm sisfrutyi 
a/i(/ifis coticK/iens e.c imperio metifi/iir, 
quiOH nliqids sccniii/i /acer/os siios ar/i- 
fej: brcichia a/ijiic humeros siispensa 
maiiu cruenfat, (juiiiti a/i(iua gctiibiis 
per viatn repetis u/u/a/ (d2o) /auruitique 
linteafus senex et medio /ucernam die 
prceferetis concla m a f, iratutn ati- 
(juem (leorutn; concurrifis et auditis et 
divitiutn esse cum, iiivicetn mutuutti, 
a/eti/es sfujjorein, affirmafis ; Seu. de 
V. B. 27. R. [Livy iv, 30, 5.] 

' He predicts that danger is to be 
apprehended from the sultry and damp 
blastsofautumn.'5i?0.iv,56ff.M^£>. 
It needed no very sapient conjuior to 
anticipnte sueh perils; but he exag- 
gerated them, no doubt, vvith all his art. 

je. 

618. ' Eggs' were commonly used in 
expiations, especially in those connected 
with the worship of Isis; BRO. s.v,85; 
Ov. A. A. ii, 330; Hor. Ep. v, 19 ff; 
Pers. V, 185. (KG.) 11. ra Ix. rZv xu6a^- 
ciuy uk were on no account to be eaten, 
but to be thrown away out of doors. 
GRA. Thepriests undertook to see that 
this was done, and were indebted for 
many a good omelet to this superstitious 
notion. ACH. 

619. Xerampe/itias'' Aresises' so caWeA 
froin being ' of the colour of a faded leaf.' 
Sch. |»jj« ' sere' and afi-riXos a' vine- 
leaf.' i'K/1. ['Philemot or leuille morte,' 
Ainsworth.] Iv TaT? ln^TaTs xa) nrois ifi- 
vixiois, xa) Ta^ovTuv TPialiiav^ lyidvovTa 
^iTcHvas xa) ^Xaf/voa; woixiXas, a.'7lO 
vetnrou xa) Xop^upas xct) aXXas ^as 



•roXvriXiTs' in oi raTs xoraTs cunotois 
^ri^af/.TlXivas ro ^^uftx, as ixaXouv ar^a- 
{iarixas ocro rou ^^aifiaTos rh yag fiAXttt, 
ar ^ev xaXovriv h ori ft-ira r^a^ecias rau- 
rais iluSairi ^p^ffSai T^afiaTui Ss Xiyorrai 
ai "TroXuTiXus ^^Xa^KiySs; Suid. II. 

Ve/eres ' cast-otf,' modestly insinu- 
ating that they were of no further use 
to the lady. 

' She gave him,' in order to be sus- 
pended in the temple ; PRA. or for 
him and the other priests to wear. 
MAD. The Ga//i in ancient seulp- 
tures are always represented in the 
female dress : and they used to wear 
sad-coloured raiment, and Pliny inter- 
prets the colour a'era?npe/inus to be 
pul/us. VO. 

520 and 521. See Herod. ii, 39. 

522. This kind of penance was one 
in which much faith was put: Pers. ii, 
15 f; LUB. Hor. S. ii, 3, 290 ff. 
PRA. 

523. 'O fcdyo; ft.tr a r'/iv l?ra;5»i» r ^) s 
as fAOV 'jr^os t\ «^iisuxov ocTToVTuvas . 5r£gi 
ft,''.iTas vvKTa; 'f!ri rov liyf^nTa ^orxfioy 
ayayuv IxdSnoi ri fti xai d^srifi.a^i' Luc. 
Ns» 7. ' Tiirice:' the number three 
and threetimes three were thought 
much of in all magical and super- 
stitious rites: Pers. Ov. J\I. vii, 261 ; 
Virg. E. viii, 73 ff; JE. vi, 229. R. 
The manner in which toasts are re- 
ceived at our public dinners is one 
vestige of this very prevalent notion. 
See also Shaksp. Macbeth [i,3; iv, 1.] 

3Iane; Hor. [S. ii, 3, 282;] and 
Pers. [ii, 16; v, 188;] Prop. iii, 10, 
13. R. 

524. Vorfejc is the ancient form of 
verfex, i. e. contorfa in se acjua, vel 
quid(juid a/iud sitni/iter vertitiir; 
Quiut. viii, 2, 7. R- In this and many 
other words the fuUer and more ancient 
sound was softened down ; and Ovid 
was the author who took the lead in 
this refineuient of the huiguage. WC. 

' Timid,' either from nature, MAD. 



SAT. VI. 



Ol" JUVENAL. 



•i.')7 



0*25 Totum regis agruin nuda ac Ireintbunda cruentis 
Erepet genibus. Si caudida jusserit lo, 



or timore deorum ; Hor. S. ii, 3, 295. 
PRA. 

' Ablutiona' were performed to pacify 
the celestials: ' respersions' to deprecate 
thewrath of tlie iDfenial deities. MRC. 
[Macr. S. iii, 11. PRA.] 

When the kings were expelled, the 
land, between the city and the Tiber, 
belonging to Tarquin ' the Proud,' was 
consecrated by Brutus to Mars, and 
thenceforth called Campus Martius. 
Sch. Liv. ii, 5. PRA. 

525. This superstitious rite is men- 
tioned, Tib. i, 2, 85 ; R. Sen. quoted 
at517. PRA. Jobn Mabilius, in his 
Travels in Italy, mentions having often 
seen women crawling on their knees 
not only to ' the Holy Stairs,' to which 
they seldom go up in any other way, 
but even, from the neighbouring houses, 
to St Mary the Greater, and to the 
Basilica which is called ' the Altar of 
Heaven;' p. 50. VAO. See also Ov. 
F. vi, 397-412. CS. 

526. Candida; Ov. [M. i,] 743. R. 

' If the priest asserts that Isis so 
commanded in his visions of the past 
night.' s. 530 f. R. 

lo, the daughter of Inachus, was 
beloved by Jupiter ; who endeavoured 
to conceal her, under the form of a 
* white' heifer, from Juno's jealousy. 
That goddess, however, contrived to 
obtain possession of her rival, and com- 
mitted her to the custody of Argus, 
with whose hundred eyes, after he was 
slain by Mercury, the queen of heaven 
adorned her peacock's taii. The Ar- 
give princess, after many wanderings, 
reached Egypt ; she was there restored 
to her human form, and was subse- 
quently deitied under the name of Isis. 
Sch. Ov. M. i, 588-750; LUB. Plut. 
M. xxvii; Diod. i, 2. PKA. [/Esch. 
P.V. 577-911.] 

The absurd and contemptible cere- 
monies of the priests of Isis are de- 
scribed with admirable spirit and hu- 
mour. It is not easy to say by what 
criterion the Romans judged of the 
admissibility of foreign divinities into 
their temples. Cybele, with all her 
train of wild and furious enthusiasts, 
found an easy admittance; while Isis 
and Osiris, deities not more detestable. 



were long opposed, and still longer re- 
garded with distrust and aversion. Of 
a truth, however, this was confined to 
tbe men ; the women seem to have 
found something pecuiiarly fascinating 
in the worship of Isis, and to have 
been, from the first, her warmest de- 
votees. Either because the envy of 
the priests of Cybele, and other exotic 
divinities, was excited by this marked 
predilection, or because the attendance 
on the rites of Isis was made (as it 
certainly was iu aftertimes) a cloak for 
intrigue; in the consulship of Piso and 
Gabinius, a furious persecution was 
raised against her ; and she was ba- 
nished, with all her ridiculous mum- 
mery, from the territories of the re- 
public. Some years afterwards, how- 
ever, her worship was re-established, 
when Tiberius, on account of an im- 
pious faree which was played in one of 
her temples, (Joseph. A. J. xviii;) 
rased it to the ground, hanged or cru- 
cified the priests, and flunij the statue 
of the goddess into the Tiber. Again 
the temple was rebuilr, again destroyed 
by a decree of the senate, and again, 
and again, re-constructed,till the vigi- 
lance of the government was finally 
remitted, or its obstinacy overcome. 
It was then, that tbese fanes rose on 
all sides, and became (what too many 
of the Roman temples were) the fa- 
vourite spots for forming assignations. 
"Whenever Juvenal has occasion to 
mention these Egj-ptian divinities, he 
does it with a contemptuous sneer ; 
but in this he is not singular, since 
almost every ancient writer on the 
subject does the same. Lucan conveys 
a bitter reproach to his countrymen for 
their partiality to them, in a palhetic 
and beautiful apostrophe to Egypt, on 
the murder of Pompey : nos in fempla 
tuam Romana accepimus Isin, semi- 
deosque canes et sistra juhentia luctus 
et quem tu plangens liominem testaris 
Osirim: tu nostros, jEgi/pte, tenes in 
pulvere manes : tu (/uoque Sfc; viii, 
S31 tf. But it would be endless to 
quote all the indignant ridicule that 
has been poured on these brutal super- 
stitions. With all this, however, they 
continued in full vigour froui our au- 



2l 



268 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Ibit ad -^gypti finem calidaque petitas 
A Meroe portabit aquas, ut spargat in icdem 
Isidis, antiquo quae proxinia surgit ovili. 
530 Credit enim ipsius dominaB se voce moneri. 

En animam et mentem, cum qna di nocte loquanlur ! 
Ergo hic praecipuum sunnnumque meretur honorem, 
Qui grege linigero circumdatus et grege calvo 



thor's time to that of Conimodus, who, 
as Lampridius says, enrolled himself 
among the priests of Isis, and condc- 
scended to carry her son (the dog- 
headed Anubis) upon his shoulders. 
Constantine abolished them, with the 
other heathen rites: they were again 
revived, and for the Jast time, by that 
frivolous pedant Julian, (so liberally 
dubbed a philosopher by oiir Christian 
historians,) who laboured to enforce the 
observance of them in some of his epis- 
tles. But however severe the satirists 
may have been on these follies, they fall 
infinitely short of the prophets. See 
Isaiahxliv, 14rff; xlvi,6f. Thesepas- 
sages prove the great antiquity of such 
idolatrous and mendicant processions. 
In conclusion it may be observed, that 
they are sneered at by Menander with 
an arch and elegant simplicity, only to 
be found in the writeis of his school : 

y^uoi' obo iis oiiclas •^ra^iKTiuv it) tov 
iraviViou' rov tiKaiov §;? hov oIkoi /Jt.iiiui 
auZ^oyTo, Tovs i^^vfiivovs' Aurig. GIF. 
s. Cic. Div. i, 58; Suet. xii, 1. R. 

627. ' She will go on a pilgrimage 
afoot to the further end of Egypt, to 
fetch the waters of the Nile : as though 
the priests used none but the genuine 
waters of the Nile to sprinkle in that 
fane.' GRA. Virg. M. iv, 512 ; s. Her. 
i, 188. R. 

Calida ' scorched beneath a vertical 
sun.' BRO. XV, 28. Thus Nilus te- 
pcns ; X, 149 ; Prop. ii, 33, 3 ; tepidus ; 
Luc. iii, 199; Claud. xv, 476. R. 

528. Meroe, in Ethiopia, is the 
largest island formed by the Nile, with 
a city of the same name, whichwas the 
capital of a kingdom. Strab. i, 75; 
Herod. ii, 29; Diod. i, p. 38; Ptol. iv, 
8; Plin. ii, 75; v, 9; vi, 29; 35; 
Heliod. X. Though insulated during 
the rainy season, it is at other times 
only a peninsula; its modern name is 



' Atbar,' and it oomprises the greatest 
part of the kingdom of Sennaar and 
the smaller portion of Abyssinia. HEE. 
R. PRA. 

' Tosprinkle.' Thuswe read ofwater 
being fetched from tlie neighbouring 
sea, with which templum et simnlacritm 
dece (Jurionis) prospersu7n est ; Tac. 
An. XV, 4-i. R. 

529. ' The ancient sheepfold;' ' the 
spot where Komulus and his shepherds 
penned their flocks ;' or ' the palace of 
Romulus.' Sch. Some take it to meaa 
the boarded partitions within which the 
people were shut when they went to 
vote: septa; Mart. ii, 14, 5; ivii, 2; x, 
80, 4; FAR. Liv. xxvi, 22; PRA. 
Luc. ii, 197. These were afterwards 
bailt of fine marble with clegant porti- 
coes. AX. Others again suppose that 
the sheepfold of the Tarquins stood 
there. BRT. R. 

' Rises' is more expressivethan ' is.' 
vii. 183; R. Ov. M. ii, 264 ; BU. Liv. 
XXV, 21 ; D. see note on xurcu Her. 
vii, [198, 18]. 

530. ' She is so credulous as to be- 
lieve that the goddess herself speaks by 
the mouth of her priest.' Sch. 

The gods and goddesses were styled 
doniini and domincB; ^ca^iraTai and Vtrxoi- 
lai in Greek. GRA. Ov. A. A. i, 148 ; 
Virg. M. iii, 113; 438; Prop. iii, 3, 
31 ; R. see note on Her. i, 212, [89]. 

Monere ' to reveal their will :' R. s. 
Ov. M. xiii, 216; HS. Tib. i, 6, 50; 
BKH. V. Flae. i, 29 ; 231 ; Ov. M. ii, 
639. BU. 

631. Aninia, gua vivimus ; t)iens, 
qua cogitamus; Lactant. ilf^i?. 

532 The preceding line is parenthe- 
tical ; ergo lefers to 530. 

533. The inferior priests were all 
clad in liuen, in imitation of Isis, who 
appears to have been a queen of Egypt, 
and to have first taught her subjectsthe 
use oflinen. linigeri fugiunt calvi 



SAl. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



259 



Plangentis populi currit derisor Annbis. 

535 Ille petit veniam, qnoties non abstinet uxor 
Concubitu saeris observandisque diebus, 
Magnaque debctur violata pa3na cadurco, 
Et niovisse caput visa esl argentea scrpeus : 
Illius lacruniK meditataque murmura proestant, 

540 Ut veniam culpa3 non abnuat, ansere magno 



tisirataque turba ; Mart. xii, 29, 19; 
R. Tib. i, 3, 30 ; BKH. Ov. A. A. i, 
77. HS. 

Thofe who were (poing to cclelirate 
the rites of Isis had their heads shaved. 
J. Lampr. Comm. 9. CS. FE. 

634. Bos in ^jifpto numinis vice 
colitur : Apim vocanf. non est fas eum 
certos vita excedere atinos ; mersumi/ue 
in sacerdotum fonfe enecrnit (jucesiinri 
luctu atium, quem subsfituant ; et 
donec invenerint,moerent ; (terasis 
etiatn capitibus, 8fc. insigne ei, in 
de.vtro latere candicans macula, corni- 
bus lunce crescere incipientis ; ef nodus 
sub linguli quem canfliarum appellanl ; 
Plin. viii, 46; Diod. ii, 4 ff; Cic. N. 
D. 83 ; Macr. i, 22 ; Ammian. xxii. 
PRA. 

Anubis, the son of Osiris or Typhon, 
was the constant companion of Osiris 
and Isis (the sun and moon); he i.s 
represented as a man with a dog's 
head, Irora which he is called canis ; 
XV, 8; latrans Anubis; Prop. iii, 11, 
41; latrator; Virg. JE. viii, C98 ; PRA. 
8. Diod. i, 18; 87; Herod. ii, 66 f. 
' The chief-priestwhopersonates Anu- 
bis laughs in his sleeve at the credulou.s 
folly of the people bewailing their lost 
god.' viii, 29. In the expression currit 
derisor, [Psalm lix, 6; 14 ;] there may 
be an allusion to the appearance of a dog 
' lolling out his tongue and g r i n n i n g 
when fatigupd with running.' Pers. 
i, 60. CS. HNN. R. LUB. 

635. These gloomy and fantasticpro- 
cessioDs in quest of Osiris continued for 
several days ; during which the female 
votariesof Isis, in sympathy forher loss, 
ahstained from intercourse with their 
husbands. GIF. SM. This abstinence 
was generally for a period of nine days. 
Prop. ii, .33, 1 ff ; iv, 5, 34 ; Tib. i, 3, 
23 ff; Ov. Am. iii, 10, 1. The priest 
intercedes with his »rod for the offender. 
LUB. 

537. ' For having profaned the snowy 



sheeting;' vii, 221; cadurcis desti- 
tutafasciis, nuda ; Sulp. Sch. Tib. iv, 
2,1. BKH. nullum esf candidius linum 
lanceve similius, sicuf in culcitis prceci- 
puam glorinm obfinent Cadurci; 
Plin. xix, 1 ; a people of Aquitain in 
Gaul, Dow ' leQuercy,' with a town, of 
which theancientnamewas Cadurcum, 
the modern ' Cahors.' PRA. R. 

538. ' To have shaken in his anger.' 
ii, 130 ; FAR. Hor. S. i, 5, 58 ; Virg. 
M. vii, 292 ; xnr.rat xti^v' Hom. Od. E 
285. B. [Livy v, 22, 2.J 

The serpent is the asp (Hor. Od. i, 
37, 2G f ;] wreathed round the head of 
the deity, as the symbol of etcrnity. 
yElian. GRA. Diod. i; Macr. i, 20; 
Ov. Am. ii, 13,13; M.ix,693; {HS.) 
V. Flac. iv, 418. {BU.) R. " I re- 
collect that when I was in Italy, a bust 
of Isis was found thus incircled ; and 
was then thought, by the literati, to 
give light to this very passage." GIF. 
[Deane on S. W. p. 149.] 

539. ' Of that priest.' Sch. 
Medifdfa ' studied.' 

' Mumbled prayers.' x, 289 f; haud 
cuivis prompfum est murmurque 
humilesfiue susiirros tollere de templis, 
et aperto vivere vofo ; Pers. ii, 6 i &c ; 
GRA. Soj)h. El. 638 ff; o liayot t^» 
£«■»?«» vvoTOi^e^vras' Luc. Nsjs. 7 ; Hor. 
Ep. i, 16, 59 ff. The prccei^t ol Pytha- 
goras was /ttra <pea\mt tu^ia: bi.x-ause 
the person, «ho is vera simplicifnfe 
bonus, recfi cusfos, mirafor honesfi, is 
one — jiihil arcano qui royef ore deos ; 
Mart. i, 40, 4-6; ftinc scifo, fe esse 
omnibus cupiditafilus solutum, quum 
eo perveneris, nt nihil deum roges, nisi 
quod rogare possis palam. nunc enim 
quanta denienfia esf hominum? tur- 
pissima vota diis insusurrant : si quis 
admoverit aurem, conticescent et, quod 
scire hominem nolu7it, deo narrant; 
Sen. (from Athenodorus) Ep. 10 ; Tib. 
ii, l,83ff. R. KG. 

540. ' Tlie goose' is not mentioned at 



260 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Scilicet et tenui popano corruplus, Osiris. 

Quum dedit ille locum ; cophino foenoque relicto 
Aixanam Juduea tremens mendicat in aurem, 
Interpres legum Solymarum et magna sacerdos 
545 Arboris ac summi fida internuntia cceli. 

Implet et illa manum, sed paixius : aere minuto 
Qualiacumque voles Judjei somnia vendunt. 
Spondet amatorem tenerum vel divitis orbi 
Testamentum ingens, calidae pulmone columbae 



random: thatbirdwasusually sacrificed 
to Isis, and in Egypt constituted the 
chief food of her priests. The Romans 
were at first a little scandalized at this 
treatment of the ancjient guardian of 
their capitol, but use soon reconciled 
them to it. GJF. Herod. ii, 45; GRA. 
ib. 37. 

541. ' The thin cake,' Xaya^ir Phi- 
lostr. V. Ap. V, 9 ; Ov. F. i, 453 f ; 
{HS. BU.) Philip. Ep. X, in BC, An. 
t. ii, p. 214. BCE, p. 217- R. 

It is Osiris, and not Isis, who is of- 
fended. The goddess understood her 
trade too well, to be ofi"ended seriously 
with a peccadillo of this kind ; but then 
itwas necessary thatherhusbandshoald 
be represented as extremely delicate on 
the subject ; otherwise, no goose for the 
priest. GIF. Macr. i, 20 f ; PEA. \iii, 
29. J?. 

542. Seeiii, 14 fi"; Pi?^. Domitian 
laid a heavy poll-tax on this people ; 
and, that they might not evade it, they 
were enjoined not to appear abroad 
without the basket and hay, thebadges 
of their condition. To avoid being de- 
tected aud insulted by the rabble when 
they entered the city, these poor perse- 
cutedwretcheslaidasidetheirdegrading 
accompaniments. This accounts for 
the epithet fremeiis, whioh Juvenal 
applies to the female fortune-teller ; 
who, if she hadbeeu discovered, would, 
in spite of her lofty pretensions, have 
been severely punished for contempt of 
the imperial regulations. GIF. Mart. 
vii, 55; SVL. Suet. xii, 12; Joseph. 
B. J. vii, 7. PRA. 

543. Tremens may also mean ' shiver- 
ing,' as beggars do, to exeite compas- 
sion. v, 11. GRA. a matre doctus 
rogare Judaus; Mart. xii, 57, 13. 

544. ' Expounder of the laws of Je- 



rusalera.' BRI. Plin. v, 14. PRA. 

Ey the words ' high-priestess of the 
tree' is probably meant ' of the Egerian 
grove,' the degradation of which is so 
indignantly deplored in the third Satire. 
Like the Norwood of our metropolis, it 
might be frequented by such of the 
vulgar aswere anxious to enquire their 
fortunes. In that case some favourite 
tree might be the place of reudezvous, 
and this Betty Sqaires its most infal- 
lible oracle. GIF. Sen. Med. 349. 
FAR. 

645. Nil prceter nubes et coeli 7iu- 
m e n adoraiit ; xiv, 97. R. 

' The trustworthy agent by whom the 
will of heavcD is revealed.' Aug^urs 
and birds are called Jovis intern un- 
cii et interpretes; Cic. Phil. xiii, 
5 ; Div. ii, 34. R. 

546. The Jews appear then to have 
held thesameplaceinsociety, asGipsies 
at the present day. GRA. 

547. See Ezekiel xiii, " Have ye 
not seen a vain vision, and have ye 
not spoken a lying divination, 
whereas ye say, The Lord saith it : 
albeit I havenot spoken?" 7; " "Will 
ye poUute me for handfuls of barley 
and for pieces of bread ?" ibid. 19 &c; 
MAD. Pers. ii, 57- KG. 

548. Spondet, 'solemnly engages,' is 
a stronger word than promittit ; iii, 43 ; 
Cic. for Mur. 41 end; Sen. Ep. 19; 
Ov. Her. 16,114; V. Flac. vi, 117; 
{BU.) de infante Scribonius mathe- 
maticus prceclara spopondit ; Suet. iii, 
14; viii,4. R. 

549. ' The lungs,' the liver, and the 
heart were the parts chiefly examined 
in divinations, Luc. i, 621 fi"; Cic.de 
Har. Resp. 9 ; Dio 39 ; 58. R. 

' Doves' were sacrificed to Venus, 
and from the preceding line this ap- 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



'2GI 



550 Tractato, Arnieuius vcl Comuiagcnus haruspcx; 
Pectora pullorum rimatur et exta catelli, 
Interdum et pueri : facict, quod deierat ipse. 
Chaldicis sed major crit liducia : quidquid 
Dixerit astrologus, crcdent a fonte relatum 

555 Hammonis ; quoniam Delphis oracula cessant 



pears to have been a love afifair. 
SVL. 

650. Conimagene vras a part of Syria 
between Mount Amanus and the Eu- 
phrates. R. 

Hariispex; ii, 121. PRA. 

661. Virg. jE,. iv, 64; quoted in 
note on 392. Scli. The inention of 
these smailer animals is to throvr ridi- 
cule on the pretensions of sach fortune- 
tellers. R. 

Catelli; see Paus. vi, 2, 2. PRH. 

552. ' Of a child.' s. Psalm cvi, 37 
f; Plut. M. Ixi, (near the beginning); 
Macr. iii, 7 ; l'RA. Ammian. xxix, 2, 
17; Eus. H. E. viii,14; Cassiod. H. 
Tr. vi, 48; Theodoret. iii,21. LB. R. 

Egnatius (iii, 1 10;) ishere again al- 
luded to, who, after instigating the 
daughter of Soranus to magical arts, 
denounced her to the emperor Nero ; 
by whose order, she sufFered at the same 
time with her father. Sch. This anec- 
dote may be genuine, though Tacitus 
does not mention it ; An. xvi, 32. G TF. 
Dcferat; 220; R. i, 33; iv, 48. 
MAD. 

oi>3. ChaldseaanditscapitalBabylon 
were famous for the astrological skill of 
the inhabitanty. In that city there 
was the temple of Btlus said to be the 
inventor of the science. Plin. vi, 2G ; 
Cic. Div. i, 2 ; 92 ; Gell. i, 9 ; xiv, 1 ; 
Diod. ii, 3 ; iii, 8 ; xvii, 11 f. See KG, 
and CS, on Pers. v, 4(5 tf. These 
' Chaldseans' among other names were 
called ' astrologers' 554 ; and ' mathe- 
maticians:' 5G2. Among the benign 
stars they reckoned Venus ; 5/0 : among 
those of malignant aspectwere Saturn, 
569 f ; and Mars, x, 313, f ; Ov. Am. 
i, 8, 29. From casting a person's na- 
tivity, 679; or observinghishoroscope, 
Suet. ii, 94 end ; they predicted future 
events, and the hour and day at which 
any affair of importance ought to be 
transacted, 575 tf. For this purpose 
they used books, 578 ; or tables, 558 ; 
and diaries, 574 ; which contained the 



positions &e of the stars at any given 
time, iii,43 ff. The calculations which 
were reiiuisitein judicial astrology were 
called numeri Tlirasylti; 576; Bahy- 
ionii niimeri; Hor. Od. i, 11, 2; 
ChaUlaivce rationes; Cic. Div. ii, 47; 
42 ff; s. vii,194ff; ix, 33; xiv, 248 
ff; xvi, 4 ; Manil. iii, 160 ff; iv, 122 
ff ; 294 ff ; Ov. Ib. 209 ff; Macr. Plin. 
ii, 8 ff; vii, 49 ; Prop. iv, I ; Hor. Od. 
ii, 17, 17-24 ; {ML JN.) Tac. An. iv, 
58 ; (E.) Ammian. xxviii, 4, 24. (LB.) 
R. PRA. [The Theoiogian, v. ii, p. 
31 &e.] 

554. See viii, 125. R. 

555. It is fabled that Bacchus being 
distressed for water, in his Libyan ex- 
pedition, a ram suddenly appeared 
from the sand and led him to a ' foun- 
taiu.' Bacchus regarded this ram as 
Jupiter, and, accordingly,built a mag- 
nificent temple to Jupiter Hammon on 
the spot wbere the water was found : 
the name of Hammon being derived 
from afi,f/.os ' sand,' and ram's horns 
being attributed to the deity. Hygin. 
P. Astr. ii, 20. This temple is en- 
vironed by a thick forest, the only one 
in tliose parts, Luc. ix, 522-527; 
Curt. iv, 7, 16 ; and by several springs, 
among others ' the celebrated fountain 
of the sun' (whifh is here put for the 
oracle ilself): Herod. ii, 42; iv, 181 ; 
Diod. i, 13; xvii, 50; Plin. li, 103; 
V, 5 ; vi,29; Curt.iv, 7, 22 ; Lucr.vi, 
848 ff; Ov. M. XV, 309 ff; Sil. iii,669 
ff. R. FAR. PRA. " The fount that 
play'd In times of old through Amnion's 
shade, Though icy colJ by day it ran, 
Yet still, like souls of mirth, began To 
burn when night was near ;" Moore, 
Irish Melodies. 

' The oracle of Apollo at Delphi' is 
.said to have ' ceased' at the birth of 
Christ: nie pieer Hebrceus divos Deus 
ipse giibernans cedere sede jithct, ifc. 
s. Plut. M. XXX ; PRA. Eus. Pr. 
Ev. V, p. 205 ff; Cic. Div. ii, 67; 
Strab. xvii, p. 553; Luc. v, 112 ff; 



26-2 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Et genus humanum damnat caligo futuri. 
Prsecipuus tamen est horum, qui saepius exsul, 
Cujus amicitia conducendaque tabella 
Magnus civis obit et formidatus Othoni. 
560 Inde fides arti, sonuit si dextera ferro 

Laevaquc, si longo castrorum in carcere mansit. 
Nemo mathomaticus genium indemnatns habebit 
Sed qui paene perit, cui vix in Cyclada mitti 



C'S. Antib. £x. i, 12. It is mentioned, 
however, as having given responses in 
the reigns of Nero and Julian ; Suet. 
vi, 40 ; Themist. Or. xix ; Theodor. 
H. E. iii, 21 ; R. and again at the birth 
of Honorius (unless it be merely the 
poefs fiction); e( dudiim taciti rupere 
silentia Delphi ; Claud. viii, 144. If the 
oraele of Jupiter Hammon did survive 
the rest, it was probably because, as 
Voltaire says of EI Dorado, few or none 
could go to seek it. GIF. 

556. ' Punishes,' PRA. or ' renders 
them miserable,' ' leads them headlong 
on their ruin,' s. Virg. /E. xii, 727 ; 
HEI. iii, 116; or ' torments :' prudens 

fii turi temporis exitum caliginosa 
nocte premit deus ridetque si mor- 
talis iiltrafas trepidat ; Hor. Od. iv, 
29, 29 ff. R. 

557. Understand/wiV. BRT. 

This astrologer was Seleucus, Suet. 
viii, 4-6; PRA. or Ptolemseus ; Tac. 
H. i, 22. Plut. which vvere, probably, 
but ditferent uames of tliesame persou. 
£U. E. The professors of astrology 
were alternately banishtd and recalled, 
persecuted and cherished, as ihe events 
they predicted were prosperous or ad- 
verse to the fortunate candidates for 
power. That they were the occasion 
of frequenteommotions among this am- 
bitious and credulous people, cannot be 
doubted ; and Tacitus says of them 
with equal truth and spirit, lioc genus 
liominum potentibus injiiluni, speranti- 
bus fallax, quod in civitate nostra et 
vetabitur semper, et retinebitur ; H. i, 
22; ii, 62 ; A.ii, 32; xii, 52 ; Suet. 
iii, 36; ix, 14. R. GIF. 

558. Ptolemy accompanied Othointo 
Spain and there predicted that he 
would survive Nero. Fromhis success 
in this instance (says Tacitus) he took 
courage and ventured to predict his 
elevatlon to the empire. Otho believed 



it (or rather affected to believe it), and 
from that moment he determined to 
work the destruction of Galba. In the 
dreadful scenes which followed, Ptolemy 
was a principal actor. GIF. LUB. 
The effect of such predictions on an 
ambitious spirit is finely exemplified in 
thetragedyof Macbeth. " 'Tisstrange: 
And oftentimes, to win us to our harm, 
The insfruments of darkness tell us 
trnths, Win us with honest trifles, to 
betray us In deepest consequence ;" 
i,3. 

Conducenda ' dearly purchased,' 
LUB. ' venal' ' mercenary.' 586. 

559. ' The great citizen' was Galba. 
Suet. vii, 19. PRA. s. i , 53 ; R. ii, 104 f. 

560. ' Has clanked with chains.' 
Sch. iii, 309 f. Those, whose pre- 
dictions concerned the life of princes 
or other matters of state, were often 
thrown into prison and not released 
unless their words were verified by 
future events. L. Suet. iii, 14 ; PRA. 
1 Kings xxii, 7-28. 

561. In stationary camps(answering 
to our barracks) tbere was a black-hole 
in whieh malefactors were confined ; 
and when the troops changed their 
quarters, the prisoners were moved in 
chains. Tac. A. i, 21 ; iii, 22. R. 

562. Quos gentilitio vocabulo Clial- 
daeos dicere oportet ,matlie m aticos 
vufgiis appeltat ; Gell. i, 9. PRA. 

' Genius,' Sch. (in which case lia- 
bebit means ' will be thought to have;') 
LUB. or ' good luck :' s. 22 ; Mart. vi, 
60, 10 ; vii, 77, 4; Hor. Ep. ii, 2, 186 
ff. R. 

Indemnatus " Who has notnarrowly 
escaped the rope." GIF. 

563. " Who h.as. . .Begg'd hard for 
exile, and by special grace, Obtain'd 
continementiasomedesertplace."GJjF'. 

' One of the Cyclades.' i, 73. R. 
See note on Her. v, 30, [61]. 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



2()3 



Conli{;it et parva tandfin caruissc Seripho. 

565 Consulit icterica; lcnto dc funere matris, 

Ante tauien de te, Tanaquil tua : quando sororcm 
Efferat et patruos; an sit victurus adulter 
Post ipsani ? Quid enim majus dare numina possunt? 
Hscc tamen ignorat, quid sidus triste minetur 

570 Saturni, quo la?ta Venus se proferat astro, 

Qui mensis damnis, quffi dentur tempora lucro. 
Illius occursus etiam vitarc memento, 
In cujus manibus, ceu pinguia suciua, tritas 
Cernis epliemeridas ; quae nullum consulit etjam 

575 Consulilur ; qua;, castra viro patriamve petente, 



664. ' To have been liberated.' PRA. 

Seripliiis one of this group, now 
called j^' Serpho,' A W. or] ' Serfino,' 
is a barren rock about twelve miles in 
circumference. x, 170; Ov. M. vii, 
464 ; Plin. iv, 12 s 22 ; viii, 58 ; Strab. 
X, p. 48/. PRA. R. 

565. " In doubt How long her jaun- 
diced raother will hold out." GIF. 
7»<rtgo( 7norbus rerjius. Plin. xx, 9 ; 
XXX, 11 ; xxxvi, 31 ; xxxvii, 10; s. 
iii, 43. PRA. R. 

566. ' Thj- future spouse:' Tana- 
qu il tua nesciat iltud ; Auson. Epist. 
xxiii, 31. Tanatjuit, the wife of Tar- 
quin the elder, was a marvellous adept 
in the art of divinatinn; Sch. accepisse 
id augurium leeta dicitur Tanaquil, 
perita (ul vulijo Elrusci) cielestium 
prodigiorum mulier; Liv. i,34; PRA. 
ib. 39; 41. 

£67. Efferat; i, 72. R. 

569. ' Even she is less hateful, who 
gains her knowledge of the stars at 
second hand, than a wife who is herself 
a proficient in the celestial lore.' Sch. 

570. See note on 553. R. vii, 194; 
grave Saturni sidus in omne ca- 
put; Prop. iv, 1, 84; BRI. Pers.v,50; 
Hor. Od. ii, 17, 22; MAD. frigida 
Saturni stella; Virg. G. i, 336; Sch. 
Cic. N. D. PRA. 

' In conjunction with what heavenly 
body.' This was themoon, according to 
Cicero, Pliny, and Macrobius. PRA. 
" In what sign bright Venus ought to 
rise To shed her mildest influence from 
the skies." GJF. 

Veneris salubre sidus; Luc. Sch. 

Se pro/erat: Suet. vi, 6 end. R. 



571. Dcntur lucro 'are lucky.' Hor. 
Od. i,9, 14. 7?. 

572. ' Avoid her as a thing of ill 
omen.' SVL. 

573. ' Whose well-thumbed manual 
of astrology' (note on 553;) 'hecomes 
as yellow, shining, and transparent, as 
rich amber.' Sch. LUB. Plin. xxxvii, 
2 f ; PRA. v, 24 ; 38 ; ix, 50 ; Ov. M. 
ii, 364 fif; Mart. iv, 59. The ladies 
used to hold or rub the amber in their 
hands for the sake of its scent ; Dioscor. 
i, 93 ; red'jlent quod sucina trita ; Mart. 
iii, Qb^ 4 f ; fragravit ore quod sncino- 
rumraptade manugleba; v,37,9; 11 ; 
spirant sucina virginea quod regelata 
manu; xi, 8, 1 ; 6. The epithet ' fat' 
may also refer to its nature : si naturam 
sucini admoto igne tentes.i in modum 
tcedis accenditur alitque flammam p i n- 
gue m et olentem : moa: >it in picem re- 
sinamve lentescit ; Tac. G. 45. R. 

575. The superstition of being guided 
in every thing by astrological ca!cu- 
lations appears to have struck its roots 
incunceivably deep. Nearly three cen- 
turies after Juvenars time, we find the 
Romans characterized by the same 
folly, and almost in the same words: 
7nulti apud eos negantes esse superas 
potestates in cwlo, nec in publico pro- 
deunt nec prandent nec lavari arbi- 
t7'a7itur se cautius posse, antequa>/i 
ephe77ie r ide scrupuluse sciscitata di- 
dicerint ubi sit sig7iu7n Mercurii, S)-c; 
Ammian. xxviii, 4, 24. Here we have 
Pope's " — godless regent trembling at 
a star ;" Mor. Ess. i, 90. Such are the 
monstrous inconsistencies of atheism ! 
GIF. R. 



264 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Non ibit pariter numeris revocata Thrasylli. 
Ad primura lapidem vectari quum placct, hora 
Suraitur ex libro : si prurit frictus ocelli 
Angulus, inspecta genesi collyria poscit. 

580 .^gra licet jaceat, capiendo nulla videtur 

Aptior hora cibo, nisi quam dederit Petosiris. 

Si mediocris erit ; spatium lustrabit utrimque 
Metarum et sortes ducet frontemque manumque 
Prajbebit vati crebrum poppysma roganti. 

585 Divitibus responsa dabunt Phryx augur et Indus 
Conductus, dabit astrorum mundique peritus 



576. Thrasyllus was an eminen t astro- 
loger at the court of Tiberius ; Suet. 
ii, 98 ; iii, 14 f. 62 ; iv, 19 ; Tac. A. vi, 
20; 22; Dio Iv, 11. Sch. PRA. R. 

577. ' If she wishes to go out for a 
little airing in her chair or carriage.' 
Sch. Themiles were marked by mile- 
stones, inscribed with the number, and 
were reckoned from a golden column 
which stood in the forum. These mile- 
stones were first put up by C. Gracchus. 
SVL. Plut. V. xl. PRA. 

578. The ancients considered the 
itching of any part to be a prognosti- 
cation of something about to happen. 
J. ER, Pr. iv, 7 ; Plaut. Mil. ii, 4, 44 ; 
Bac. V, 2, 75; Amph. i, 1, 139; Ps.i, 
1, 105; SCA. Isid. Or. viii, 19; R. 
[" Mine eyes do itch ; Doth that bode 
weeping ?" Shaksp. O. iv, 3.] 

679. "See note on 553. R. 

Hic ochUs ego nigrn ineis collyria 
lippns iUinere ; Hor. S. i, 5, 30 f ; PRA. 
Piiu. xxi, 20 s 81 f. (H£>.) R. 

581. ' Shall have pointed out.' Sch. 
Pefosirisvra.^ a famous astrologer and 

physician, according to Plinv, ii, 23 ; 
vii, 49 ; (HD.) and Suidas, (KU.) LUB. 
Ath. iii, 81. SM. R. He seems, like 
our learned Moore, to have allotted 
particular diseases andparticularstages 
of life to the government of particular 
planets. " Sir To. Were we not born 
underTaurus? SiR An. Taur us ? 
that's sides and heart. SiR To. No, 
Sir, it is legs and thia;hs;" Shaksp. 
Twelfth-Night, i, 3. GIF. 

582. Tbe circus was the resort of 
itinerant fortune-tellers. Acron. L UB. 
Hence it is calledya//«.r circus ; Hor. S. 
i, 6, 113; r. s. Suet. i, 39; v, 21; 
PRA. Cic. Div. i, 58. R. 



583. TheCirct(sMaximnsvrz.s divided 
along the middle hy ' the chine' spina ; 
at each extremity of this stood three 
' pillars' metee, round which the chariots 
had to turn on the near side. FE. 
LUB. Ov. Am. iii, 15, 2; M. iii, 146. 
R. 

' Will draw lots;' /toc genus divina- 
tionis vitajam comrnunis eicplosit : quis 
enim magistratus aut t/uis vir illustrior 
vtitur sortilus? Cic. Div. ii, 41. Nu- 
merius Suffetius is said to have invented 
this mode of divination ; s. Suet. iii, 
14; ^-i, 21; AX. T. PRA. Quint. 
xii, 10, 74; {GES. BU.) Tib. i, 3, 11 
f; (HY.) R. 

Others told fortunes by physiognomy 
and chiromancy. L UB. 

584. Poppijsma ' a smack with the 
lips ;' Sch. or ' a wanton palming and 
patting of the hand.' MA£>. falpare ; 
i, 35 ; •reir^i^uv ' to coax ;' Timocl. in 
Ath. ix, 18. Perhaps per may be un- 
derstood here ; and roganti may mean 
' begging' in a neuter sense: s. iv, 118; 
R. Plin. xxviii, 2. (T.) Or we may 
read sonanti in a transitive sense; vii, 
108; Tib. i, 3, 60; ii, 1,32; Virg. E. 
V, 64 ; s. Theoer. v, 89. MNS. 

585. Phrygians, Pisidians, Cili- 
cians, and Arabians paid great atten- 
tion to augury; Cic. Div. i, 41 end. 
LUB. 

India, among the Eomans,was a word 
of great latitude, inchiding Persia, 
Arabia, iEthiopia, and part of Egypt. 
Virg. G. ii, 116; iv, 293. {HY.BU.) 
The Magi of Persia were augurs as 
well as philosophers. Cic. 1. c. R. 

586. Conductus; R. 558. 

Miindi ' of heaven;' Sil. iii, 611; 
Tib. iii, 4, 18. R. 



SAT. VI. 



OF .irVENAL. 



2 (»5 



Alquc ali(|ui.s sciiior, (pii i^ublica iiilgura coiulit. 
Plebeiuui in circo positun) est et in aggere fatuni. 
Qua' nullis longuni ostiMulit cervicibus aurum, 
590 Consulit ante phalas delphinorunique cohnnnas, 
An saga vendenti nubat caupone rehcto. 

IliB tamcn et ]iartus subeunt discrimcn et onines 
Nutricis tolerant fovtuna urguentc labores; 
Sed jacet aurato vix ulUi pucrpera lecto. 



587. See Luc. i, 584 ff ; 606 ff; Sch. 
Plin. ii, 52;54. MAD. Whcnever a 
place was struck by litrhtniiig, a priest 
was always callefl in to purify it. This 
was done by coliecting even,- thing that 
had been scorched, and burying it on 
tbe spot, with due solemnity. A two- 
year-old sbeep was then sacrificed, and 
the ground (bidental) slightly fenced 
round ; after which all was supposed to 
be well; Pers. ii, 26 f ; iv, 49; {KG. 
CS.)LUB. GIF. Sen. N.Q.ii; Acron. 
on Hor. A. P. 471 ; Festus. Piut. M. 
1, 4, 2; Artemid. ii, 8; Sen. Clem. 
i, 8; (L.) PC, Arch. iv, 1. R. 

Senior r^tfffivTt^of. SVL. 

688. Non lucanox /larifspices, non de 
circoastrologos; Enn. FAlt. PRH. s.iii, 
65; 223. FBJ. 

Agger; viii, 43. R. The mound 
thrown up by Tarquin the Proud, on 
the east of the city. BRl. 

589. ' Who displays no long golden 
pendants above her neck and shoulders : ' 
by hypallage, as ii, 90; MAD. s. 457 
ff. R. The poet might intend to point 
out the general extravagance of the 
Roman women, in thus characterising 
the extremity of indigence amongst 
them by the want of a gold chain. 
GIF. 

590. The phaltc were seven move- 
able wooden towers, or obelisks, called 
from their ovai fonn, ova; they were 
placed along the spine, and one was 
taken down at the end of each course. 
xxy Ta Ttoii^efiiu fipaXXifiitsuf Tohs i*- 
f^tuirauf (Tjfl) Toy Toif iavX.a>v ipifi/io* ipo/t 
(Agrippa), tsui ti itXipitat xa) t« Moti}>i 
otlfiioueynuaTa KartffT^iiraro, «Vaij 2j' aii- 
TUf ai rt^itoot TU1 Tt^idpo/u.ai» afa^tiKfvav 
Taf Dioxiix.end; Liv. xli,27; Varr. 
R. R. i, 2, 11; SM. PRH. PAN. 
tabulatn phnleeriiic; Enn. PRA. 

' The dolphins' on the columns were 

2 



pcrhaps owing to the Circensian games 
being originally consecrated to Consus 
or the Ec|uestrian Neptuue. Jl. in 
rirco Flaminio erant Neptunus ipse et 
Thetis et Nereides supra de Iphi nos 
sedentes; Vlin. xxxvi, 5. These were 
of marble. FRA. There were four 
parties in the Circus, the Blue, the 
Green, xi, 196; the White, and the 
Red, vii, 114; (to which were added 
by Doniitian, the Golden, and the 
Purple.Suet. xii, 7; Xiph.) Of thesethe 
Blue and the Green were the principal 
ones : for to them the others were re- 
spectively attached. The egg was the 
badge of the Green faction or that of 
the land, the Dolphin of the Blues 
or the sea party. The symbols were 
80 managed as to show which of the 
two parties was winning. The Romans 
being generally but little connected 
with maritime affairs, tho Green was 
the popular coiour; xi, 196: though 
the other was sometimes the favourite 
with the emperor. In silver coins of 
Roman families, under chariots of two 
or four horses, we somelimes find a 
trident, sometimes an ear of corn : it 
is not improbable that these niay be 
emblems of the two leading parties 
above mentioned, and denote the vic- 
torious colour. FE. 

.591. ' Whether she shall jilt the eat- 
ing-house keeper and wed the army- 
tailor.' LUB. 

592. " The great danger (or pain 
and peril) of childbirth;'' Book of 
Common Prayer. 

593. They could afford neither to 
put their children out to nurse, nor to 
keep anursemaid or nurscry governess 
Sch. 

594. A woman is called puerpera, 
when ' confined with her first child. 
Sch. 



M 



266 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



595 Tantura artes hujus, tantum medicamina possunt, 
Qu;e steiilcs facit atquc homines in vcntre necandos 
Conducit. Gaude, infclix, atquc ipsc bibeudum 
Porrigc, quidquid erit: nam si distendere vellet 
Et vcxare uterum pueris salientibus, esscs 

600 jEthiopis fortassc pater; mox decolor hcres 

Impleret labulas, numquam tibi manc vidcndus. 

Transeo suppositos et gaudia votaquc sa;pe 
Ad spurcos decepta lacus atque inde petitos 
Pontifices, Salios, Scaurorum nomina falso 

605 Corporc laturos. Stat Fortuna improba noctu, 



595. HiiJhs ' of tlie old woman, who 
is applied to in sncli cases.' LUB. 

Medtcamina ; Plin. xx, 21 ; xxvii, 
5; 9; 7L s. ii, 32. 

596. ' Men yet unborn.' 

597. Condueit; ' undertakes for a 
certain price.' Tlie same verb is used 
witli the following expressions: redem- 
tor columnam jaciendam; Cic. Div. ii, 
21; medicus cegrum sanandum; Plin. 
xxix, 1 ; pistor panem molendum ; 
Pompon. in Non. Another form of the 
phrase is this, Simonides, vicfori /andetn 
iit scrileret^ cerfo conduxit pretio ; 
Phcedr. iv, 24, 4 ff. {BU.) R. 

' Grieve not.' The ' woe-begone' 
husband is here addressed. LUB. 

598. Distendere {uferum) ' to con- 
ceive.' LUB. 

599. ' To bear lively boys.' 

COO. 'Ofablackamoor;'JV/^D.owing 
to your wife's adultery with a black 
slave. V, 53; LUB. Mart. vi, 39. R. 

Fortasse ' as likely as not.' 

Pater i. e. in the eyes of the law. 

' A sooty heir.' GIF. 

COl, See i, 63;; 68; MAD. ii, 58; 
' and that at your wife's bidding.' s. 
218. R. 

' One that you would be very sorry 
to see of a morning.' v, 54. LUB. 
The ancients thought the tirst thing 
they saw in the morning gave a lucky 
or unlucky tum to the affairs of the 
■wholeday. AS. omina principiis inesse 
so/ent : ad p r i m a m vocem SfC. Ov. F. 
i, 178 f ; Cic. Div. i, 45 ff; Plin. xxviii, 
53. See also 572. Among others of 
these ill-omened sights, apes were held 
in great dread. Luc. 'Airoip^. 17; id. 



Am.39. n. 

602. Comp/ures alios, docttis ego 
quos ct amicos prudens preetereo ; Hor. 
S. i, 10, 87 f ; SYL. s. x, 273. R. 

' The joys and vows' of the imaginary 
fatbers. VRA. 

603. '' The beggars'bantUngs, spawn'd 
in open air, And left by some pond side, 
to perish there." CrlF. 

Decepta ' elicited by fraud.' 

Infants used to be exposed at Rome 
by the Milk Pillar in the Herb-market : 
this was near Velabruni, the low ground 
between the Capitoline, Aventine, and 
Paiatine hills, which was often flooded 
by the Tiber; Liv. i, 38 end ; Ov. F. 
vi, 401 fl; Tib. ii, 5, 33; {HY.) 
thereby forming ' dirty pools.' PRH. 
LUB. PRA. R. 

Outofthesefoundlings, noblematrons 
used to select the future heirs of great 
families. LUB. 

604. Sa/ii: see note on ii, 126. PRA. 
Something of this kind had perhaps 

recently occurred in the family of the 
Scauri. ACH. ii, 35. PRA. If so, 
there is a concealed sting in the equi- 
voque ficti in (ii, 34;) the preceding 
line. 

Fa/so ' supposititious.' LUB. [s. 
0T«/JaXfljas»«, Pla. Mx. 7.] 

605. ' Fortune' still retains among 
us her ancient attributes, and is spoken 
of at this hour, much as she was two 
thousand years ago. GIF. Livy xxx, 
30, 2. 

Tmproba ' unlucky' i. e. ' delighting 
in sportive mischief.' GIF. cceca, vo/u- 
/jitis, vaga, inconstans, incerta, vana ; 
Plin. ii ; R. Fortuna sceiw /<f:ta ncgo- 



SAT. VI. 



OF JUVENAL. 



267 



Arridens nudis infautibus. Hos fovct omnes 
luvolvitque sinu : domibus tunc porrigit altis 
Secretunique sibi niiniuui parat. Ilos aniat, his se 
Ingerit utque suos ridcns producil alumnos. 

filO Ilic niagicos aliert cantus, hic Thessala vendit 
Philtra, quibus valeut nicntem vexare marili 
Et solea pulsare nates. Quod desipis, inde est ; 
Inde animi caligo et magna oblivio rerum, 
Quas modo gessisti. Tamen hoc tolerabilc, si non 

615 Et furere incipias, ut avunculus ille Ncronis, 
Cui totam tremuli froDtem CaBsonia pulli 



tio, et ludum insolentem ludere perti- 
nax, trmismiitnt incertos lionores, nunc 
mihi, nu/ir alii benigna. laudo manen- 
tem : si celeres quatit pennas, resigno 
fiuce dedit, et mea virtute me in volvo; 
Hor. Od. iv, 29, 49 fif. MAD. 

606. Niidis; s. iv, 49. LUB. 

' Cherishes' with maternal care. 
LUB. 

607. Involvit; s. Hor. quoted aboTe. 
' Lofty mansions' are generally oc- 

cupied by ' great families.' s. 385. R. 

608. " A secret farce:" GIF. for 
tbe$e foundlings will be personating 
characters foreign to their nature. 
LUB iii, 39f. PRA. 

' She forces lierself upon them;' (in 
wbich sense the French verb s'ingcrer 
is used; [s. Richelet Dict. 1732, t. ii, 
p. 47;] MAD.) Cic. Verr. iii, 28; 
Claud. XV, 193. It is opposed to sub- 
trahere se; Plin. Pan. 86, 2. {SZ.) R. 

609. ' Smiling on them,' or ' laiigh- 
ing in her sleeve.' FAR. 

' Advdnces them.' PRA. Cic. Dom. 
9 ; but 8. xiv, 228. R. 

' As her own foster-children.' MAD. 
A founfHing was called Fortuna-Jilius; 
Hor. S. ii,6, 49. LUB. 

610. ' Magic incantations.' Plin. 
xxiv, 17; XXV, 9; xxvi,4; xxviii, 2 
flf; XXX, 1 <S; PRA. s. 133 ff; MAD. 
Tib. i, 2, 41 ff; viii, 17 ff; Virg. E. 
viii, 69 ff; HY. Hor. Od. i, 27, 20 f; 
(pa^uuKaii yt/vK Tof avSj' 'ifintiv' Arist. 
Th. 568. li. 

Thessaly abounded in herbs used for 
these purposes. Apul. Flor. i. LUB. 
Ego pol illum ulciscar hndie, Thcssa- 
lum venejicum, qui perrcrsc perturhnvit 



fajniliee mentem meee; Plaut. Amph. 
iv, 3, 10 ; portenta Thessala; Hor. Ep. 
ii, 2, 209. R. 

611. ' Love-potions:' philtra nocent 
animis vinu/uefuroris habent; Ov. A. 
A. ii, 106. PRA. 

' To disturb.' 599, Agrippina veneni 
genus eiVf/uisitum optabat, f/uo mens 
Claudii turbaretur, mors differretur; 
Tac. An. xii, m. PRA. 

612. ' The slipper' was a common 
domestic instrument of punishment for 
Httle boys. Pers. v, 169; mitigari tibi 
videam sandalio caput; Ter. Eun. v; 
SVL. s. vii, 192; iT-avSaXa/ yi x?'"V 
t!f Tat wya;, eilrxt^ Ta Taioici, ■ratiir^ai 
a^ior Luc. Pllilops. wS» Ss xa) TXtiya.t 
ahru Uirtnia» tis rat Tuyai ra <raiiia/.»r 
Luc. D. Ven. and Lun. R. 

Inde ' owing to these philtres.' SVL. 

613. Suet. V, 38-40. PRA. 

614. After this line are found, in 
some copies, the foUowing : semper 
afjiiam porles rimosa ad dolia : semper 
istwi onus subeas ipsis manantibus 
urnis, quod rabidum nostro Pluilarim 
ile rege dedisti. Sch. 

615. C. Caligula, the brother of 
Agrippina, and, consequeutly, ' Nero's 
maternal uncle;' Suet. iv, 7. VRA. 
credebalur potionatus a CcBsonia ujcore, 
amatorio quidem meflicamento, scd i/uod 
in furorem verterit ; ib. 50. L UB. 
Joseph. Ant. xix. The effects of this 
monster's niadness are described, 618- 
625. R. An unole by the father's side 
is patruus. 

616. ' Sliivering with the cold, when 
just born.' LUB. 

' The whole forehead' is here put. 



268 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Infudit. Quae non faciet, quod principis uxor? 
Ardebant cuncta et fracta compage ruebant, 
Non aliter, quam si fecisset Juno maritum 
620 Insanum. Minus ergo nocens erit Agrii^pina; 
Boletus : siquidem unius pracordia pressit 
Ille senis tremulumque caput descendere jussit 
In ccElum et lonp;am manantia labra salivam. 



hyperbolically, for Hippomanes ; R. 
' mother's love ; DRY. a black fleshy 
excrescence, about the size of a lent- 
fig, on tbe forehead of a newdropt 
foal ; which the mother, immediately 
after she has foaled, licks oft" and 
swallows : if it be taken away before 
she does this, she shows an utter aver- 
«:ion to her oftspring : and will never 
give it suck. Wierius de Mag. Infam. 
GIF. See note 133. PRA. 

Ccesonia, the wife of Caligula, had 
few personal attractions, and is said to 
have used philtres to excite her hus- 
band's love. Suet. ix, 25; 33; 50; 
PRA. Plin. vii,5; Dio lix, 12 ; 23. H. 

617. Majiis iiifundain tihifastidienti 
pociilum; Hor. Ep. 5, 77 f. ' Presented 
for him to drink,' SM. or ' threw into 
the bowL' 

' If a princess would act thus, what 
can vve expect from a common woman.-'' 
Sch. viii, 198. R. 

618. ' All the world was in flames.' 
The metaphor refers to the lightnings 
ofJove. LUB. 

' The whole edifiee of civilized so- 
ciety was euveloped in flames, and 
sunk in ruins with all its joints dis- 
severed.' PRA. 

619. ' As the universe at large would 
sufier, if Juno were to drive her lord 
and master mad.' Sch. There is no 
aliusion here to the final dissolution of 
this material world ; R. qiium com- 
page soluta secula tot mundi su- 
prema coegerit hora; 4'C. Luc. i, 72 fl". 
HNN. With this compare the fine 
passageof Shakspeare,beginning" And 
like the baseless fabric of this vision;" 
Temp. iv, 1. 

620. ' If the enormity of actions is 
to be estimated by their pernicious 
effects, the crime of Agrippina was one 
of far less atrocity.' R. 

' Agrippina's musbroom ;' xiv, 8 ; R. 
R. V, 147 f ; Tac. An. xii, end. PRA. 

621. ' Stopped the breath.' 



622. Claudius was in his sixty-fourth 
year. Suet. v, 45. CS. 

Juvenal's description of this senile 
drivellerisfully confirmed by Suetonius; 
risus indecens., ira turpior, sp uviante 
7'ictu, limnentibus naribus, plectra 
linguce titubantia, caputque cum 
scmper, tum in quantulocumque actu 
vel maxime tremulum; v, 30; Dio 
lix. LJJB. 

' To descend to heaven.' To make 
this poor creature some amends for 
poisoning him, they made him a god ; 
and the facetious Nero, who profited 
by his apotheosis, used ever after to 
call mushrooms '• pi^aiia hair." Suet. 
vi, 33. Seneca, in his jeu d'esprit on 
the emperor's death, called the canon- 
ization u.-rox.oXox.Moiaif ' the musbroom- 
ization:' an<l reprtsents Claudius of- 
fering himself as a candidate for a god- 
ship; but being accused by Augustus, 
and forthwith unanimously condemned 
by the celestial eleetors, he is turned 
out neck and crop by Mercury, into 
the infernal regions. Seneca has the 
very same expression : postea quam 
Claudius in cieluin descendit ; so also 
nondum stelUgerum senior demissus in 
aa^em; Stat. Silv. Gallio likewise is 
celebrated for a joke on the subject, 
whicb is far from a bad one. Alluding 
to the hooks with which criminals were 
dragged from the place of execution to 
the Tiber, and of which by far too many 
instances occurred under Claudius, he 
observed that he was 'hooked to 
heaven,' KXauhio» uyxIrrQM is ta» 
ou^avov avin^ffiivai' Dio. J. BRI. PRA. 

R. aiF. 

623. Manare and the like verbs are 
followed by an accusative or ablative 
case indifferently ; in many instances 
the latter may be owing to trauscribers 
using the phrase which was raore fami- 
liar to their own ears; see xv, 136. R. 
lacriimas tnarmora manant; Ov. M. 
vi, 312. HS. The objection to the 



SAT. \I. 



OF JUVENAL. 



2C9 



HsEC poscit ferrum atque ignes, ha3C potio torquct : 
625 Htec lacerat mixtos equitum cuin sanguine Patrcs. 

Tanti partns equa; ! quanti una venofica constat ? 
Odernnt natos de pellicc ; ncmo repugnct, 

Nemo velet: jam jam privignum occidere fas est. 

Vos ego, pupilli, nioneo, quibus aniplior est res, 
630 Custodite animas et nulli credite mensas. 

Livida materno fervent adipata veneno. 

Mordeat ante alicpiis, quidquid porrexerit illa, 

Quaj peperit : timidus preegustet pocula pappas. 

Fingimus haec, altum Satira sumente cothurnum 
635 Scilicet, et finem egressi legemque priorum 



other reading: (longa saliva) from the 
number oi ift.iioTi>.iuTai is not deci?ive : 
8. iii, 66; vii, 28, &c. In English we 
either insert or omit the preposition 
wiTH after many of these verbs: " A 
violet dropping dew;" Byron, Hebr. 
Mel. Livy xxii, 1, q; [id. i, 59, a; 
MiltoD's Com. in note on 297.] 

624. ' This potion of Caesonia ex- 
cites a frantic call for tire and sword 
and tortures.' BRI. LUB. Suet. iv, 
23. R. 

625. The ' promiscuous' crueities of 
Calipula are recorded, Suet. iv, 26-28 ; 
30 ; lacernt may either refer to the par- 
ticular instance in 28; VRA. or be a 
general exprcssion. Diolix, 1-26; R. 
iv, 37. 

626. ' If snch be the baleful eflfeets 
of a singie philtre,' 616 ; ' how infinite 
is the mischief that one sorceress occa- 
sions by the continual exercise of her 
unhallowed art!' SVL. constare ' to 
cost.' R. 

627. ' This is all natural enough. 
JuDo did so before them.' LUB. 272. 
PRA. rSo likewise Sarah, in Genesis 
xvi, 6.] " 

628. Agrippina sets the example by 
poisoning her ' step-son' Germanicus, 
in order to raise her own son Nero to 
the imperial throne. Sch. But see Tac. 
A. xiii, 17; PRA. s. 133 f. MAD. 

629. Pitpi//i ' fatherless children, 
under ward.' LUB. 

Amp/ior rcs is opposed to rebiis an- 
gustis; SVL. Hor. Od. ii, 10, 21. 

630. Nu//i ' not even that of your 
own mother.' Sch. 

631. Livifla from the eft'ect« of the 



poison upoii its victims : PRA. thus 
aconifa /urida; Ov. M. i, 147; pa/- 
/ii/a; Luc. iv, 322 f; vi7ia pa//ida\ 
Prop. iv, 7,36; (BKH.) R. see note 
on i, 72. 

' The larded meats or made Jishes.' 

632. Mordeaf anfe and preegustet by 
way of precaution, PRA. ut custodiatis 
animas; 630. 

The custom of having raeats and 
drinks tasted beforehand by an attendant 
was originally Persian, and was pro- 
bably intioduced into Rome by Au- 
gustus; Tac. A. xii, 66; L. (.Ath. iv, 
21 ; liiaT^ef Suid. Xen. Cyr. i, 3; R.) 
with other oriental fashions : Hor. i, 38. 

633. ' The step-mother who has chil- 
dren of her own.' HZ. 

Timidus ' in fear of his life.' LUB. 

Pappas is properly the chihrs word 
for ' father:' and is here applied to the 
pedagowue, who had the care of the 
boy. PRH. It is natural tliat an 
orphan, having no father of his own, 
should apply this term of endearment 
to the person wholived with him as his 
gua.T<\\an, discipu/i custos; vii,218. R. 

634. He anticipates an objection 
which might be started : Sch. " I pass 
the bound Of Satire and encroach on 
tragic ground !" GIF. 

' The high buskin :' see note on 506. 
R. so/a Sopfioc/eo tita carmina digna 
cotfiiirno; Virg. E. viii, 10. l'RA. 

635. ' The end we proposed to our- 
selves,' fjui(/(/uid agunt fiomines; i, 
85. 

' Our predecessors,' viz. Lucilius, 
Horace, Persius, PRA. who confined 
themselves to real life. R. 



270 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VI. 



Grande Sophocleo carmen bacchamur hiatu, 
Montibus ignotum Rutulis coeloque Latino. 
Nos utinam vani ! scd clamat Poutia, " Feci, 
Confiteor, puerisque meis aconita paravi, 
640 Qua; deprensa patent : facinus tamen ipsa peregi." 
Tune duos una sajvissima vipera coena ? 
Tune duos ? " Septem, si septem forte fuissent." 
Credamus tragicis, quidquid de Colcbide torva 



636. ' We rave as though inspired, 
(Stat. S. i, 2, 258 ; ) in the deep-mouthed 
tones of the Athenian bard, (Mart. iii, 
20, 7 ;) a theme of terrific grandeur.' 
FAR. LUB. PRA.R. 

The tragic masks were made of hol- 
low wood ' with a wide mouth,' which 
gave a depth to the voice of the actors : 
but grande and hiatu may both allude 
to the pompous diction of traged}- ; as 
y^aiiui' and 01 vrox^ira.) y/tyic xip^^rivoTts' 
Call. H. Apol. 24; Luc. iSigr. t. i, p. 
50; carmen hiare; Prop. ii, 31, 6; 
(£KH.) Pers. v, 3; (KG.) Prud. c. 
Sym. ii, 646; R. s.iii, 1/5. 

637. ' The Rutulians' were an an- 
cient people of Latium, and the sub- 
jeets of Turnus. BRI. s.iii,84f; xii, 
103; 105. R. 

638. Vani, i. e. mendaces et infidi 
et levia inaniaque pro gravibus et veris 
astutissime componentes; Gell. xviii, 
4. R. 

The story of Pontia was well known 
at Eome. Indeed, ii so happens, that 
there were two monsters of this name, 
and that the history of either would 
have answered our author's purpose. 

(1) The first was the daughter of Publius 
Petronius and the wife of Vectius Bo- 
lanus, a man of high rank and estima- 
tion, who gave her twin-children poison, 
in the timeof Nero. Herattemptfailed, 
for the Protrepticon of Statius, written 
in the beginning of Domitian's reign, 
is addressed to one of them, who was 
still a mere youth. It would seem from 
this poem that the mother was put to 
death by the latter eraperor : exegit 
pwnas., hominum cui cura suorum, f/uo 
Pietas auctore rcdit terrasque revisit, 
quem timet omne nefas: V. S. ii, 90 ff. 

(2) The other Pontia, to whom Juvenal 
more particularly alludes, was the wife 
of Drymis ; whose family took care to 
perpetuate her crime by the foUowing 



inscription on her tomb: PONTIA titi 

PONTII FtLIA HEIC SITA SVM QVAE 
DVOBVS NATIS A ME VENENO CON- 
SVMPTIS AVARITIAE OPVS MISERE 
MIHI MORTEM CONriCIVI. TU QVIS- 
QVIS ES QVI HAC TRANSIS SI PIVS ES 
QVAESO A ME OCVLOS AVERTE. It 

is not unprofitable to remark, that this 
wretched woman was driven to escape 
by self-murder from the reproaches of 
her own eonscience. To one of these 
females, Martial addressedthefoUowing 
witty epigrara : eitm jnittis turdumve 
mihi quadramve placentcB sive femur 
leporis sive quid his simile ; huccellas 
misisse tuas te, Pontia, dicis : has ego 
nec mittam, Pontia, sed nec edam ; vi, 
75; Sch. GIF. PRH. HOL. id. ii, 
34, 6. PRA. 

Feci is the word used by a culprit in 
pleading guilty ; [Vir. ^. ix,427;] as 
fecisse videtur are the words of the 
praetor in finding aperson guilty. Mart. 
ix, 16, 2. R. 

639. Aconita; see note on i, 158. 
PRA. 

640. ' Therefore it is bootless to deny 
the fact.' With quce understand parri- 
cidia, L UB. or fucinora. R. 

641. The female viper is said to de- 
stroy the male, and to be destroyed by 
her own young. Plin. viii ; SVL. id. x, 
62 ; Aiist. H. A. v, last. PRA. " Did 
you say all? what, all.^ oh, hell kite ! 
all.^ At one fell swoop?" Shaksp. 
Macb. iv, 3. 

642. r««e</?«>sf [SirEdwardCoke, 
in the trial of Sir Walter Raleigh,says 
to the prisoner at the bar : " All that 
Lord Cobham did was by thy instiga- 
tion, thou viper;] For I thou thee, 
thou traitor !" [Hargrave's State 
Trials, vol. i, p. 216 ; Shakspeare, 
Twelfth Night, iii, 2.] 

See Seuec. M. 952 ff. R. 

643. Tragicis; Sophocles, Euripides, 



SAT. \I. 



OF JUVENAL. 



271 



Dicitur et Procne : uil contra conor. et illa; 

045 Grandia nionstra suis audcbant tcmporibus; sed 
Non propter ninnos. Minor adniiratio sumniis 
Dcbetur monstris, quotics facit ira nocentem 
Hunc sexum et rabie jecur incendente feruntur 
Prau'ipites; ut saxa jugis abnipta, quibus mons 

650 Subtrahitur, clivoquc latus pendente recedit. 

Illam ego non tulerim, qua; computat et scelus ingens 
Sana facit. Spectant subeuntera fata mariti 
Alcestim et, similis si permutatio detur, 
Morte viri cupiant animam servare catellae. 

655 Occurrent multa3 tibi Bclides atque Eriphylse 



and Seneca; PRA. Apollod. i, 9, 28; 
iii, 14, 8; Viig. E. vi, 79. HY. 

' Medea,' the daa.-hter of .^etes king 
of Colchis and the wife of Jason, de- 
stroved her chihiren when her husband 
forsook her for Glauce. Just. xlii ; 
Diodor. v, 3; Eur. and Sen. M. Ov. 
M. vii, I tr. PRJ. R. 

644. Procne , the daughter of Pandion 
king of Athens, and vrife of Tereus 
king of Thrace, slew Itj-s her son and 
served l,im up to his father's table, in 
revenge for the violence offered by Te- 
reus to her sistcr Philomela. L UB. Ov. 
M. vi, 424 ff; PRA. R. [Ov. Ib. 436.] 

' I have nothing to urge against the 
credibility of those stories, after what 
we have witnessed in our own days.' 

645. Granilia tuonstra, and sKinma 
monstra, 646 f ; see note on 286. R. 

646. ' Not for filthy lucre.' and, con- 
sequently, not in cold blood. 

647. Aut aniat atit odit femina, nil 
est tertinm; P. Syrus. LUB. See 
noteonl35; M.iD. notiim,fnrens f/iiid 

femina possil ; Virg. iE. v 6; Cic. Off. 
i, 8 end ; Sen. Med. 579 ff; Hor. Od. 
i, 16, 5 ff. R. 

648. Jernr; see note on i, 45. R. 

649. Furor irai/ne mentem preecipi- 
tant; Virg. JE. ii,316. 

650. See Hom. II N 137 ff; Virg. 
M. xii, 684-689; {HY.) R. note on 
iii, 258. 

651. ' Who calculates.' permultnm 
interest i/lrnm jierturbatioue alif/ua 
animi, f/tice p/erumf/ue hrevis est et atl 
tem/nts ; an consnlto et cogitato fiat in- 
jnria: leviora enini snnt ea f/uai re- 
jtentino alniuo motu nccitlunt, qnam ea 



qnce meiUfaln et prceparata infertirUtir ; 
Cic.Off.i,27.° PRA. nemo ad humantim 
sanguinem propter ipsum venit aitt ad- 
modntn pauci ; plures computant, qnam 
oderunt : mtdum latro transmitlit ; Sen. 
Ep. 14. R. 

652. ' In her right mind :' see note 
on ii, 18. R. 

653. When the oracle declared, that 
Admetus king of Thessaly would not 
recover frora adangerous illness,unles8 
some one were found who would volun- 
teer to die in his stead ; no one else came 
forward, and therefore his wife Alcestis, 
daughter of Pelias king of Thessaly, 
devoted her own life for the preservation 
of her husband. Diod. v ; SVi. Apoll. 
i, 9, 15 ; JR. Plat. D. de Am. Eurip. Alc. 
Cic. T. Q. V, 78; ?B.A. s. Hor. Od. 
iii, 9, 11 f; 15 f. 

654. ' If they had a like option, they 
would sacrifice their husbands to save 
their lap-dogs.' LUB. 

655. Danaus and ^^gyptus, the two 
sons of Belus, had each of them fifty 
children ; those of Danaus were all 
daughters and those of .iLgyptus sons. 
These cousins were all married in one 
day ; and the Danaides, that sarae night, 
slew their husbands (excepting Hyper- 
mnestra who spared Lynceus) and were 
condemned, after death, to draw water 
from the infernal streams in perforated 
buckets. Ov. M. iv, 461 f ; LVB. PRA. 
Hor. Od. iii, 11, 22 ff; (ML) MAD. 
Hyg. F. 170; Ov. Her. 14; ApoU. ii, 
1, 4; and Tib. i, 3, 79; (HY.) R. 
[Ov. Ib. 179; 357 f; ^sch. P. V. and 
S. M._] 

Eripliylc, the daughtcr of Talaus 



272 



THE SATIRES OF JUVENAL. 



SAT. VI. 



Mane : Clytremnestram nullus non vicus habebit. 
Hoc tantum refert, quod Tyndaris illa bipennem 
Insulsam et fatuam dextra lajvaque tenebat. 
At nunc res agitur tenui pulmone rubetae ; 
660 Sed tamen et ferro, si praegustabit Atrides 
Pontica ter victi cautus medicamina regis. 



and sister of Adrastus, was the wife of 
Amphiaraus ; who, aware (from his 
skill in prophecy) that he should fall if 
he went to the Theban war, concealed 
himself. Eriphyle, however, discovered 
her husband to Polynices for the bribe 
of a gold necklace : and, in the war of 
the Epigoni, she in like manner (for 
the sake of a handsome robe) betrayed 
her son Alcmseon to Thersander. con- 
cidit auguris Argivi domus, ob lucrum 
demersa exitio; Hor. Od. iii, 16, 11 ff; 
(MI.) PRA. LUB. Ath. vi, 4; Apoll. 
iii, 6, 2; vii, 2; 6; {HY.) R. [^sch. 
Th.] 

656. Occurrent mane ; see v, 54 ; 
notes on vi, 572 ; and 601. R. 

Clytcemnestra, the daughter of Tyn- 
darus and Leda, was living in adultery 
with /Egisthus, when the expedition re- 
turned from Troy. At the instigation 
of her paramour she slew her hiisband 
Agamemnon in the bath-room with an 
axe. Sch. PRA. [^sch. Ag.] 

657. Securi divisit medium /brtis- 
sima Tyndaridarum; Hor. S. i, 1, 99 
f. MAD. " But here the difference 
lies ; those bungling wives With a blunt 
axe hack'd out their husband'.s lives : 
While now, the deed is done with dex- 
trous art, And a drugg"d bowl performs 
the axe's part. Yet if the husband, 



prescient of his fate, Have fortified his 
breast with mithridate, She baffles him 
e'en there, and has recourse To the old 
weapon, for a last resoiirce." GIF. 
[Eur. O. 360 ff.] 

658. The epithets belong as much to 
the agent as to the instrument. R. 

659. ' The business is .«ettled.' FAR. 

' A toad ;' see note on i, 70. PRA. 

660. ' Not but what a Roman Tyn- 
daris could handle a sword upon a 
pinch.' FAR. [Eur. M. 394.] 

' Her Atrides,' i. e. ' her lord and 
master.' FAR. 

661. ' So wary as to fortify himself 
against the effects of poison with the 
antidote of Mithridates, king of Pontus ; 
who was vanquished the first time by 
the good fortune of SuUa, the second 
time by the valour of Lucullus, the third 
time by the greatness of Pompey. Plin. 
xxiii, 24; Sch. FAR. Cic. proL. Man. 
PRA. 

Pontus was famous for its potent 
drugs: Virg. E. viii, 95. PRA. 

' Drugs.' Plin. xxiii, 7-9; xxv, 2; 
xxix, 1; Gell. xvii, 16; Mart. v, 77; 
PRA. s. xiv, 252 ff; App. R. xi, 
109 ff; Dio xxxvii, 10 tf; Seren. 
Samm. 60 ; 62 ; Cels. v, 23 ; Galen de 
Antid. ii, 1 f. This antidote was to be 
taken every moming, fasting, HOL. R. 



S A T I R E Vir. 



ARCtUMENT. 

This Satirc was prohably written in the early part of Domitian's reip^n. 
It contains an aniinatetl account of the gencral (liscouragement under 
which literature lahoured at Rome. Afen of learning had, in fact, none 
but the Emperor, to whom they could look for patronage. 1 . .37. 

Begiuning with P oetry, 30 ff. it proceeds with great regularity through 
the various departments of His tory, 98 ff; Law, 106 ff; Oratory, 
Rhetoric, loOff; and Grammar; 215ff: interspersiug many curious 
anecdotes, and enlivening each different head with such satirical,hum(;ur- 
ous, and sentimental remarks, as naturally flow from the subject. G IF. 

As for Poe try ; many of the rich nobles were poetasters themselves, and 
rewarded a poem with a song ; 38 f : the utmost stretch of their muni- 
ficence was to lend a tumble-down out-house, for the poet to fit up for 
his own recitation : 32. .49. But poetry and poverty can never 
flourish in the same soil. 50. .97. 

As for Law ; the only artifice by which Lawyers could get into practice, 
was by preteuding to be above the want of it ; even though such trickery 
often ruined them outright. 106.. 149. 

But uone were more to be pitied than the poor drudgcs who had to keep 
school, 150 fl'. They, after wasting their time upon dunces, 159 ff; and 
suffering the pranks of incorrigible boys, 213 f; got nothing but blame 
that their pupils did not prove paragons of genius and gentility. 158 f. 
The education of children seemed the only point in which parents were 
niggardly; 178.. 188: and even thc little which they spcnt on this, they 
would not part with, till wrested from them by legal process. 228 f. 
And the rirammarian, unlcss he wcre a thorough proficient in philology, 
history, mythology, &c. &c. would never have a single day-scholar. 
229.. 243. R. 



2 N 



274 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VII. 



Et spes et ratio studiorum in Caesare tantum : 

Sohis enim tristes hac tempestate Camenas 

Respexit, quum jam celebres notique poetae 

Balneolum Gabiis, Roma) couduccre fumos 

5 Tentarent, nec foedum alii nec turpe putarent 



1. ' Whatever hopes of reward or 
motives for study literary nien may 
have, are entirely owing to Cffisar.' 
Which of the Csesars is here meant, is 
a matter of controversy : (1) Nero: 
(2) Titus: (3) Trajan; who built the 
Ulpian library, Plin. Pan. 47: BRI. 
GRA. R. (4) Hadriau; ^partian, 3 ; 
16: R. (5) Nerva; Mart. viii, 70 ; ix, 
27; xii, 6; but he, though a poet 
himself, was little disposed to patronise 
poetry in others : (6) Domitlan ; Sch. 
LUB. SM. GV. who, whatever vices 
he had, was a patron of the Muses, 
FAR. especially in the commence- 
ment of his reign ; Suet.xii,9; quonec 
■prasentins aliquid nec studiis magis 
propitiiini numen est; Quint. Pr. iv. 
PRA. Quintilian, Martial, Statius, 
Flaccus, and other learned men, tasted 
of his bounty, MAD. and sang his 
praises with more gratitude, perhaps, 
than truth. This dutiful prince had 
once an idea of contesting the empire 
with his father : finding the armies, 
however, averse to his designs, he re- 
tired from all public business, and, with 
a specious appearance of content, lived 
in a kind of solitude; pretending that 
poetry, and literary pursuits in generai, 
were his only passion. This mask he 
continued to wear during the reign of 
Titus ; and whether it was that habit 
begot a kind of nature, or that he 
thought it dangerous to lay aside the 
hypocrite too soon, he did certainly 
patronise the arts at his accession. 
That he afterwards changed his senti- 
ments, and fell suddenly upon men of 
letters, isequally certain : but this may 
be reaJily accounted for, from his dis- 
position, which was at once crafty and 
violent; asrepresentedbyXiphilin,lxvii, 
beginning. Accordingto the custom of 
the emperors in selecting some favourite 
deity for their worship, Domitian made 
choice of Minerva. His attachment to 
this goddess is frequently noticed by 
JuvenaUs contempoiaries. Thus Mar- 



tial, in tliatdetestablemedley offlattery 
and impiety, ix, 4; Pallada pree- 
tcreo : res agit illa tuas; 10; Suet. xii, 
15. Massinger inhis Uoman Actor has 
several ingenious and truly classical 
allusions to the reliance which the 
tyrant fondly placed on the partiality 
of this deity. A Pallas very generally 
accompanies Domitian on the reverse 
of his coins : Beger. Numism. xxxii, 4. 
And we learn from a passage of Philo- 
strates, that the emperor publicly de- 
clared himself to be the son of Pallas, 
and re(juired accordingly that divine 
honours should be paid to him. Vit. 
Apoll. vii, 24; Plin. Pan. xxxiii, 4. 
This satire would appear to have been 
written in the early part of Domitian'a 
reign; and Juvenal, by giving the 
emperor " one honest line" of praise, 
probably meant to stimulate him to ex- 
tend his patronage. He did not think 
very ill of him at the time, while he 
augured happily for the future. And, 
indeed, the bitter mortification he felt 
at finding his predictions falsified, and 
his ' sole patron of literature' changed, 
in a few years, into a ferocions and 
bloody persecutor of all the arts, might 
bave exasperated his resentment, and 
generated that intense hatred with 
which he pursues his memory. GIF. 
CW, L. ix, p. 215-217. 

3 Respexit; Virg. E. i, 28, 30. 
PRA. 

4. ' A small bagnio.' MAD. The 
diminutive is used in aggravation. R. 

' At Gabii' of all places in the world ! 
See iii, 192 ; and vi, 56. PRA. 

Conducere iii, 38 &c. 

' Public ovens,' Sch. so as not to 
starve either with hunger or with cold. 
LUB. qui frigus collegit, furnos et 
balnea laudat : Hor. Ep. i, 11, 12 f. 
GRA. 

5. Tentarent ; any thing, in short, to 
turn an honest penny. See the account 
of Cleanthes, note on ii, 7; and D. 
Laert. vii. PRA. 



SAT. VII. 



OF .lUVENAL. 



il^i 



Praecones fieri, quuin, de.sertis Aganippe.s 
Vallibus, esuriens migrarct in atria Clio. 
Nam, si Pieria quadrans tibi nullus in umbra 
Ostcndatur, araes nomen victumque Machserffi 
10 Et vcndas potius, commissa quod auctio vendit 
Stantibus, opnophorum, tripodas, armaria, cistas, 
Alcyonem Pacci, Thebas et Tcrea Fausti, 
Hoc satius, quara si dicas sub judicc " Vidi," 
Quod non vidisti. Faciant equites Asiani 



6. The occapation of a public crier, 
though ungenteel, was lucrative : artes 
discere vult pecitniosas ? praeco nem 

facins vel architectttni ; Mart. v, 56, 8 ; 
11 ; LUB. vi, 8, 5 ; Theoph. Ch. vi ; 
{CS.) R. iii, 157. MAD. 

j4gauippe a fountain of Helicon in 
Boeotia sacred to the Muses ; or that 
from which the river Permessus take.s 
its rise. Cali. t. i, p. 560 ; Sch. Virg. 
E. X, 11 f ; (Serv.) Paus. \\, 29 ; Prop. 
ii, 10, 25 f. R. 

7. .Atria (1) ' The Licinian Courts' 
and others near the forum were the 
places in which auctions were held : T. 
ab atriis Liciniis atque a praeconuni 
consessu ; Cic. for Quint. 12 ; 25 ; ut in 
atriis auctionariis potiusquum in triviis 
el compitfs auctionentur \ id. Ag. i, ?• 
PRA. or (2) ' Ihe antechambers of 
the great.' BAH. s. 91 ; i, 95 f ; Hor. 
Ep. i, 5, 31 ; xMart. i, 71, 12 &c ; iii, 
38, 11 f. K. See also 37. 

Ciio (from KXiet ' renown'), ' the 
epic muse,' is here put for ' the poor 
poet.'iC7-^. 

8. Pierin ; iv, 36 ; PRA. s. 6 ; 68 ff; 
Hor. Od. ii, 1, 39; Od. iii, 4, 40. R. 

Quaf/rans; i, 121 ; vi, 447 ; PRA. 
see note on i, 40 ; which will show why 
it was called teruncius. R. 

9. Macheera is generally supposed 
to have been a faraous crier of that 
time. LUB. 

10. Commissa (1) ' by commission' 
from the magistrate or from the owners 
of the property : (s. ix, 93-96. MAD.) 
Or (2) in which the bidders are ' pitted 
against each other :' BR. s. i, 163, 
note. MAD. 

Auctio so called from the price being 
augmentedby each bidding. BR. 
li. G\nophonim\ vi, 426, R. 



Tripodas, ' tables, seats, vases, or 
cauldrons, supported by three feet.' 
See note on Her. viii, 82. 

12. Alcyone, Thebee, and Tereus 
are the names of three miserable poems, 
probably tragedies; Sch. which were 
!-old among other lumber. MAD. s. i, 
2 ff; .52 tf. 

The story of Alcyone and Ceyx her 
husband, who were both transformed 
into birds, occurs in Ov, M. xi, 270 ff: 
544 ff; i UB. Apoll. i, 7, 4 ; 9 ; iii, 10, 
1. (^HY.) R. 

Of Paecius nothing furtherisknown. 
The variety of reading in these lines is 
of little consequence. For, luckily, the 
works of these poets did not long sur- 
vive (it may be, preceded) them ; or, 
to borrow the felicitous expression of a 
lady lamenting the premature fate of 
her infant, " Their babes, which ne'er 
received the gift of breath, Did pass 
before them through the gates of death !" 
GIF. 

The family of the LabdacideB, who 
reigned at ' Thebes,' afforded inex- 
haustible themes for tragedy. LUB. 
Tereus; vi, 644, note. PRA. 
Faustus raay be the same person an 
Martial ridicules ; xi, 64. R. 

13. ' It is better thus to get an 
honest ILyelihood, than by perjury to 
amass an equestrian fortune, as rascally 
foreigners do.' PRA. 

Subjudice; iv, 12 ; xvi, 29. R. 

14. ' Now knights, once slaves.' 
LUB. Pers. v, 79 ; PRA. Petron. 29 ; 
63. R. Or ' needy foreigners, who 
flock to Rome, in order to make their 
fortunes by their wits, and wear gold 
rings in order to pass for knights.' 
ACH. 

'Asiatic :'s.iii,58-122;Mart.x, 76.i2. 



276 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VII, 



15 Quamquam et Cappadoces faciant equitesque Bithyni, 
Altera quos nudo traducit Gallia talo. 
Nemo tamen studiis indignum ferre laborem 
Cogetur posthac, nectit quicumque canoris 
Eloquium vocale modis laurumque momordit. 

20 Hoc agite, O juvenes : circumspicit et stimulat vos 
Materiamque sibi ducis indulgentia quaerit. 
Si qua aliunde putas rerum exspectanda tuanim 
Praesidia atque ideo croceae membrana tabellaj 
Impletur ; lignorum aliquid posce ocius et, quae 

25 Componis, dona Veneris, Thelesine, marito 



15. Cappadocia was a eountry of 
Lesser Asia, between Galatia and Ar- 
menia. PRA. r^ia xd^jrtra xdiciirTu, Kg^- 
Tsy, KwiriTuhoxii, KiXixi}- Silid. LUIi. 
Miuoris Asiee populis nulla Jides est 
ailhibenda ; Cic. for Flac. s. Titus i, 12. 
MAD. This people (according to the 
Scholiast on Pers. vi, 77;) were frotn 
their infaney habituated to the torture, 
so as to be well trained for false wit- 
nesses. R. 

Bithynia, another country of Lesser 
Asia, between Phrygia aud the J3os- 
porus. PRA. 

16. ' The other Gaul' i. e. Galatia or 
GaUogr(ecia\ Scb. Flor. ii, 11. LUB. 

' Barefooted ;' s. i, 111 ; PRA. Claud. 
xviii, 35 if; and Pers. vi, 77- KG. 
Or ' so poor that they had not a shoe 
to their feet.' MAD. 

' Transplants,' MAD. ' transports.' 
LUB. 

18. 19. A peripbrasis for ' a good 
poet.' Sch. 7iumeris nectere verba ; Ov. 
Pont. iv, 2, 30; Quiut. viii, 3, 16. R. 

19. Bards were called 'hatpvn^pu.yiir 
Lycoph. {MS.) Sophocl. from their 
' chewing the bay,' by which they 
fancied themselves to become inspired. 
GRA. FAR. Hor. Od. iii, 30, 16; 
{BY.) Call. H. Del. 94; {SN.) Tib. ii, 
5, 65; Theoph. Ch. xvi, 1. (C'S.) R. 

20. Hocayife! 48. This expression 
is familiar in Terence; Eun. i, 2, 19; 
.'30; ii, 3, 55; And. i, 2, 15; ii, 5, 5; 
iii, 5, 8 ; &c. MAD. R. It calls the at- 
tention of those addressed to the matter 
in hand ; it was theformnsediu soleum 
rites, GY. and uttered by the crier 
when a magistrate was sacrificing or 
taklng uuspices. GRA. BR. Like the 



admonition of the bedel to the candi- 
dates, in the ceremonial of conferring 
ordinary degrees at Oxford, " You will 
all attend, gentlemen !" 

21. Dax is used as synonymous with 
Imperator; ii, 104; iv, 145: R. see 
note on ffT^aTnyii' Her. v, 38, [17-] 

22. ' From any other quarter than 
from Csesar.' Sch. 

23. (1) ' The skins' on which they 
wrote were white within, and ' yellow' 
on the back where tbe hairs of the 
animal grew: liber et bicolor positis 
membrana capillis; Pers. iii, 10. 
(CS.) SVL. (2) "When the book was 
made up into a volume, a small piece 
of ' coloured parchment was pasted on 
the outside, which served not only as a 
cover, but as a label to the work when 
it was placed in the bookcase. Cat. p. 
m. 52 ff ; (FO.) Tib. iii, 1,9, ff; {HY.) 
PC. (RM.) (3) They also usedto rub 
the skins, when iilled, with oil of cedar 
or citron to preserve them from moths 
and worms. (RM.) Plin. xiii, 13 ; 
(HD.) Ov. Tr. i, 1, 5. {HS.) R. (4) 
^lany of their books were made up into 
leaves and pages, like ours, and put into 
cedar boards ; see 100. ' A book bound 
in yellow Morocco.' ACH. s. i, 5 f. 

24. Ocins ; ouk at tp&dfeis airaf see 
note on Her. vii, 162, [33.1 

25. ' The husband of Venus,' o eivti^ 
T?5 Kv^^^nc Anacr. xlv, 1 ; for ' Yul- 
can,' and that for ' the fire'; L UB. [per- 
mittere Jiammce, Yir. J&. iv, 640 : 
Charles Ist, wheu Prince of Wales, 
puts this postscript to a letter to the 
Duke of Buckingham : " I hope ye 
wiil not show the king this letter, bar 
put it in the safe custodie of Mister 



SAT. VII. 



OF .lUVENAL. 



177 



Aiit cluude et posilos tinea pertinulc libellos. 
FrangL" niiser calunios vigilata^iiio prcL-lia dele, 
C^ui facis in parva subliniia carniina cella, 
Ut dignus venias hederis ct imagine niacra. 
30 Spes nulla ulterior: didicit jani dives avarus 
Tantuni adniirari, tantuni laudare disertos, 



Vulcan;" //, Hi^^t. Ric. 2di, p.405.J 
quo ainbu/ns fii, ijiti Viilranum in 
coriiu concliisinn geris^ ' Where are 
you going with your horn lantherni^' 
Plaut. Aniph.i, 1. PRA. piicllnVeneri 
vovit, poctep scripta t'trilipeili deo 
' daturain, infeiiciljiis tistiilnnila lignis ; 
Cat. xxxvi, 1 &c ; illa veliin rapida 
Vulcanus cnriniiia flainnia torreat; 
Tib. i, 9, 49 f. K. Thus Ceres is 
used for ' corn,' Bacchus for ' wine,' 
N e p t u n e for ' the sea,' J u p i t e r for 
' the air,' M ars for ' war,' <tec. s. also 
Hor. Od. i, 25, 19 f ; 26, 2 f; Her. 
vii, 141, n. 100; [Lucr. ii, 654-658 ; 
Hooker, E. P. i, 3.J 

Tlielesinus may be the poet to whom 
this satire is addressed : L UU. perhaps 
the same person as meutioned Mart. iii, 
40; vi, 1 ; xii, 25. R. 

26. ' Perforate witli the worm,' i. e. 
' leave them for the book-worm to de- 
vour.' SVL. Mart. xi, 1, 14 ; xiv, 37, 
2; Hor. S. ii, 3, 119; Ep. i, 20, 12; 
Ov. Pont. i, 1, 72. R. 

27. Frange leves calanios et sciiide, 
T/ialia, libellos ; Mart. ix, 74, 9 ; PRA. 

frange, puer, calamos ei iiianes desere 
Musas; Calp. iv, 23. 7?. 

Vigilata ' which have ct-st you many 
a sleepless oight.' MAD. Ov. F. iv, 
109; (HS.) Virg. G. i, 313; {DU.) 
Stat. Th. xii, 811. (BA.) thus, viulto 
laborc sudatum thoraca; Sil. iv, 434. 
R. 

Either (1) ' destroy' with theflames, 
or (2) ' obliterate' with the blunt upper 
end of the style, while they are still on 
the waxen tabiet and not yet transferred 
to the parchment, or (3) ' erase' with 
pumice-stone, after they have bten 
copied out fairlv : the parchments were 
then called vraXif/.-^nirra. PC. (RM.) 
Cic. Ep. iv, 4/ ; vii, 18; Mart. xiv, 
7 ; Cat. xxii, 5. R. 

28. " Who rack your brains In 
garrets, cockloft«, for heroic strains." 
OIF. Mart. iii, 48, 1; vii, 19, 21; 
See note on iii, 199. R. i/uos fama: 



vigilare Juvat ; Ov. A. A.iii, 413. [h. 
vi, 623.J 

29. Vcnias; Ov. Her. 4, 113; F. 
V, 648 ; (i/S.) Prop. i, 6, 32 ; ( VP. 
PA.) Virg. JE. V, 344; vii, 470; and 
Tib. i, 2, 76; (HY.) R. See note on 
ii, 83. 

Poets were crowned not only with 
bay, but with ' ivy ;' Virg. E. vii, 25. 
PRA. doctaritin Itcdcrce prccinia fron- 
tiuin: Hor. Od. i, 1, 29; because the 
Muses were the companious not only of 
Apollo, but of Bacchus. R. s. Mart. 
viii, 82; Ov. A. A. quoted in the note 
on 105. 

Private libraries were adomed with 
the statues of men of learning and 
genius: notes on ii, 4 fl". R. and the 
busts of eminent writers were often 
placed, together with their works, in 
the temple of the Palatine ApoUo. 
PRA. (rTifatiot //.iv ly^uv auo», il^ri o 
a-raXeaXtis' Arist. Eq. 532. This pas- 
sage gave Jonson a transient fit of 
entliusiasm: " I that spend half my 
nights, and all my days, [toto anno, 
per omncs dies, magna noctiuin parte, 
Tac. or Quin. quoted in note on 40 ;] 
Here in a cell, to get a dark pale 
face, To comeforth worth theivy orthe 
bays, And in this age can hope no other 
grace — Leave me ! there's something 
come into my thought, That must and 
shall be sung high and aloof, Safe from 
the wolfs black jaw, and the dull ass's 
hoof !" [Poet. Ap. Dial. 223 ff.] GIF. 

A ' meagre' recompense for all the 
pains it costs to obtain it ; and as ' lank 
and lean' as its half-starved prototype. 
SCA. H. Pers. pr. 5. (KG.) PRA. An 
equivoque. 

31. " To praise and only praise." 
Thi>; is prettily imitated by Spenser : 
" So praysenbabesthepeacock'sspotted 
traine, And wondren at bright Argus' 
blazing eye: But who rewards him ere 
tlie more forthy .^ Or feedes him once 
the fuller by a graine ?" Shep. Cal. 
^-Egl. X, 31 f. And Randolph, who had 



278 



THE SATIRES 



SAT. VII. 



Ut pueri Junonis avein. Sed defluit aetas 
Et pelagi patiens et cassidis atque ligonis. 
ToDdia tunc subeunt animos, tunc seque suaraque 
35 Terpsichoren odit facunda et nuda senectus. 

Accipe nunc artes, ne quid tibi conferat iste, 



Spenser as well as Juvenal in his mind : 
" The plowman is rewarded ; only we, 
That sing, are paid with our own 
melody : Rich churles have learnt to 
praise us, and admire, But have not 
iearnt to think us worfh the hire. So 



ph'ments, iu hopes of some trlfling re- 
muneration. The emperor, who found 
them worth nothing, took no notice of 
the poor man, but as he persisted in 
offering liim his adulatory verses, com- 
posed himself an epigram in praise of 



when great Juno's beauteous bird dis- the poet; and when he next waited on 
plaies Her starry tail, the boyes do run him with his customary panegyric, pre- 
and gaze At her proud train ;" Poems sented his own to him with amazing 



p. /». GIF. [s. Arist. Ach. 63. j 

32. ' The bird of Juno.' vi, 526, note. 
Argi ceutum ocit/os nojs occupat una : 
excipit hos vobicrisque snce Saturnia 
pennis collocat et gemynis caudam stel- 
lantibus implft; Ov. M. i, 721 ff. So 
far are boys from giving any thing to 



gravity. The man took and read it with 
apparent satisfaction ; then putting his 
hand into his pocket, he deliberately 
drew out two farthings and gave them 
to the Emperor, saying, a« Kara. tm» 
Tt5;^>iv, u riliarrt u tKH'Voi ux,'*- TXinra: 
a.* K.a) ihthovt •■ 'ihis is ij(jt equal to the 



the peacock, that they rather would rob demands of your situation, Sire; but 
him of his fine feathers. PRA. 'tis all I bave: if I had more I would 



' Is gliding away. instnsibly but en- 
tirely.' Hor. Ep. i, 1,42. 

33. Patiens rei means ' able to bear 
the fatigue attendant on a thing.' Hor. 
Od. i, 8, 4. MI. 

'A sea-faring, a military, or an agri- 
cultural life.' R. s. St Luke xvi, 3. 



give it you." Augustus, who was not 
an illnatured man, could not resist this; 
he burst into a fit of laughter, and as 
Macrobius says, made the poet a hand- 
some present; ii, 4. [A somewhat 
similar anecdote is told of Dean Swift 
and a postillion.] In allusion to this 



35. Terpsichore {Ti^4''s and ;t;«f«j) ; passage the Italians relate that Pius 
'his lyric muse.' PRA. MAD. the third, on being presented with a 

Nudasenectus; iv,49;81; Ov. Her. panegyricin verse,by one whoexpected 



9, 154. R. Bassus (40 ; 8